PSYC 160- Ch. 10

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During psychosocial development, the adolescent is trying to figure out:

"Who am I?"

During the fifth stage of psychosocial development, an adolescent who isn’t sure which role to adopt is said to be:

experiencing a crisis of identity versus role confusion.

It is typical for an adolescent experiencing __________ to sleep too much, care little about school, and be indifferent to parental criticism.

identity diffusion

In achieving full identity, an adolescent should understand his or her goals and values regarding:

religion and sex, politics and ethnicity, and vocation.

Today, vocational identity is postponed because:

many vocations require specialized skills that take years to attain.

What is a gender role?

a pattern of behavior that society considers appropriate for only men or only women

Petty, peevish arguing that is usually ongoing is known as:

bickering.

Adolescents are said to have closeness with family when:

there is open communication, support, emotional connectedness, and parental control.

"Facilitation," specifically in adolescent peer relationships, refers to the way that peers:

encourage each other to do things that most wouldn’t do on their own.

In the past 50 years, teen births have _____ in every nation.

decreased

According to Dunphy, the third event in the sequence of male-female relationships is:

small mixed-sex groups.

Which of the following statements concerning homosexual youth is TRUE?

Ten percent of heterosexual adults report having had same-sex encounters during their adolescence.

The best sex-education programs are those that:

start before high school, require parent-child communication, focus on behavior, and last for years.

The belief that family members should support one another, sacrificing individual freedom if necessary, is called:

familism

Serious depression among adolescents is:

more common in females than in males.

Which of the following statements is TRUE concerning adolescent suicide?

Suicidal ideation is common among adolescents, but completed suicides are not.

Most longitudinal studies on adolescent destructiveness conclude that:

increased anger at puberty is normal and is usually expressed in acceptable ways.

The best predictor of drug abuse in adulthood is:

drug use before age 18.

Which psychoactive drug used during adolescence inhibits growth and may result in the adolescent becoming a shorter and heavier adult?

tobacco

Adolescents who regularly smoke marijuana are more likely to:

drop out of school, become teenage parents, and be unemployed.

What is Erikson’s fifth stage of psychosocial development?

identity versus role confusion

Understanding oneself based on past experiences and future plans is called ________, and lack of commitment to any goals or values is called __________.

identity achievement; role confusion

Erikson’s term for premature identity formation is:

foreclosure

Within which type of identity does society expect some debate and questioning during late adolescence?

religious identity

______ refers to a person’s self-definition as male or female, and _______ refers to a person’s erotic desires.

Gender identity; sexual orientation

Parent and adolescent conflicts:

occur when a child’s drive for independence clashes with the parents’ supervision and control.

Parents’ ongoing awareness of what their children are doing, where, and with whom is called:

parental monitoring.

Mr. Sanchez gives the car keys to his son and asks, "Who is going to the movies with you, and what time will you be home?" This questioning is an example of:

parental monitoring.

Peer pressure or encouragement to conform to a friend’s behavior or fashion style:

can be positive.

High school romances:

are short-lived, rarely lasting more than a year.

From 1991 to 2001, the rate of sexual activity among U.S. high school students:

decreased.

In many nations of Africa and the Middle East, same-sex behaviors are considered:

criminal and pathological.

Which immigrant youth seem to suffer from lower self-esteem than the other groups?

Asian

Research has shown that the dip in self-esteem during adolescence:

is experienced by both sexes.

Two causes of depression in adolescence are:

genetics and having a mother who is often belligerent and disapproving.

Thinking about suicide is called _________, and a failed suicide is called __________.

suicidal ideation; parasuicide

Early neurological impairments increase the risk of a child becoming a(n) _________, and a teen experiencing a negative psychosocial development is at greater risk of becoming a(n) ___________.

life-course-persistent offender; adolescence-limited offender

The only drug(s) used by more eighth-graders than twelfth-graders is:

inhalants.

The most frequently abused drug among North American teenagers is:

alcohol

Longitudinal research on marijuana use suggests that:

drug use causes more problems than it solves.

A study of adult women in the United States found that those who voluntarily had sex before the age of 16 were:

likely to get a divorce as an adult.

All of the following are reasons why the adolescent suicide rate seems worse than it actually is EXCEPT?

The rate is higher than it has been in past decades.

Bickering between parents and teenagers is most likely to:

concern personal habits and dress.

Identify the accurate statement about adolescent crime.

Virtually every adolescent boy has broken a law by the age of 21.

Without any thoughtful consideration, Sean took on an identity that is the opposite of what his parents want for him. Sean has adopted a(n):

negative identity.

Arrest statistics do not accurately reflect the prevalence of adolescent delinquency because:

only about one-fourth of adolescent offenders are caught.

An adolescence-limited offender refers to someone who:

stops committing crimes by age 21.

Adolescent romantic partners:

have less in common with each other than in adult couples.

Identity diffusion refers to the identity status in which adolescents:

do not commit to goals and fail to take on any role.

Chris typically can be found with the same group of close friends on the gym steps at lunchtime. He and his friends do not ask others to sit with them. Psychologists call Chris’s group a:

clique

According to Erikson, the identity status characterized by not questioning and making no commitment is:

diffusion

According to Erikson, the ultimate adolescent psychosocial goal is identity:

achievement

Elyse broke up with her boyfriend after a fight. She has spent the last week repeatedly going over the fight in her mind, which has caused her to sink into depression. Her continual reliving the fight is known as:

rumination.

Research indicates that adolescents who work 20 hours a week or more:

tend to hate their jobs and achieve less in school.

A young boy experienced ongoing sexual abuse until he was 15. Now that he is a grown man, it is likely that he:

is depressed and has difficulty with sex or other psychosocial problems.

Life-course-persistent offenders:

may show signs of neurological impairment.

One reason that the teenage pregnancy rate in most European nations is less than half of that in the United States may be because:

most European schools begin offering sex education in elementary school.

Mr. and Mrs. Cortina have discovered that their son has been skipping classes and cutting school with a group of boys. Which conclusion is MOST likely true?

Their son chose this group because he shares their interests.

True or false: Youth continue to report sexual activity at younger and younger ages.

False

Seventeen-year-old Andrew failed several classes, lost his job, and spends most of his time sleeping on the couch. When his parents voice their disapproval, he replies, "Whatever." Andrew’s response indicates:

role confusion.

Abbie is aware of where her son is whenever he goes out, and she requires him to call if there is any change in plans. This is an example of:

parental monitoring.

True or false: Children of young parents have more medical, educational, and social problems than children of older parents.

True.

Several of Jamel’s friends agree to gather Thursday evening and study for their physics exam, and they invite him to come along. Jamel’s friends are:

facilitating constructive behaviors.

Which adolescent appears to be experiencing identity diffusion?

Zachary, who spends most of his time hanging out and seems apathetic

Hector is 15 years old and does not identify with his biological sex. He feels he is in the wrong body, but does not have the support he needs to transition into another gender easily. According to the DSM-5, Hector may suffer from:

gender dysphoria.

A father’s awareness of where his teenagers are, what they are doing, and with whom they are doing it is referred to as:

parental monitoring.

Compared to when they were children, many adolescents are:

less self-confident.

Parasuicide refers to:

a suicide attempt that does not end in death.

The abstinence-only sex-education program that was widely promoted in the United States in 1998 resulted in _____ sexual activity by teenagers.

no significant impact on

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