PSYC 1101 Review for Chapter 7

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According to Piaget, ___________ represents the beginning of the child’s language development and symbolic thought.

A) object permanence
B) accommodation
C) assimilation
D) egocentric thinking

A. Object permanence

According to research conducted by Ridley (1999), how could individuals like Adolph Hitler, serial killer Ted Bundy, and unibomber Timothy McVeigh commit such acts according to the "nature versus nurture" debate?

A) These individuals learned to commit these behaviors after staying in long periods of isolation according to
Ridley.
B) These individuals were born (nature) to commit such horrendous acts. It was in their genetic make up.
C) These individual’s behaviors were attributed to "nurture" and influences of their parents.
D) Their behaviors are the result of the interaction of nature and nurture.

D. Their behaviors are the result of the interaction of nature and nurture

Emily and her husband are thrilled as they peer into Emily’s uterus by means of an ultrasound. The physician reports that the pregnancy appears normal, and that their baby’s fingers, toes, heart, and circulatory system are developing as expected. The couple learns that the baby is one inch long. Given this information, the current stage of prenatal development is the_________.

A) fetal stage
B) germinal period
C) embryonic period
D) zygotic period

C. Embryonic period

Which of Erik Erikson’s psychosocial crises revolves around the child’s learning to direct his or her own behavior?

A) trust versus mistrust
B) industry versus inferiority
C) autonomy versus shame and doubt
D) initiative versus guilt

C. Autonomy versus shame and doubt

____________babies in Ainsworth’s study were clinging and unwilling to explore, very upset by the stranger regardless of the mother’s presence, protested mightily when the mother left, were hard to soothe, and had mixed reactions upon mother’s return.

A) Ambivalent
B) Disorganized/disoriented
C) Secure
D) Avoidant

A. Ambivalent

Ashley and Mary-Kate are twins who are genetically identical. What type of twins are they?

A) fraternal twins
B) monozygotic twins
C) wombmates
D) dizygotic twins

B. Monozygotic twins

Which of the following is a disadvantage of the longitudinal design?

A) It is relatively inexpensive.
B) Individuals of different ages are being compared to one another.
C) Participants may drop out due to moving, loss of interest, or death.
D) It takes a shorter amount of time than a cross-sectional design.

C. Participants may drop out due to moving, loss of interest, or death.

Countries like the Netherlands, Germany, Italy, and England are more likely to have ______________.

A) very constrained roles for women in society
B) nontraditional views of gender
C) a collectivist society
D) a strong tradition of women staying home

B. Nontraditional views of gender

Which of the following is NOT one of the three types of temperament described by Thomas and Chess?

A) slow-to-warm-up
B) active
C) easy
D) difficult

B. Active

In ________ syndrome, the 21st pair of chromosomes contains an extra chromosome resulting in symptoms such as wide-set almond-shaped eyes and mental retardation.

A) PKU
B) Turner’s
C) Klinefelter’s
D) Down

D. Down

Puberty is defined as _________.

A) the physical changes that occur in the body as sexual development reaches its peak
B) the production of hormones in the reproductive glands stimulated by the pituitary gland
C) the stage of identity versus role confusion
D) the time when a child becomes a teenager

A. The physical changes that occur in the body as sexual development reaches its peak

In _________ syndrome the 23rd pair of chromosomes is missing an X, resulting in short, infertile females.
A) Down
B) Klinefelter’s
C) Turner’s
D) PKU

C. Turner’s

In a __________design, one group of participants is followed and assessed as the group ages.

A) behavior genetics
B) cohort
C) cross-sectional
D) longitudinal

D. Longitudinal

A baby’s language that consists of repetition of consonant-vowel combinations is called ______.

A) telegraphic speech
B) cooing
C) holophrasing
D) babbling

D. Babbling

In Erikson’s __________stage of psychosocial development, preschoolers are challenged to control their own behavior.

A) autonomy versus shame and doubt
B) trust versus mistrust
C) initiative versus guilt
D) industry versus inferiority

C. Initiative versus guilt

Which of the following describes the way in which monozygotic twins occur?

A) The mother’s body releases multiple eggs, two or more of which are fertilized.
B) The mother’s body releases one egg, conceives, and then releases another egg in a later ovulation cycle.
C) The mother uses fertility drugs.
D) The egg is fertilized by a single sperm and then splits completely into two separate zygotes.

D. The egg is fertilized by a single sperm and then splits completely into two separate zygotes

The type of research design which compares various participants at several points in time (no longer than 6 years apart) to examine age-related differences and changes is called a ____________________.

A) longitudinal design
B) cross-sectional design
C) cross-sequential design
D) behavior genetics design

C. Cross-sequential design

________refers to heredity and __________ refers to environmental influences.

A) Nature; nurture
B) Cognition; emotion
C) Cross-sectional; longitudinal
D) Nurture; behavioral genetics

A. Nature; nurture

The gradual decline in the sexual reproductive system of males is called____________.

A) change of life
B) andropause
C) menopause
D) male menopause

B. Andropause

Unlike other types of research, a cross-sequential design allows researchers to_________.

A) look for gender differences
B) combine longitudinal and cross-sectional research strategies
C) reduce experimenter bias
D) only includes cross-sectional strategies within the design

B. Combine longitudinal and cross-sectional research strategies

Which of the following is defined as a gene that controls the appearance of a certain trait?

A) dominant
B) recombinant
C) recessive
D) mutated

A. Dominant

Which of the following statements concerning vaccinations is TRUE?

A) The side effects of vaccines are more harmful than the effects of the diseases they prevent.
B) Vaccines are one of the most effective ways to prevent the transmission of the diseases they treat.
C) Children who are given an immunization can get the disease from it.
D) There is no reason to immunize one’s own child if all of the other children in school are immunized.

B. Vaccines are one of the most effective ways to prevent the transmission of the diseases they treat.

What are some of the common consequences to a child whose mother smoked while pregnant?

A) severe hearing loss and heart defects
B) severely deformed limbs and muscle spasms
C) lower birth weight and short stature
D) increased birth weight and lethargy

C. Lower birth weight and short stature

The _______theory of aging suggests that unstable oxygen molecules cause damage to the structure of cells, increasing with age.

A) cellular clock theory
B) free radical theory
C) wear-and-tear theory
D) disengagement theory

B. Free radical theory

Hector is 70 years old and has just retired from a career as a lawyer. He is now spending time looking back on his life and is recognizing, as well as coming to terms with, mistakes, regrets, and unfinished business. Hector is engaging in a process called___________.

A) life review
B) sense of identity
C) despair
D) ego integrity

A. Life review

Several weeks of diagnostic tests have revealed that cancer has spread throughout Barry’s body. His physician suggested that he "take care of important matters." Barry realizes his family’s home needs repairs, so he arranges to have that done right away. To relieve his family of the agony of planning his funeral, he has made all the arrangements. Barry tells his minister he has had a good life and just wants to make sure he provides for his family after his death. This description fits the stage Kübler-Ross called_________.

A) bargaining
B) denial
C) depression
D) acceptance

D. Acceptance

Mary is an adolescent who currently has a small pimple on her cheek that is causing her to be overly self-conscious. She is convinced that everyone she meets stares at and talks about her pimple. Mary’s behavior exhibits____________.

A) a sense of idealism
B) imaginary audience
C) personal fable
D) puberty

B. Imaginary audience

Abby and Brittany Hensel ________.

A) share a stomach
B) share one upper body
C) share one body from the waist down
D) share a heart

C. Share one body from the waist down

Like any 4-month-old, Amy depends on her parents to feed her and to change her diapers. When Amy cries, her devoted parents quickly respond to her needs. According to Erikson, Amy is developing a sense of ___________.

A) autonomy
B) initiative
C) trust
D) mistrust

C. Trust

All of the following are reasons that middle-aged adults experience changes in memory EXCEPT _______.

A) stress
B) hardening of the arteries
C) having more information stored in memory
D) having more information to remember

B. Hardening of the arteries

Conjoined twins are _________.

A) monozygotic twins
B) fraternal twins
C) dizygotic twins
D) nonidentical twins

A. Monozygotic twins

Your little sister picks up objects, feels every part of them, and then puts them in her mouth. What stage of Jean Piaget’s model of cognitive development does this behavior suggest she is in?

A) concrete operations
B) sensorimotor
C) formal operations
D) preoperational

B. Sensorimotor

Whereas Piaget saw cognitive development as a result of individual discovery and a child’s interaction with objects, Vygotsky attributed cognitive development to________.

A) biological changes in the brain
B) interaction between a child and skilled people
C) unconscious factors
D) completing activities in isolation

B. Interaction between a child and skilled people

Which of the following is a main disadvantage of the cross-sectional design?

A) Participants may drop out due to moving, loss of interest, or death.
B) It takes a longer amount of time than a longitudinal study.
C) It is relatively expensive.
D) Individuals of different ages are being compared to one another.

D. Individuals of different ages are being compared to one another

A special molecule, __________, contains the genetic material of the organism.

A) an amine
B) a gene
C) a chromosome
D) DNA

D. DNA

Young infants cannot appreciate the carnival game in which a pea seems to disappear from under a walnut because they have not yet developed a sense of ______.

A) egocentrism
B) object permanence
C) conservation
D) centration

B. Object permanence

The average age of menopause is__________.

A) 43
B) 34
C) 51
D) 55

C. 51

The placenta is ________________.

A) the tube through which a developing baby receives nourishment
B) a specialized organ that provides nourishment and filters away waste products from the developing baby
C) the name for the developing organism until it is 8 weeks old
D) the technical name for the "belly button"

B. A specialized organ that provides nourishment and filters away waste products from the developing baby

Jean Piaget is noted for his theory of ______.

A) cognitive development
B) language development
C) motor development
D) perceptual development

A. Cognitive development

Erikson saw the major challenge of young adulthood as that of ______.

A) generativity versus stagnation
B) identity versus role confusion
C) intimacy versus isolation
D) integrity versus despair

C. Intimacy versus isolation

Piaget’s term for the knowledge that an object exists even when it is out of sight is ______.

A) object permanence
B) conservation
C) egocentrism
D) centration

A. Object permanence

Which of the following is the correct order of Piaget’s stages of cognitive development?

A) concrete operations; sensorimotor; preoperational; formal operations
B) sensorimotor; preoperational; concrete operations; formal operations
C) preoperational; sensorimotor; concrete operations; formal operations
D) preoperational; concrete operations; sensorimotor; formal operations

B. Sensorimotor; preoperational; concrete operations; formal operations

Brad is 18 and is looking into career options. He is currently deciding whether he wants to become a gourmet chef or a race car driver. Brad is at what stage of Erik Erikson’s psychosocial development?

A) generativity versus stagnation
B) integrity versus despair
C) intimacy versus isolation
D) identity versus role confusion

D. Identity versus role confusion

Which of the following is the MOST common cause of death in middle adulthood?

A) homicide
B) heart disease
C) suicide
D) stroke

B. Heart disease

Which of Jean Piaget’s stages of cognitive development is characterized by abstract thinking and the creation of theories?

A) sensorimotor
B) formal operational
C) concrete operational
D) preoperational

B. Formal operational

Mr. Beluga has just been told that he has a rare form of cancer. He insists that there has been a mistake and asks his physician to retake his medical tests. According to Elisabeth Kübler-Ross, Mr. Beluga is most likely in the _________stage of dying.

A) anger
B) denial
C) bargaining
D) reactive

B. Denial

A gene that actively controls the expression of a trait is called a ______ gene.

A) recessive
B) mutated
C) dominant
D) recombinant

C. Dominant

Silvia has blond hair, even though her mother and father each have brown hair. What do we know about Silvia’s parents?

A) Neither of her parents has a gene for blond hair.
B) At least one of her parents has a recessive gene for blond hair.
C) Each of her parents must have one dominant gene for blond hair.
D) Each of her parents must have one recessive gene for blond hair color.

D. Each of her parents must have one recessive gene for blond hair color

Studies of genetically male children who were surgically altered to appear as females found that ____________.

A) they preferred to play with feminine toys such as dolls
B) half acted more like boys and half acted more like girls
C) almost all of them were happy that they were raised as females
D) they preferred male play activities

D. They preferred male play activities

At what stage of moral development is moral thought guided by principles that have been decided upon by the individual and may be in disagreement with accepted social norms?

A) postconventional
B) preconventional
C) conventional role conformity
D) preoperational

A. Postconventional

When faced with a conflict between law and conscience, Liz follows her conscience despite the personal risk. This would be characteristic of__________.

A) preconventional morality
B) unconventional morality
C) postconventional morality
D) conventional morality

C. Postconventional morality

According to Thomas and Chess, a child that is very irregular in sleeping and eating, resists change, and tends to be loud is labeled a(n)_____________ child.

A) easy
B) slow-to-warm-up
C) negative
D) difficult

D. Difficult

Vision is not very well developed at birth. As a result, which statement is NOT true about vision at birth?

A) Newborns prefer to look at 3 dimensional objects versus 2 dimensional.
B) Color and vision acuity takes approximately 6 months to develop more clearly from birth.
C) Newborns have a clear vision field of 12-14 inches at birth.
D) Newborns prefer to look at complex patterns and also the human face than other stimuli.

C. Newborns have a clear vision field of 12-14 inches at birth

Shelby is very adaptable to change. She is on a regular sleeping, eating, and waking schedule. Thomas and Chess would describe Shelby as being a(n) _________child.

A) difficult
B) slow-to-warm-up
C) undemanding
D) easy

D. Easy

Research on the stability of temperament indicates that it is _______________.

A) unstable and subject to wide variations over the course of a lifetime
B) relatively stable through the first three to four years of life but begins to vary dramatically once a child reaches school age
C) unstable during childhood but stabilizes during adolescence and remains stable throughout a person’s adult life
D) relatively stable well into adulthood

D. Relatively stable well into adulthood

Which sense is the LEAST functional at birth?

A) taste
B) touch
C) smell
D) vision

D. Vision

Sarah is in her forties. Her menstrual cycle is irregular and she is experiencing "hot flashes" that are keeping her awake at night. The changes Sarah is experiencing are called _____________.

A) menopause
B) the climacteric
C) andropause
D) perimenopause

B. The climacteric

According to Piaget, the ability to understand that simply changing the appearance of an object does not change the object’s nature is known as ___________.

A) conservation
B) reversibility
C) object permanence
D) centration

A. Conservation

Gender schema theory is based on _______________.

A) biological inheritance theory
B) Piaget’s theory of development
C) social learning theory
D) Freudian psychoanalysis

B. Piaget’s theory of development

Which of the following is NOT evidence of puberty in boys?

A) the appearance of pubic hair
B) the growth of the testes and penis
C) higher pitch of the voice
D) the appearance of a beard

C. Higher pitch of the voice

By about 12 months, most infants ____________________.

A) begin to use intonation in their language
B) begin to distinguish, in their language, between themselves and others
C) build a vocabulary of one-word phrases
D) begin to form two- and three-word sentences

C. Build a vocabulary of one-word phrases

Sue sees her mother knitting a sweater. Later, Sue takes out a ball of yarn and some knitting needles from her mother’s supplies and tries to do the same. This is a good example of the ____________ theory of
gender development.

A) psychoanalytic theory
B) gender schema theory
C) gender role theory
D) social learning theory

D. Social learning theory

Tameeka is at a point in her pregnancy during which the major organs and structures of her baby are first developing. Which period of prenatal development is Tameeka currently experiencing?

A) fetal
B) placental
C) embryonic
D) germinal

C. Embryonic

Brad is in an electronics store with his parents. He looks at the CDs and thinks for a moment that he could grab one and put it beneath his coat. As he considers this possibility, he decides not to do it because he might get caught and his parents would punish him. What stage of moral development does Brad’s decision represent?

A) autonomous moral principles
B) preoperational
C) conventional role conformity
D) preconventional

D. Preconventional

Which of the following describes the embryonic period?

A) the period during which tremendous growth occurs and the organs continue to develop and become
functional
B) the period during which the umbilical cord develops
C) the period during which the major organs and structures of the organism first develop
D) the period during which the zygote moves down to the uterus and begins to implant in the lining

C. The period during which the major organs and structures of the organism first develop

Which of the following abilities decline during adulthood?

A) verbal ability
B) intellectual abilities
C) wisdom
D) speed of processing

D. Speed of processing

Which of these physical skills typically develops LAST?

A) standing alone
B) sucking
C) walking
D) rolling over

C. Walking

What term is used to describe a child’s inability to see the world through anyone else’s eyes except his or her own?

A) disparity
B) autonomy
C) egocentrism
D) narcissism

C. Egocentrism

In the process of fertilization the ________ and _________ unite, resulting in a single cell.

A) zygote; sperm
B) sperm; ovum
C) embryo; zygote
D) ovum; fetus

B. Sperm; ovum

Which term has the most negative connotation in our culture?

A) tomboy
B) masculine
C) feminine
D) sissy

D. Sissy

Rod-shaped structures in the cell nucleus that contain genes are referred to as____________.

A) DNA
B) chromosomes
C) sex-linked traits
D) amines

B. Chromosomes

A researcher who selects a sample of people of varying ages and studies them at one point in time is, by definition, using the ______ method.

A) longitudinal design
B) behavior genetics design
C) cross-sectional design
D) cohort design

C. Cross-sectional design

Sheila was born a female with only one X chromosome on the 23rd pair. As a result she is infertile, has difficulty learning, and did not develop breast tissue and rounded hips as her female peers did. Which disorder is likely to be diagnosed?

A) Klinefelter’s
B) Turner’s
C) Down
D) PKU

B. Turner’s

Erik Erikson saw the major challenge of middle adulthood as that of ______.

A) generativity versus stagnation
B) integrity versus despair
C) intimacy versus isolation
D) identity versus role diffusion

A. Generativity versus stagnation

Professor Grant is interested in studying the development of a sense of humor. She collects data from groups of 6-year-olds, 16-year-olds, 26-year-olds, and 46-year-olds. What type of research design is Professor Grant using?

A) longitudinal design
B) cohort design
C) cross-sectional design
D) behavior genetics design

C. Cross-sectional design

According to Erikson, an emotional and psychological closeness that is based on the ability to trust, share, and care, while still maintaining one’s sense of self, is called________

A) bonding
B) attraction
C) attachment
D) intimacy

D. Intimacy

_______________develop when two eggs each get fertilized by two different sperm, resulting in two zygotes in the uterus at the same time.

A) Dizygotic twins
B) Fraternal twins
C) Wombmates
D) Monozygotic twins

A. Dizygotic twins

Infants typically begin to make vowel-like sounds at around the age of ________.

A) 6 months
B) 6 weeks
C) 7 months
D) 2 months

D. 2 months

According to Erikson, if a middle-aged person is unable to focus outward and is still dealing with issues of intimacy or even identity, that person is experiencing __________.

A) generativity
B) despair
C) ego integrity
D) stagnation

D. Stagnation

According to Piaget, ___________ represents the beginning of the child’s language development and symbolic thought.

A) object permanence
B) egocentric thinking
C) accommodation
D) assimilation

A. Object permanence

At what point during infancy can babies tell the difference between their own mother’s milk scent and another woman’s milk scent?

A) within a few days after birth
B) within a few months after birth
C) within a few weeks after birth
D) within a year after birth

A. Within a few days after birth

At birth, newborns seem most responsive to________.

A) moderate voice pitches
B) hip hop music
C) high pitches and low pitches
D) rock and roll music

C. High pitches and low pitches

According to Vygotsky, which of these is a key factor in a child’s cognitive development?

A) successful resolution of psychosocial crises
B) genetic endowment
C) social interactions
D) balanced diet

C. Social interactions

Marisa is at a point in her pregnancy when the zygote is moving down her uterus, and the placenta and umbilical cord are beginning to form. Which period of prenatal development is Marisa currently experiencing?

A) fetal
B) embryonic
C) placental
D) germinal

D. Germinal

The growth spurt for boys typically begins at age______.

A) 15
B) 12
C) 9
D) 10

B. 12

Older adults who look back on their lives with regrets, wishing they could relive their lives, have not successfully resolved Erikson’s psychosocial crisis of______________.

A) identity versus identity confusion
B) generativity versus stagnation
C) intimacy versus isolation
D) integrity versus despair

D. Integrity versus dispair

Emily and her husband are thrilled as they peer into Emily’s uterus by means of an ultrasound. The physician reports that the pregnancy appears normal, and that their baby’s fingers, toes, heart, and circulatory system are developing as expected. The couple learns that the baby is one inch long. Given this information, the current stage of prenatal development is the_________.

A) zygotic period
B) embryonic period
C) germinal period
D) fetal stage

B. Embryonic period

A(n) ______________________ is a section of DNA containing a sequence of amines.

A) gene
B) amine
C) chromosome
D) compound

A. Gene

A gene that only influences the expression of a trait when paired with an identical gene is called___________.

A) recombinant
B) mutated
C) recessive
D) dominant

C. Recessive

What is the cause of Down syndrome?

A) an extra X chromosome on the 23rd pair
B) neurotransmitter deficiencies
C) an extra chromosome on the 21st pair
D) neurotransmitter excesses

C. An extra chromosome on the 21st pair

Which of the following terms is used to describe any substance, such as a drug, chemical, or virus that can bring about a birth defect?

A) critical period
B) teratogen
C) carcinogen
D) biohazard

B. Teratogen

Which of the following is a limitation on the cognitive life of children in Piaget’s preoperational stage?
A) abstract concepts

B) object permanence
C) centration
D) hypothetical thinking

C. Centration

The prenatal period during which tremendous growth occurs and the organs continue to develop and become functional is called the _______________ period.

A) germinal
B) embryonic
C) gestational
D) fetal

D. Fetal

Leticia has just learned that she is terminally ill. She is now always irritable, often throws things on the floor, and yells at members of her family and the nurses who care for her. According to Elisabeth Kübler-Ross, Leticia is most likely in the _________stage of dying.

A) denial
B) anger
C) bargaining
D) reactive

B. Anger

Professor Sanchez is interested in studying development of motor skills. She collects data from 200 one-year-olds and follows and assesses them for a period of five years. What type of research design is Professor Sanchez using?

A) longitudinal design
B) cohort design
C) behavior genetics design
D) cross-sectional design

A. Longitudinal design

The growth spurt for girls typically begins at what age?

A) 9
B) 15
C) 10
D) 12

C. 10

Immunizations are recommended although they are not 100% effective. According to the research, which of the following statements are TRUE according to this debate?

A) They are 85%-99% effective and can greatly reduce the chances of getting the disease.
B) They are 20%-25% effective and can try to prevent the chances of getting the disease.
C) They are 60%-75% effective and can somewhat prevent the chances of getting the disease.
D) They are 40%-45% effective and can somewhat prevent the chances of getting the disease.

A. They are 85%-99% effective and can greatly reduce the chances of getting the disease

In which of Piaget’s stages does the child develop conservation?

A) concrete operational
B) preoperational
C) formal operational
D) sensorimotor

A. Concrete operational

A culture’s expectation of masculine and feminine behaviors can be defined as _____________________.

A) heterosexual
B) gender roles
C) homosexual
D) gender typing

B. Gender roles

The most likely cause for miscarriage during the first three months of pregnancy is_______.

A) alcohol use
B) a genetic defect
C) not taking prenatal vitamins
D) lack of exercise

B. A genetic defect

Aaron is a middle-aged physician. He gives back to the community by acting as a mentor to teenagers interested in entering the medical profession. Erikson would say that Aaron is experiencing _________.

A) integrity
B) intimacy
C) identity
D) generativity

D. Generativity

The cessation of menstruation and ovulation is called ______.

A) andropause
B) the climacteric
C) perimenopause
D) menopause

D. Menopause

Erikson’s theory of social development viewed the period from ages 3 to 5, his third stage, as characterized by the major challenge of ______.

A) autonomy versus shame and doubt
B) identity versus role diffusion
C) industry versus inferiority
D) initiative versus guilt

D. Initiative versus guilt

The union of the ovum and sperm is called________

A) a zygote
B) the fetal period
C) fertilization
D) an embryo

C. Fertilization

Which of the following illustrates Vygotsky’s concept of scaffolding?

A) A teacher works one-on-one with a student and then begins to withdraw help as the student becomes more
skilled.
B) Learning in one area, such as language, tends to reinforce learning that occurs in other areas, such as
mathematics.
C) Physical interaction with the environment is a key to learning, so teachers require students to run and play
a great deal.
D) Several children work together to overcome an obstacle they could not conquer individually.

A. A teacher works one-on-one with a student and then begins to withdraw help as the student becomes more skilled

Around age 40, adults ___________.

A) experience a sharpening of the senses
B) do not experience any physical changes
C) may need to wear bifocal lenses
D) see a decline in sexual functioning

C. May need to wear bifocal lenses

What was Mary Ainsworth trying to determine when she devised an experimental method called the Strange Situation?

A) the nature of attachment between caregivers and babies
B) parental discipline styles in the first year of life
C) the nature of gestural communication between mothers and babies
D) aspects of purposeful exploration as the baby investigates a strange environment

A. The nature of attachment between caregivers and babies

Most young adolescents, especially those who receive a formal high school education, are at the level of thinking that Piaget described as ______.

A) identity versus role confusion
B) preconventional
C) preoperational
D) formal operations

D. Formal operations

Which of the following is the term that refers to the difference between what a child can do alone and what that
child can do with the help of a teacher?

A) conservation
B) scaffolding
C) zone of proximal development
D) hypothetical thinking.

C. Zone of proximal development

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