PSYC 331 Exam 3 Practice Questions

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Much of the world is changing toward a setting where physical strength matters less and alternative
child-care arrangements are possible. The view that men’s and women’s behavioral tendencies are
determined by social structure implies that ________.

their behavioral tendencies will change relatively quickly (over hundreds of years)

A woman who mates with an unstable but attractive man seems to follow a different reproductive strategy
than most other women. This idea is called ________.

the sexy son hypothesis

. Kara is placing a personal ad in the local paper. According to evolutionary predictions about mate selection,
she will most likely mention her ________ when describing herself.

physical attractiveness

Men who score high on ________ are especially accurate when it comes to judging their mate value, whereas
women who score high on ________ are especially accurate when it comes to judging their mate value.

sociosexuality; agreeableness

For both men and women, those who score high on ________ are especially concerned with finding attractive
mating partners, whereas women and men who score low on ________ are concerned with traits related to
parenting behaviors.

sociosexuality; sociosexuality

When placing personal ads, women are more likely to specify that they are seeking someone who is
________, whereas men are more likely to specify that they are seeking someone who is ________.

older; younger

What might be the evolutionary function of crying, according to recent research described in the text?

a way to elicit social support

The idea that feelings of self-esteem evolved to gauge social acceptance is known as the ________ theory.

sociometer

What book marked the beginning of evolutionary thinking?

Darwin’s Origin of Species

________ searches for specific genes that are linked with particular personality attributes

A genome-wide association study

As a result of Timothy’s genes, he went through puberty later than his peers. Because he was much smaller
than other boys, they tended to pick on him, and he fought back to protect himself. As a young adult,
Timothy is more aggressive than his peers. This scenario illustrates that his aggression is ________.

the result of an interaction between the genetic expression and the resulting social environment

A recent study indicates that a serotonin-related genetic allele seems to influence the development of
depression in conjunction with ________.

stressful life events

What gene seems to be related to the trait of sensation seeking or novelty seeking?

DRD4

A high heritability coefficient can result when the trait ________ across individuals or when genes are
important in ________ sense.

varies greatly; an absolute

In the past, some psychologists have concluded that shared family environments have little or no effect on
personality development. Recent research has cast doubt on such conclusions by finding that ________.

the shared environment was related to certain aspects of personality when personality was measured through direct behavioral observation

Drawing on research about the impact of the shared family environment on personality development, Judith
Harris argued that ________.

parents have no important long-term effects on their children’s personalities

Which of the following attributes seems to have the lowest heritability coefficient?

severe mental retardation

Which of the following is NOT indicated by a heritability statistic?

whether genes and environments interact to produce behavior

Which factor below would be part of the so-called nonshared environment?

different friendships for siblings

According to studies of non-twin relatives, the average heritability coefficient for most traits is about
________.

.20

What is the correct formula for calculating heritability?

2 (rMZ – rDZ)

The ________ refers to the underlying genetic structure that leads to the observable ________.

genotype; phenotype

If a trait is influenced by genes, then it ought to be more highly correlated across pairs of ________ than
across pairs of ________.

identical twins; fraternal twins

Monozygotic (MZ) twins share ________ percent of the genes that vary across individuals, and dizygotic
(DZ) twins share, on average, ________ percent of the genes that vary across individuals.

100; 50

The field of study that attempts to explain how patterns of behavior characteristic of the entire human species
originated because of the survival value they had for our ancestors is called ________.

evolutionary psychology

Nerve fibers that organize and regulate transmissions between nerves are called ________.

interneurons

The projections from nerves that receive stimulation are called ________.

dendrites

Nerves that send messages from the body to the brain are called ________, whereas nerves that carry
messages from the brain to the body are called ________.

afferent nerves; efferent nerves

Which brain region secretes several hormones and is located just above the roof of the mouth?

hypothalamus

What part of the human brain seems to be the most distinct from the brains of nonhuman animals?

neocortex

The ________ signal shows differences in brain activity levels in one condition versus another condition in
an fMRI experiment.

blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD)

Ricardo likes to drive fast cars and enjoys bungee jumping and going to noisy nightclubs. According to
Eysenck’s theory, it is likely that Ricardo is a(n) ________ whose ARAS causes him to be chronically
________.

extravert; underaroused

The case of railroad worker Phineas Gage illustrates that ________.

injuries to the brain can affect personality and behavior

Before brain surgery, Elliott was a good father and held a responsible job. After removal of portions of his
frontal lobe, what prediction about Elliott’s personality is likely to come true?

His emotional reactions and decision-making abilities will be impaired.

According to Damasio’s somatic marker hypothesis, damage to the right frontal lobes impairs a person’s
________, which then impairs his or her ________.

emotional reactions to events and thoughts; ability to make decisions about what is and is not important

Capgras syndrome arises from damage to the

right frontal lobe

One reason why the results of psychosurgeries are often erratic is that ________.

brain systems might be more important for functioning than discrete areas

According to Galen, an excess of yellow bile would cause a person to be ________.

angry and bitter

According to research by modern health psychologists, the choleric, or chronically hostile, person seems to
be at extra risk for ________.

a heart attack

The term ________ refers to the body’s natural painkillers, chemicals that act in an ________ fashion.

endorphins; inhibitory

According to DeYoung’s theory, which neurotransmitter is the foundation of plasticity?

dopamine

What brain structure in conjunction with dopamine works to form the "Go" system in Gray’s model?

nucleus accumbens

Wayne tends to suffer from chronic pessimism, is hypersensitive to rejection, worries obsessively, and is
prone to sudden bursts of irrational anger. He is exhibiting the symptoms of ________

serotonin depletion

What is the technical name for drugs like Prozac?

selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors

According to DeYoung’s theory, which neurotransmitter is the foundation of stability?

serotonin

Which hormone is associated with the tend-and-befriend response?

oxytocin

A study of the associations between testosterone levels and spectator sports demonstrates that ________.

testosterone can be influenced by the outcome of a sporting event

A general tendency toward excessive behavior and numerous sex partners has been linked to ________

high testosterone levels

High levels of cortisol appear to be associated with ________, and low levels of cortisol appear to be
associated with ________.

stress, anxiety, and depression; impulsivity and sensation seeking

Low levels of cortisol are associated with which psychological disorder?

post-traumatic stress syndrome

A researcher who starts with an interest in delinquency and then identifies the traits associated with that
category of behavior is taking a ________ approach.

many-trait

A researcher who tries to discover the most important or basic personality traits that exist is taking a
________ approach.

essential-trait

Which trait has been consistently linked to a range of health outcomes?

conscientiousness

Which of the following characteristics is NOT associated with conscientiousness?

high IQ

Which trait is linked to reduced creativity in group problem-solving tasks?

. conscientiousness

Given Snyder’s description of self-monitoring, you would expect someone who is low in self-monitoring to
be ________ than someone high in self-monitoring.

easier to judge

. The items in the California Q-Set were derived from ________.

efforts by researchers to develop a list of items that would adequately describe personality

The ________ is a personality assessment device consisting of a deck of 100 cards, each of which describes
an aspect of personality. These cards are sorted into categories by the respondent.

California Q-Set

The most important advantage of Q-sorting is that it ________.

forces the judge to compare all the items directly against each other

The most important thing to notice about a table of Q-sort correlates is the________.

general patterns that emerge

What is another name for ego control?

self-control

According to the text, sex differences in the personality correlates of delay of gratification are likely
attributable to sex differences in ________.

socialization practices

Jack Block found that 23-year-olds who described themselves as being politically conservative were likely to
have been described as _________ at age 3.

guilty and anxious

Which of the following is NOT a dimension that would likely show differences between liberals and
conservatives?

harm/care

. A researcher using factor analysis to identify basic traits is likely to favor the ________ approach.

essential-trait

6. What are essential traits according to Jack Block?

ego control/ego resiliency

What are the essential traits according to Hans Eysenck?

neuroticism/extraversion/psychoticism

Which Big Five domain is related to less smoking?

agreeableness

Which of the Big Five traits appears to be the most difficult to understand?

openness

Which trait seems to be related to a quicker recovery from disabling accidents or illnesses according to recent
research?

agreeableness

Which trait is most closely linked with dominance?

extraversion

Which of the Big Five traits appears to have the most inconsistency in terms of cross-cultural replication?

openness

Based on research, the resident of which of these cities will probably score the highest on openness?

Miami, Florida

Cross-cultural research on the Big Five suggests that ________.

the central attributes of personality are generally similar in other cultures, but there are at least a few important differences

The rank-order stability of personality is highest in which of the following periods of development?

adulthood

The judgments other people make of your personality may affect ________.

all of the above

Judgments other people make of your personality are known as ________.

your reputation

Judgments of your personality by others ________.

both reflect who you are and can influence what you are like

Self-fulfilling prophecies are more technically known as ________.

expectancy effects

Which of the following is NOT considered one of the likely reasons that high-expectancy students perform
better?

Teachers show an increased willingness to ignore disciplinary problems in these students

What might be an effect of expectancies in real life?

to magnify or maintain existing behavioral tendencies

Julie does not like to attend parties because she is shy and convinced that people will not like her. When Julie
does go to a party, she avoids eye contact, gives abrupt responses to other people’s questions, and quickly
withdraws from interactions. As a result, she spends most of the evening in a corner by herself, convinced
that no one at the party likes her. This is an example of ________.

expectancy effects

expectancy effects

predictive validity

Which of the following illustrates converging criteria that could be used to establish the accuracy of a
personality judgment?

You always show up to work on time, and your colleagues say that you are dependable and conscientious.

The basic reason that research on the accuracy of personality judgments experienced a lengthy hiatus
between 1955 and the mid-1980s was that ________.

researchers lacked a consensual criteria for determining the accuracy of a personality judgment

When Sam argues that all interpretations of reality are equally accurate, he is advocating the ________
philosophical position.

constructivist

When Andrew argues there is no reason to conclude that all interpretations of reality are equally correct, he is
advocating the ________ philosophical position.

realist

Based on recent research, what approach for job interviews might be the best?

. face-to-face interviews

According to research described in the textbook, about how often did the more "competent" looking
candidate win in the 2004 senate races?

70 percent of the time

What does recent research suggest about the validity of first impressions?

First impressions based on configural properties of faces may have some validity.

A variable that affects the relation between two other variables is known as a ________.

moderator

Robert is a stable, well-adjusted person. His behavior is fairly consistent and predictable; essentially, "what
you see is what you get." Robert would most likely be ________.

easy to judge accurately

According to research that shows a link between a trait’s observability and the accuracy with which it is
judged, which of the following traits would be easiest to judge accurately?

talkativeness

A recent study found that women are more accurate than men in judging others. What was the explanation
for this finding?

Women are better than men at knowing what the average person is like.

According to a recent study described in the textbook, which of the following is accurate about people who
describe themselves as "a good judge of personality"?

Such people are no more accurate than others at judging personality.

The finding that more observable traits yield better interjudge agreement suggests that peer judgment is based
more on ________ than on ________.

direct behavioral observation; a manufactured reputation

A professor has been married for 10 years but her husband has never seen her give a lecture. According to the
textbook, which of the following statements is TRUE regarding the accurate prediction of her behavior
during lectures?

Her students will be about as accurate as her husband in predicting her behavior in lecture.

A small number of studies have investigated whether making an extra effort to be a good judge of personality
improves accuracy. According to the textbook, what conclusions can be drawn from this literature?

The results of the existing studies are mixed.

Doug has known Dan for more than 20 years. Jim has only known Dan since he joined Jim’s department at
Acme Advertising Agency 2 months ago. According to Colvin and Funder’s (1991) study of the boundaries
on the acquaintanceship effect, if both Doug and Jim are asked to predict how Dan will behave during a
presentation at work next week, whose predictions will be more accurate?

The two predictions will be about equally accurate.

A judge may see a target’s behavior, pay attention to the behavior, and use the behavior in his or her
judgment about the target’s personality. However, for the personality judgment to be accurate, the ________.

observed behavior must be relevant to the trait being judged

. When we evaluate professional personality judgments, it is typically said that we are evaluating their
________, whereas when amateur personality judgments are evaluated, we are evaluating their ________.

validity; accuracy

The two basic criteria for evaluating the validity of a personality judgment are ________.

agreement and behavioral prediction

What does the acronym MMPI stand for?

Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory

The MMPI was designed to ________.

assess individuals with psychological disorders

Although Funder draws a distinction between S and B data, the distinction between ________ tests is also
discussed in the text.

projective and objective

The Implicit Association Test (IAT) yields what kind of data?

B

Recent research using the Implicit Association Test (IAT) to study shyness indicates that ________.

"controlled" aspects of shyness can be predicted using S data, but uncontrolled or spontaneous aspects can be more accurately predicted using B data

According to the text, one of the nonpsychometric functions of projective tests is to ________.

break the ice between client and therapist

As described in the text, according to some motivation researchers, the Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)
measures ________, whereas questionnaire-based measures predict ________.

what people want; how motives are expressed

According to the text, which projective test appears to have produced evidence that comes close to establishing
its validity?

Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)

. Which of the following is a limitation of projective tests?

Projective tests are relatively inefficient and expensive to administer.

Which of the following is an objective test?

MMPI

The reason that objective tests include so many items is to increase the ________ of the test.

reliability

The ________ method is NOT a basic method for constructing objective personality tests.

consensus validation

The basis of the ________ method of test construction is to come up with items that seem directly, obviously,
and logically related to what it is you wish to measure.

rational

The approach to personality test construction that examines a set of correlations among many items in order to
identify which items are highly correlated is called the ________ approach.

factor analytic

According to the text, the last step in a factor analysis is to ________.

name the factors

The factor analytic technique of test construction is designed to________.

identify groups of test items that seem to be alike

Factor analysis can ________.

identify groups of items that go together

The primary criterion for item selection in the empirical method of test construction is determining whether the
item ________.

discriminates between two known groups

Imagine that you want to develop a test to measure depression. You gather a set of 100 potential test items and
ask a sample of people diagnosed with clinical depression and a sample of nondepressed people to respond to
the items. For your final version of the test, you decide to keep only the 15 items that the depressed and
nondepressed groups answered differently. You are using a(n) ________ method of test construction.

empirical

The sole basis on which items are selected for empirically derived personality scales is whether ________.

they are answered differently by different kinds of people

Which of the following is NOT a major limitation of the factor analytic approach?

The factors are only as good as the criterion groups used to validate the measure.

The Woodworth Personality Data Sheet was designed to measure psychiatric problems in what group?

U.S. Army recruits

Integrity tests administered in employment screening provide good measures of ________

conscientiousness

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