PSYC 2145 Cognitive Psych Ch. 9-14

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9. Previous knowledge facilitates categorization in each of the following ways EXCEPT that it

-makes developing theories about a category easy.

-allows rapid learning of a new category.

-allows previous examples to be compared to the current situation.

-ensures categorization will be accurate.

ensures categorization will be accurate.

9. The term "basic-level category" refers to the

-most general level of categorization of which participants can think.

-level of categorization regarded by most participants as indisputable.

-most natural level of categorization, which is neither too specific nor too general.

-most specific level of categorization of which participants can think.

most natural level of categorization, which is neither too specific nor too general.

9. The claim that mental categories have graded membership is the claim that

-a participant’s belief about a category’s membership shifts as the participant learns more about the category.

-some category members are better suited than others as category members.

-many category members approach the ideal for that category.

-one cannot specify precisely whether a test case is in the category.

some category members are better suited than others as category members.

9. A lemon that has been painted red, white, and blue and then run over by a car is still likely to be categorized as a lemon. Which of the following is NOT an accurate description of why this might be?

-Superficial things like color do not play a role in categorization.

-If it grew on a lemon tree, it will be considered a lemon.

-The essential properties for being a lemon are still there.

-Cause-and-effect relationships influence how we think about what an object is and how it is categorized.

Superficial things like color do not play a role in categorization.

9. Categorization models based on family resemblance rely on

-the necessary conditions for membership in a category.

-the definition of each category.

-feature overlap among the members of a category.

-the sufficient conditions for membership in a category.

feature overlap among the members of a category.

9. An important difference between categorization via exemplars and categorization via prototypes is that according to exemplar theory

-the standard used in a particular category can vary from one occasion to the next.

-one categorizes objects by comparing them to a mentally represented standard.

-categories are represented in the mind by a single relatively concrete illustration of the category.

-categorization depends on a judgment of resemblance.

the standard used in a particular category can vary from one occasion to the next.

9. According to exemplar theory, typicality effects

-are produced by the fact that the exemplars in memory for each category tend to resemble each other.

-reflect the fact that typical category members are probably frequent in our environment and are therefore frequently represented in memory.

-are difficult to explain.

-should be observed with categories having homogeneous membership but not with more variable categories.

reflect the fact that typical category members are probably frequent in our environment and are therefore frequently represented in memory.

9. In a PDP model, learning can happen in all of the following ways EXCEPT

-random, synchronous firing of nodes leads to a weakening of a connection.

-weakening of connections between concepts that are activated at different times.

-strengthening of connections between concepts that are activated simultaneously.

-error signals are sent backward through the system, to adjust connection weights.

random, synchronous firing of nodes leads to a weakening of a connection.

9. Basic-level categories have all of the following traits EXCEPT

-basic-level terms are acquired by children at a younger age than either more specific or more general terms.

-basic-level categories are usually represented in the language by a single word.

-if asked simply to describe an object, participants are likely to use the basic-level term.

-basic-level descriptions are more difficult to remember than more general descriptions.

basic-level descriptions are more difficult to remember than more general descriptions.

9. One study found that if participants were told a new fact about robins, they would also believe that the new fact was true of ducks. However, if told a new fact about ducks, participants would not extrapolate this information to robins. This suggests that

-new knowledge about a member of a category is unstable, leading to a change in a person’s belief system only on rare occasions.

-beliefs within a theory are less likely to affect typical category members than atypical ones.

-participants treat each category member independently (on a case-by-case basis) when applying new beliefs.

-participants are willing to apply inferences from a typical case within a category to the whole category but will not apply inferences from an atypical case to the whole category.

participants are willing to apply inferences from a typical case within a category to the whole category but will not apply inferences from an atypical case to the whole category.

9. Reuben is visiting the aquarium and has just seen an octopus for the very first time. Reuben is therefore likely to have

-only exemplar-based knowledge for the concept of octopus.

-a definition for the concept of octopus.

-a prototype for the octopus concept.

-a prototype for the octopus concept and some exemplar-based knowledge.

only exemplar-based knowledge for the concept of octopus.

9. In a hierarchical network of "animals," the property "eats" would be stored

-nowhere.

-at each level, for each animal.

-at the highest level.

-at the lowest level.

at the highest level.

9. When compared to the statement "A canary is an animal," the reaction time for "A cat is an animal" will be

-faster.

-slower.

-equal.

-unknown; there is not enough information to make a decision.

faster

9. Collins and Quillian (1969) suggest that information is organized

-in a circle.

-horizontally.

-vertically.

-hierarchically.

hierarchically.

9. There is a pattern of converging evidence with respect to prototype theory. This means that

-different individuals agree in their identification of typical category members.

-more recent studies have allowed a more precise specification of which category members are typical.

-as children grow up, they gain a more specific notion of what it is that identifies each category.

-the same category members turn out to be privileged in a wide range of experimental tasks.

the same category members turn out to be privileged in a wide range of experimental tasks.

9. The fMRI evidence suggests that the brain areas that are activated for inanimate objects will

-be identical to the active areas for animate objects.

-be different from the active areas for animate objects.

-be localized to one hemisphere, while animate objects will be in the same region in the other hemisphere.

-occasionally match the area for animate objects, depending on the nature of the inanimate object.

be different from the active areas for animate objects.

9. According to a PDP model, how is the fact "Neil Armstrong was an astronaut" represented in the mind?

-Nodes representing Neil Armstrong and astronaut are in close proximity to one another.

-Neurons that represent Neil Armstrong and astronaut are connected via a synaptic junction.

-A single node representing Neil Armstrong is connected via a proposition to the word "astronaut."

-A pattern of connections among many nodes represent Neil Armstrong and astronaut separately, and through learning, these patterns begin to co-occur.

A pattern of connections among many nodes represent Neil Armstrong and astronaut separately, and through learning, these patterns begin to co-occur.

9. Conceptual knowledge is impressive and likely contains

-exemplars.

-all of the above.

-beliefs.

-prototypes.

all of the above.

9. It has been suggested that a rigid definition for a category is not possible and that resemblance (much like a family resemblance) may be more appropriate. Why is this the case?

-Categories constantly add new members.

-Similarity is often subjective.

-A rigid definition is unlikely to be accepted by everyone.

-Categorization is very often a matter of degree, not an all-or-none process.

Categorization is very often a matter of degree, not an all-or-none process.

9. According to prototype theory, the mental representation for each concept

–is located on the boundary of the category.

-represents an average or ideal for the category’s members.

-specifies the necessary and sufficient conditions for category membership.

-lists the perceptual features that are found only in that category.

represents an average or ideal for the category’s members.

9. In Trial 18 of a sentence-verification task, participants see the sentence, "A robin is a bird." In Trial 42 they see, "A penguin is a bird." According to prototype theory, we should expect faster responses to

-"penguin" because penguins are higher in typicality.

-"robin" because of response priming.

-"robin" because participants more readily see the resemblance between "robin" and the bird prototype.

-"penguin" because penguins are a unique bird and thus easily identified.

"robin" because participants more readily see the resemblance between "robin" and the bird prototype.

9. Explanatory theories differ from an exemplar theory in that the explanatory emphasizes

-a holistic approach to categorization.

-the importance of a first impression.

-the most frequently occurring event.

-the importance of specific events.

a holistic approach to categorization.

9. Imagine that you mistakenly believe that Marie Antoinette was the queen of Austria. You learn later that she was the queen of France. How will this adjustment in knowledge be represented in a PDP model?

-The connection between Marie Antoinette and Austria will immediately be broken, and a new connection with France will be created immediately.

-The connection between Marie Antoinette and France will become stronger, overriding the connection between Marie Antoinette and Austria.

-The connection between Marie Antoinette and Austria will become weaker, while the connection between Marie Antoinette and France will become stronger.

-The connection between Austria and France will be broken.

The connection between Marie Antoinette and Austria will become weaker, while the connection between Marie Antoinette and France will become stronger.

9. It is possible for a test case to be thought of as typical of a category, despite not being a member of that category. Which of the following examples is consistent with this idea?

-A poodle is more typical of a dog than a golden retriever.

-A squashed lemon that has been painted purple is more typical of fruit than an apple.

-Abraham Lincoln is a typical American president.

-Whales are more typical of fish than sea lampreys.

Whales are more typical of fish than sea lampreys.

9. According to exemplar-based theories of mental categories, participants identify an object by comparing it to a

-mental image.

-definition.

-prototype.

-single remembered instance of the category.

single remembered instance of the category.

9. Judgments about which category members are typical

*are impressively constant across individuals and situations.

*shift as one learns more about the category but then become quite stable.

are easily shifted by changes in context or changes in perspective.

**differ sharply across cultures.

9. Categorization is of great importance to cognitive tasks. Which of the following is LEAST likely to benefit from the ability to categorize?

-generalizing to new situations

-improving IQ

-expanding current knowledge

-learning new information

improving IQ

9. A mutilated lemon will still be categorized as a lemon, while a counterfeit $20 bill will not be categorized as money. What does this say about categorization?

-Category membership cannot be based on resemblance alone.

-Psychologists will never understand categorization.

-Category membership is based on previously encountered examples.

-Prototype theory is the most accurate theory of categorization.

Category membership cannot be based on resemblance alone.

9. Researchers have claimed that as one gains more and more experience with a category, the mental representation for that category is likely to shift from

-a definition to a prototype.

-a prototype to exemplar-based knowledge.

-exemplar-based knowledge to a definition.

-exemplar-based knowledge to a prototype.

exemplar-based knowledge to a prototype.

9. Proposition networks assume knowledge is ________; however, it is more likely that knowledge is actually ________.

-localized; distributed

-distributed; localized

-localized; unable to be identified

-distributed; constantly changing

localized; distributed

9. The term "connection weights" refers to the

-strength of connections between nodes.

-size of connections between nodes.

-number of nodes.

-number of connections between nodes.

strength of connections between nodes.

9. Exemplar and prototype theories are similar in the following ways EXCEPT that

-both theories require the triggering of a memory.

-both theories require previous memories to be averaged, or combined.

-both theories require a judgment of resemblance.

-conclusions for both processes are based on resemblance.

both theories require previous memories to be averaged, or combined.

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