Psyc 319 8

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Why did the FDA take Coca Cola to court in 1911?

Because one of Coke’s ingredients was caffeine

Who was hired by Coca Cola to perform research in their 1911 court case?

Harry Hollingworth

The main reason Wundt’s and Titchener’s systems did not survive in the United States was that they ____.

were not pragmatic

According to Cattell, by 1895 psychology was ____.

a required subject for an undergraduate degree

In 1900, the American public’s response to the new science of psychology was ____.

to embrace it

At the end of the 19th century, the field of ____ demanded the application of psychological principles to practical problems with rise in private school education.

education

What persuaded psychologists to apply their expertise to problems in education?

An increase in public school enrollment

Cattell’s work was novel in its focus on ____.

human abilities

Cattell’s interest in psychology was provoked by ____.

his own use of drugs

Cattell wrote that he found himself "making brilliant discoveries in science and philosophy" when ____.

using drugs

Cattell’s Ph.D. was earned with ____.

Wundt at Leipzig`

Cattell’s interest in mental tests probably was aroused most by ____.

his meeting with Galton while at Cambridge

Which of the following methods did Cattell develop?

the order-of-merit ranking method

Galton’s influence on Cattell led to ____.

the study of large groups rather than single subjects

Which of the following techniques became more widely applied in American psychology than in England?

correlation coefficient and chi-square test

Cattell was a strong proponent of ____.

eugenics

Who argued for the sterilization of mental defectives and delinquents and cash incentives for the best and the brightest to marry and have children?

Cattell

Which early psychologist "rescued" the journal Science?

Cattell

Unlike Titchener, Cattell believed graduate students should ____.

study whatever they liked

The original purpose for the founding of The Psychological Corporation was to ____.

deliver applied psychological services

The results of Cattell’s research on mental tests with students at Columbia University indicated that his measures ____.

None of the choices are correct

The largest "family" of second-generation psychologists was fostered by ____.

Cattell

The first effective tests of mental faculties were developed by ____.

Binet

Binet and Simon’s test differed from those of Galton and Cattell in its ____.

emphasis on the relationship of higher cognitive processes to intelligence

Binet based his conclusion about appropriate measure of intelligence based on research conducted with ____.

his daughters

If a 10-year-old can perform the same tasks as the average 15-year-old, then the child’s ____ is 15 and ____ is 150.

mental age; IQ score

Who translated and introduced the Binet intelligence test to American psychologists?

Goddard

Who revised the Binet intelligence test into what is known as the Stanford-Binet test?

Terman

The construct called "IQ" was developed by ____.

Stern

The fundamental difference between the Binet tests and the army Alpha and Beta tests was that ____.

Binet’s tests were individually administered; the army tests were for groups

The results of testing by the Yerkes research group ____.

had no impact on recruitment and selection or the war effort as a whole

Woodworth’s Personal Data Sheet was designed to ____.

separate the neurotic from the average recruit

The effect of World War I on the evolution of psychological testing was to ____.

establish a hospitable environment for such endeavors

One consequence of the adoption of the Stanford-Binet test in the United States is that ____.

public education has revolved around the IQ construct ever since

Unlike ____, who used sensorimotor tests, ____ assessed cognitive functions to measure intelligence

Galton and Cattell; Binet

The intelligence test, first developed by ____, is the basis for those still used today

Binet

The purpose of adopting metaphors from medical and engineering terminology was to ____.

liken psychology to the established sciences

____ used the Binet test at Ellis Island to restrict the entry of immigrants to the United States

Goddard

According to the intelligence testing of U.S. army recruits, which group scored higher on average?

White Americans

With regard to racial differences in IQs, the work of African American ____ demonstrated the strong effects of environment

Bond

With regard to racial differences in IQs, the work of ____ revealed that southern Whites test as less intelligent than northern Blacks.

Bond

Who developed the Draw-A-Man Test, a widely used nonverbal intelligence test for children?

Goodenough

Who extended the age range of the Stanford-Binet downward?

Psyche Cattell

The assessment and treatment of abnormal behavior in children was established in American psychology by ____.

Witmer

Witmer’s "clinical psychology" is today known as ____.

school psychology

Cattell agreed to employ Witmer at the University of Pennsylvania if he would ____.

earn his Ph.D. with Wundt at Leipzig

Witmer’s methods of assessment and diagnosis ____.

were constructed as he needed them

To whom did Witmer turn for his diagnostic and treatment approaches?

Himself

Behavioral and cognitive disorders would be attributed most heavily to ____ by Witmer

Environmental factors

The team approach to the assessment and treatment of mental disorders was introduced by ____.

Witmer

Who wrote Psychotherapy?

Munsterberg

The first techniques of psychological therapy to be used in America were developed by ____.

Witmer

The two most profound influences on the growth of clinical psychology as a specialty were ____.

World War II and the VA hospital system

The first to apply psychology to personnel selection was ____.

Scott

The first Ph.D. recipient to apply psychological principles to advertising was ____.

Scott

Who wrote The Theory and Practice of Advertising, the first book on the psychology of advertising?

Scott

Scott argued that the most effective advertisement consisted of ____

a multiple-media approach

Scott argued that consumers ____.

are not rational beings

Scott’s hypothesis that consumers will do what they are told is called the ____.

law of suggestibility

The technique of telling consumers to "Use Brand X!" is traceable to ____ law of ____.

Scott’s; Suggestibility

Organizational Psychology was initiated with

Walter Scott’s work

The first person to earn a PhD in industrial/organizational psychology was ____.

Lillian Gilbreth

Münsterberg was best known ____.

through his publications in the popular press on applied psychology

Forensic psychology was established with the work of ____.

Munsterberg

Which American psychologist is noteworthy for writing in industrial/organizational psychology, psychotherapy, and forensic psychology?

Munsterberg

The use of physiological responses to assess a person’s truthfulness was proposed by ____.

Munsterberg

Who said, "There is no subconscious?"

Munsterberg

Whose therapeutic technique might be described as "therapist-centered?"

Munsterberg’s

In 1919 the APA, controlled by academic psychologists, did which of the following?

changed membership requirements to increase the number of applied psychologists

American psychology was influenced more by the works of Wundt and Titchener than by the work of Darwin and Galton.

F

The first major alternative market for PhDs in psychology was the field of education.

T

Galton’s most important influence on Cattell was on reaction time studies.

F

Unlike Galton’s eugenics, Cattell’s position on that subject was that data on individual differences should be used to develop programs to teach people to adapt more successfully to their environments.

F

Cattell learned about and gained his interest in statistical analysis from Wundt’s analysis techniques

F

Anticipating Binet’s work on intelligence testing, Cattell replaced Galton’s sensorimotor measures of human abilities with assessments of cognitive abilities.

F

Cattell’s mental tests, like those of Galton, dealt primarily with sensorimotor measures

T

During his years at Columbia, Münsterberg trained more graduate students in psychology than anyone else in the United States.

F

The first Binet-Simon test focused on learning, thinking, and memory.

F

Binet’s test was introduced to the United States by Terman.

F

The concept of the IQ was developed by Stern

T

The army Alpha and army Beta tests were essential in separating the literate recruits from the illiterate in World War I.

F

Attempts by psychologists during World War I to develop group tests of personality characteristics were a dismal and embarrassing failure.

F

The testing movement even spread to ways to identify potential baseball players.

T

The psychologist responsible for using mental tests to assess whether immigrants were mentally defective was Goddard.

T

The intelligence test data from World War I recruits indicated that whites scored higher than all other groups.

T

H. M. Bond was perhaps the most vocal in arguing that White versus non-White differences in IQ scores reflect nature, not nurture.

F

It is the prevailing and undisputed opinion that intelligence tests are culturally biased.

F

Witmer was the father of clinical psychology and school psychology

T

Witmer’s Ph.D. training with Wundt was a key part of his knowledge base in clinical psychology

F

A significant finding by Witmer was that behavior disorders and cognitive deficits are substantially influenced by a child’s environment.

T

Clinical psychologists’ initial psychological methods of therapy were those developed by Freud.

T

The first person to apply psychology to advertising was Watson.

F

Scott wrote that the sense organs are the "windows of the soul."

T

Scott developed the "direct commands" approach to advertising

T

The law of suggestibility argues that advertisers must sway consumers’ cognitions and not underestimate their reasoning abilities.

F

Scott’s approach to personnel selection was to assess the traits of those successful in an occupation, rather than to define necessary traits ahead of time.

T

Scott’s approach to the assessment of intelligence was novel in that he examined how people use their cognitive abilities rather than only how much of a particular ability they have.

T

The Hawthorne studies were crucial in exposing the importance of the conditions of the psychological work environment.

T

The first doctoral-level I/O psychologist was Lillian Gilbreth.

T

Münsterberg stated that women should not serve on juries because they are too irrational.

T

Münsterberg made direct suggestions to his patients about how he believed they could be cured

T

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