Psyc 319 Chpt 8

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Who developed the Draw-A-Man Test, a widely used nonverbal intelligence test for children?
a.
Thurstone
b.
Cattell
c.
Goodenough
d.
Bond
e.
Anastasi

Goodenough

According to Cattell, by 1895 psychology was ____.
a.
being irreparably damaged by the Structuralist-functionalist quarreling
b.
still synonymous with metaphysics for most Americans
c.
a required subject for an undergraduate degree
d.
most vigorously opposed by the traditional natural sciences
e.
relatively unpopular in those few colleges that offered courses in it

a required subject for an undergraduate degree

If a 10-year-old can perform the same tasks as the average 15-year-old, then the child’s ____ is 15 and ____ is 150.
a.
IQ score; mental age
b.
mental age; IQ score
c.
developmental quotient; mental age
d.
developmental quotient; IQ score
e.
mental age; developmental quotient.

mental age; IQ score

Cattell was a strong proponent of ____.
a.
social Darwinism
b.
United States involvement in World War I
c.
Watson’s behaviorism
d.
the single-subject design
e.
eugenics

eugenics

Woodworth’s Personal Data Sheet was designed to ____.
a.
separate White from not-White recruits in World War I
b.
separate the psychotic from the neurotic recruits
c.
assess personality complexes of combat pilots
d.
separate the literate from the illiterate in World War I
e.
separate the neurotic from the average recruit

separate the neurotic from the average recruit

Who was hired by Coca Cola to perform research in their 1911 court case?
a.
Harry Hollingworth
b.
Robert Yerkes
c.
Hugo Munsterberg
d.
James McKeen Cattell
e.
Walter Dill Scott

Harry wollingworth

Cattell’s interest in mental tests probably was aroused most by ____.
a.
his meeting with Galton while at Cambridge University
b.
Hall’s use of questionnaires
c.
Hall’s child study movement
d.
his work on reaction times in Wundt’s laboratory
e.
Freud’s development of projective tests

his meeting with Galton while at Cambridge university.

One consequence of the adoption of the Stanford-Binet test in the United States is that ____.
a.
special education courses were established by 1919
b.
the campaign to identify learning disabilities was firmly established by 1920
c.
public education has revolved around the IQ construct ever since
d.
gifted programs were established by 1923
e.
Terman used it to study genius among cross-sections of ethnic groups

public education has revealed around the IQ construct ever since.

Binet and Simon’s test differed from those of Galton and Cattell in its ____.
a.
emphasis on the relationship of higher cognitive processes to intelligence
b.
emphasis on the recapitulation of childhood abilities in adolescence
c.
emphasis on using sensorimotor tests to assess mental abilities
d.
emphasis on the evolution of children’s mental abilities
e.
inclusion of Hall’s questionnaires as a device for assessing mental abilities

emphasis on the relationship of higher cognitive processes to intelligence.

Who revised the Binet intelligence test into what is known as the Stanford-Binet test?
a.
Witmer
b.
Terman
c.
Goddard
d.
Yerkes
e.
Cattell

Terman

The fundamental difference between the Binet tests and the army Alpha and Beta tests was that ____.
a.
Binet’s tests were individually administered; the army tests were for groups
b.
Binet’s tests required literate subjects; the army tests did not
c.
the army tests included sensorimotor skills and reaction times
d.
Binet’s tests were in French; the army tests were in English
e.
the army tests could not assess mental ages lower than 17

Binet’s tests were individually administered; the army tests were for groups/

____ used the Binet test at Ellis Island to restrict the entry of immigrants to the United States.
a.
Goddard
b.
Thorndike
c.
Terman
d.
Herrnstein
e.
Simon

Goddard

Cattell’s work was novel in its focus on ____.
a.
personality
b.
human abilities
c.
reaction time studies
d.
conscious process
e.
conscious content

human abilities

The original purpose for the founding of The Psychological Corporation was to ____.
a.
bolster the public image of psychologists after Cattell’s public dalliance with the occult
b.
bolster the public image of psychologists after Cattell’s termination for disloyalty to the United States in World War I
c.
take revenge on G. Stanley Hall, who Cattell detested
d.
create a corporation that would publish Cattell’s many books and journals
e.
deliver applied psychological services

deliver applied psychological sevices.

Clinical psychologists’ initial psychological methods of therapy were those developed by Freud.

true

The first doctoral-level I/O psychologist was Lillian Gilbreth.

True

Whose therapeutic technique might be described as "therapist-centered?"
a.
Hall’s
b.
Scott’s
c.
Witmer’s
d.
Freud’s
e.
Münsterberg’s

Munsterberg’s

Scott’s approach to personnel selection was to assess the traits of those successful in an occupation, rather than to define necessary traits ahead of time.

True

The technique of telling consumers to "Use Brand X!" is traceable to ____ law of ____.
a.
Witmer’s; suggestion
b.
Münsterberg’s; suggestibility
c.
Scott’s; suggestibility
d.
Scott’s; direct action
e.
Scott’s; direct pitch

Scott’s suggestibility

Scott wrote that the sense organs are the "windows of the soul."
True
False

True

The assessment and treatment of abnormal behavior in children was established in American psychology by ____.
a.
Witmer
b.
Goddard
c.
Healey
d.
Münsterberg
e.
Freud

Witmer

Witmer’s Ph.D. training with Wundt was a key part of his knowledge base in clinical psychology.
True
False

False

Forensic psychology was established with the work of ____.
a.
Witmer
b.
Scott
c.
Münsterberg
d.
Hall
e.
Healey

Munsterberg

To whom did Witmer turn for his diagnostic and treatment approaches?
a.
Münsterberg
b.
himself
c.
Cattell
d.
Wundt
e.
Freud

himself

The law of suggestibility argues that advertisers must sway consumers’ cognitions and not underestimate their reasoning abilities.
True
False

False

Who wrote The Theory and Practice of Advertising, the first book on the psychology of advertising?
a.
Scott
b.
Goodenough
c.
Münsterberg
d.
Healey
e.
Beers

Scott

The first techniques of psychological therapy to be used in America were developed by ____.
a.
Healey
b.
Münsterberg
c.
Witmer
d.
Freud
e.
Bleuler

Witmer

Münsterberg made direct suggestions to his patients about how he believed they could be cured.
True
False

true

1. Why did the FDA take Coca Cola to court in 1911?
A. Because one of Coke’s ingredients was cocaine.
B. Because one of Coke’s ingredients was caffeine.
C. Because of illegal hiring practices.
D. Because of irregularities in the pricing of their stock. E. Because they made unsupported claims in advertising

because one of coke’s ingredients was caffeine

The main reason Wundt’s and Titchener’s systems did not survive in the United States was that they ____.
A. were German psychologies B. were not pragmatic C. were not fruitful D. were opposed to the behavioristic bent of Americans E. relied on introspection

were not pragmatic

In 1900, the American public’s response to the new science of psychology was ____.
A. concern about psychologists’ ability to read people’s minds B. to reject it until World War I and the development of intelligence tests C. to embrace it D. to reject functionalism but accept structuralism E. to reject structuralism but accept functionalism

to embrace it

What persuaded psychologists to apply their expertise to problems in education?
A. World War I and immigration B. An increase in public school enrollment C. Intelligence testing D. The popular appeal and status of psychology E. James’s Talks to Teachers and the need to test and educate newly arrived immigrants

an increase in public school enrollment

Cattell’s interest in psychology was provoked by ____.
A. Fechner’s book on psychophysics B. Wundt’s book on experimental psychology C. James’s Principles D. Freud’s papers on cocaine E. his own use of drugs

his own use of drugs

Cattell’s Ph.D. was earned with ____.
A. Wundt at Leipzig B. James at Harvard C. Titchener at Cornell D. Angell at Chicago E. Hall at Johns Hopkins

Wundt at Leipzig

Which of the following methods did Cattell develop?
A. the chi-square test B. the order-of-merit ranking method C. correlational methods D. the eugenics formula E. the standard deviation formula

the order- of merit ranking

Which of the following techniques became more widely applied in American psychology than in England?
A. graphic display of data B. correlation coefficient C. chi-square test D. anthropometric techniques E. correlation coefficient and chi-square test

correlation coefficient and chi-square test

Who argued for the sterilization of mental defectives and delinquents and cash incentives for the best and the brightest to marry and have children?
A. Scott B. Hall C. Yerkes D. Münsterberg E. Cattell

Cattell

Unlike Titchener, Cattell believed graduate students should ____.
A. study the contents of consciousness B. adopt Carr’s final form of functionalism C. study children as well as adults D. study animals as well as humans E. study whatever they liked

study whatever they liked.

The results of Cattell’s research on mental tests with students at Columbia University indicated that his measures ____.
A. were valid predictors of college achievement but not of intelligence B. were valid predictors of intelligence but not of college grades C. predicted students’ grades in psychology courses but not in courses in the natural sciences D. were unreliable because of personal equations E. None of the choices are correct.

none of the above

The first effective tests of mental faculties were developed by ____.
A. Hall B. Cattell C. Binet D. Terman E. Wechsler

Binet

Binet based his conclusion about appropriate measure of intelligence based on research conducted with ____.
A. French school children B. Cattell’s students C. G. Stanley Hall D. his daughters E. Lewis Terman

his daughters

Who translated and introduced the Binet intelligence test to American psychologists?
A. Cattell B. Scott C. Simon D. James E. Goddard

Goddard

The construct called "IQ" was developed by ____.
A. Binet B. Simon C. Pearson D. Cattell E. Stern

Stern

The results of testing by the Yerkes research group ____.
A. precluded retarded men from serving in World War I B. established the criterion for admission to Officer Candidate School C. separated the less intelligent into the infantry because they were considered more expendable D. showed that testing could be used successfully in criterion development E. had no impact on recruitment and selection or the war effort as a whole

had no impact on recruitment and selection or the war efforts as a whole.

The effect of World War I on the evolution of psychological testing was to ____.
A. establish a hospitable environment for such endeavors B. identify the need for "culture fair" tests C. establish a baseline of racial differences in IQs in the United States D. refute the assumption that illiterates are mentally retarded E. pave the way for aptitude tests for high-school students

established a hospitable environment for such endeavors.

Unlike ____, who used sensorimotor tests, ____ assessed cognitive functions to measure intelligence.
A. Darwin; Galton and Cattell B. Cattell; Witmer C. Galton and Cattell; Binet D. Binet; Terman E. Goddard; Binet

Galton and cattell; binet.

The purpose of adopting metaphors from medical and engineering terminology was to ____.
A. liken psychology to the established sciences B. reduce the stigma attached to seeking psychological help by adopting the terms "doctor" and "patient" C. show that psychology was scientific D. establish psychology as a legitimate profession in medical and industrial settings E. refocus the public’s attention on the experimental and statistical methods of psychology

liken psychology to the established sciences.

According to the intelligence testing of U.S. army recruits, which group scored higher on average?
A. Black Americans B. White Americans C. Latin American immigrants D. Mediterranean immigrants E. southern European immigrants

white americans

With regard to racial differences in IQs, the work of ____ revealed that southern Whites test as less intelligent than northern Blacks.
A. Goddard B. Thorndike C. Herrnstein D. Terman E. Bond

bond

Who extended the age range of the Stanford-Binet downward?
A. James Cattell B. Psyche Cattell C. Florence Goodenough D. Thelma Thurstone E. Anne Anastasi

Cattell

. Witmer’s "clinical psychology" is today known as ____.
A. the child guidance movement B. the child study movement C. educational psychology D. school psychology E. genetic psychology

school psychology

Witmer’s methods of assessment and diagnosis ____.
A. were constructed as he needed them B. were subject to stringent experimental study in laboratories C. were subject to stringent experimental study in the field D. were tailored to the individual child and thus were not standardized E. relied heavily on systems theory for their framework

were constructed as he needed them

Behavioral and cognitive disorders would be attributed most heavily to ____ by Witmer.
A. genetic factors B. environmental factors C. race D. inbreeding E. cultural differences

environmental factors

Who wrote Psychotherapy?
A. Münsterberg B. Viteles C. Scott D. Beers E. Healey

Munsterberg

The two most profound influences on the growth of clinical psychology as a specialty were ____.
A. World War I and World War II B. World War II and the VA hospital system C. the works of Binet and Freud D. Witmer’s work and the world wars E. the influx of German psychologists in the 1930s and the VA hospital system

World war II and the VA hospital system.

The first Ph.D. recipient to apply psychological principles to advertising was ____.
A. Scott B. Watson C. Hall D. Cattell E. Münsterberg

Scott

Scott argued that the most effective advertisement consisted of ____.
A. a multiple-media approach B. bright colors (such as McDonald’s golden arches) C. a sudden change in volume (such as TV ads) D. subliminal erotic components E. a big picture accompanied by the fewest possible words (such as the Nike logo)

a multiple – media approach

Scott’s hypothesis that consumers will do what they are told is called the ____.
A. law of suggestibility B. "tea and sympathy" approach to advertising C. contraliminal perception principle D. law of least effort E. "trial and accidental success" method

law of suggestibility.

Organizational psychology was initiated with ____.
A. Walter Scott’s work B. the demands of the VA hospital system after World War II C. the Hawthorne studies D. the Zeigarnik effect research E. Lewin’s work on social conflict

Walter scott’s work

. Münsterberg was best known ____.
A. through his publications in the popular press on applied psychology B. through his scholarly publications in applied psychology C. for his research in psychophysics and his disputes with Wundt D. for his research on animal learning E. for his feminist sentiments

through his publication in the popular press on applied psychology.

Which American psychologist is noteworthy for writing in industrial/organizational psychology, psychotherapy, and forensic psychology?
A. Scott B. Münsterberg C. Berliner D. Frank Gilbreth E. Lillian Gilbreth

Munsterberg

Who said, "There is no subconscious?"
A. Scott B. Münsterberg C. Berliner D. Witmer E. Gilbreth

Munsterberg

In 1919 the APA, controlled by academic psychologists, did which of the following?
A. changed membership requirements to increase the number of applied psychologists B. changed membership requirements to decrease the number of applied psychologists C. made the APA an "official" scientific organization (distinct from philosophy) D. created the first wartime commission E. officially declared Behaviorism as the "only psychology"

changed membership requirements to increase the number of applied psychologists.

The first major alternative market for PhDs in psychology was the field of education.

True

Unlike Galton’s eugenics, Cattell’s position on that subject was that data on individual differences should be used to develop programs to teach people to adapt more successfully to their environments.

False

Anticipating Binet’s work on intelligence testing, Cattell replaced Galton’s sensorimotor measures of human abilities with assessments of cognitive abilities.

False

During his years at Columbia, Münsterberg trained more graduate students in psychology than anyone else in the United States.

False

Binet’s test was introduced to the United States by Terman.

False

The army Alpha and army Beta tests were essential in separating the literate recruits from the illiterate in World War I.

True

The testing movement even spread to ways to identify potential baseball players.

true

The intelligence test data from World War I recruits indicated that whites scored higher than all other groups.

True

It is the prevailing and undisputed opinion that intelligence tests are culturally biased.

False

Scott’s approach to the assessment of intelligence was novel in that he examined how people use their cognitive abilities rather than only how much of a particular ability they have.

False

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