PSYC 1101 Review for Chapter 3

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Which pairing of name and property of light is correct?

A) Helmholtz; particle nature (photon)
B) Holstein; wave nature
C) Newton; wave nature
D) Einstein; wave packet (photon)

D. Einstein; wave packet (photon)

The change in the shape of the lens in order to focus on a visual image is known as_______________.

A) convergence
B) visual accommodation
C) divergence
D) fixation

B. Visual accomodation

What are the hammer, anvil, and stirrup?

A) types of sound that most people can detect
B) tiny bones located in the middle ear
C) types of cones on the retina
D) words often used by audiologists in testing for hearing difficulties

B. Tiny bones located in the middle ear

Analyzing smaller features and building up to a complete perception is called ________________.

A) hypothesis formation
B) perceptual construction
C) bottom-up processing
D) top-down processing

C. Bottom-up processing

The tendency to perceive two things that happen close together in time as being related is known as ___________.

A) contiguity
B) continuity
C) similarity
D) proximity

A. Contiguity

What is the pupil of the eye?

A) It is the small opening in the center of the eye.
B) It is the white part of the eye.
C) It is the colored part of the eye.
D) It is the location of the visual receptors.

A. It is the small opening in the center of the eye

An alien from outer space was just captured. Scientists take turns examining the creature. At a press conference, one of the scientists reports that the alien can hear frequencies between 10,000 and 30,000 Hz. How does the alien’s ability to detect sound compare to a human being’s ability?

A) Humans can detect higher frequencies than the alien.
B) The alien can detect higher frequencies, but its hearing is not as acute at lower frequencies.
C) Humans can detect higher frequencies; however, the alien detects lower frequencies better than humans.
D) The alien and humans detect the same frequencies.

B. The alien can detect higher frequencies, but its hearing is not as acute at lower frequencies.

Because of what you have learned about sensory adaptation, you might think that if you stared at a picture for a long period of time, the image you see would eventually fade. This would be the case if not for the tiny vibrations of your eye called ______________.

A) habituation movements
B) light wave responses
C) microsaccades
D) glissades

C. Microsaccades

The place theory of pitch suggests that pitch is determined by the __________.

A) size of the hair cells that are stimulated
B) degree of bend in the stimulated hair cells
C) number of hair cells that are stimulated
D) specific hair cells that are stimulated

D. specific hair cells that are stimulated

In people who have been blind since birth and who then have had their sight restored, size constancy _____________.

A) is slightly limited
B) is absent or severely limited
C) takes a while to recover
D) is fully present

B. Is absent or severely limited

If an artist were to blend red, green, and blue lights together by focusing lights of those three colors on one common spot, the result would look _________.

A) black
B) complimentary
C) like nonspectral colors
D) like white light

D. Like white light

The sense of smell is also known as __________.

A) olfaction
B) chemical infarctation
C) gustation
D) the salivary sense

A. Olfaction

The illusion based on the concept that most people live in a world with lots of buildings and corners is the _________.

A) Poggendorf illusion
B) Müller-Lyer illusion
C) moon illusion
D) Ponzo illusion

B. Müller-Lyer illusion

Continuity is the tendency _________________.

A) to perceive objects that are close to each other as part of the same grouping
B) to perceive objects, or figures, on some background
C) to complete figures that are incomplete
D) to perceive things with a continuous pattern rather than with a complex, broken-up pattern

D. To perceive things with a continuous pattern rather than with a complex, broken-up pattern

Closure is the tendency _________________.

A) to complete figures that are incomplete
B) to perceive objects, or figures, on some background
C) to perceive things with a continuous pattern rather than with a complex, broken-up pattern
D) to perceive objects that are close to each other as part of the same grouping

A. To complete figures that are incomplete

We can see a candle flame at 30 miles on a clear, dark night, and we can hear the tick of a watch 20 feet away in a quiet room. These two facts are examples of ____________.

A) difference threshold
B) jnds
C) adaptation
D) absolute thresholds

D. Absolute thresholds

When you first put your hat on, you can feel it quite easily, but after a while, you forget that you are wearing a hat at all—the sensation is gone. What happens?

A) habituation
B) sensory fatigue
C) subliminal perception
D) perceptual defense

A. Habituation

Amy’s school records describe her as a monochromat. What can we assume about Amy’s perceptual abilities?

A) She does not see color.
B) She sees only two colors.
C) She cannot remember words used to designate colors.
D) She sees colors one at a time.

A. She does not see color

Which is the newest of the five basic tastes to be discovered?

A) sour
B) umami or brothy
C) bitter
D) sweet

B. Umami or brothy

People’s tendency to perceive a thing a certain way because their previous experiences or expectations influence them is called _______________.

A) telepathy
B) bottom-up processing
C) perceptual expectancy
D) top-down processing

C. Perpetual expectancy

The process by which unchanging information from the senses of taste, touch, smell, and vision is "ignored" by the sensory receptor cells themselves is called __________________.

A) transmutation
B) sensory adaptation
C) transduction
D) transformation

B. Sensory adaptation

The average person’s skin is about ________.

A) 40 square feet in size
B) 20 square feet in size
C) 10 square feet in size
D) 30 square feet in size

B. 20 square feet in size

The principle that the just noticeable difference of any given sense is a constant fraction or proportion of the stimulus being judged is called ______.

A) the opponent-process principle
B) the doctrine of specific nerve energies
C) Weber’s law
D) the phi phenomenon

C. Weber’s law

The eardrum is also called the ____________________.

A) tympanic membrane
B) oval window
C) bass fiddler membrane
D) cochlea

A. Tympanic membrane

The fovea is made up of ______.

A) mostly cones with some rods
B) all rods and no cones
C) mostly rods with some cones
D) all cones and no rods

D. All cones and no rods

A piece of paper looks white in both the noonday sun and under moonlight, even though there is less light being reflected off the paper under moonlight. This form of perceptual constancy is called _________.

A) brightness constancy
B) color constancy
C) size constancy
D) shape constancy

A. Brightness constancy

Proximity is the tendency _________________.
A) to complete figures that are incomplete
B) to perceive objects, or figures, on some background

C) to perceive things with a continuous pattern rather than with a complex, broken-up pattern
D) to perceive objects that are close to each other as part of the same grouping

D. To perceive objects that are close to each other as part of the same grouping

Which is the best description of the kinesthetic sense?

A) It has to do with your location as compared to the position of the sun.
B) It has to do with touch, pressure, temperature, and pain.
C) It has to do with the location of body parts in relation to the ground and to each other.
D) It has to do with movement and body position.

C. It has to do with the location of body parts in relation to the ground and to each other.

Laverne looks at the tongue of her friend and sees all kinds of bumps on her tongue. "Girl," she says, "you sure have a lot of _____________."

A) papillae
B) olfactory receptors
C) taste receptors
D) taste buds

A. Papillae

The trichromatic and opponent process theories of color vision are not in conflict because each corresponds to ______.

A) a different portion of the spectrum
B) one type of color blindness
C) a different stage of visual processing
D) the opposite half of perceivable colors

C. A different stage of visual processing

The outermost part of the ear is called the _______________.

A) tympanic membrane
B) oval window
C) pinna
D) cochlea

C. Pinna

Approximately how many taste receptors are located on each taste bud?

A) 500
B) 20
C) 2
D) 50

B. 20

Which of the following is a characteristic of both light waves and sound waves?

A) hue
B) decibels
C) amplitude
D) wavelength

D. Wavelength

Knowledge of future events is called ______.

A) telekinesis
B) clairvoyance
C) psychometry
D) precognition

D. Precognition

In the process known as_____________, sensory receptors become less sensitive to repeated presentations of the same stimulus.

A) discrimination
B) sensory adaptation
C) sensory fatigue
D) sensation

B. Sensory adaptation

Which of the following describes what happens if you trace an auditory stimulus from the time it first reaches the ear until it arrives at the brain?

A) The auditory nerve joins with the nasal nerve to produce an input to the olfactory lobe.
B) The basilar membrane causes the hammer, anvil, and stirrup to vibrate striking the oval window.
C) The auditory cones respond to the various tonal frequencies, which lead the auditory nerve to send a message to the brain.
D) The outer ear (pinna) gathers sound waves and funnels them down the auditory canal striking the eardrum.

D. The outer ear (pinna) gathers sound waves and funnels them down the auditory canal striking the eardrum.

The lowest stimulus intensity required for detection is the ______ and the smallest noticeable difference between a standard stimulus intensity and another stimulus value is the ______.

A) absolute threshold; difference threshold
B) difference threshold; absolute threshold
C) base value; just noticeable difference (jnd)
D) response criterion; sensory constant

A. Absolute threshold; difference threshold

The aspect of color that corresponds to names such as red, green, and blue is ______.

A) hue
B) saturation
C) brightness
D) fine detail

A. Hue

What is the basic function of the outer ear?

A) to protect the hair cells
B) to filter out high-intensity sound waves that can be harmful
C) to amplify low-intensity sounds to detectable levels
D) to concentrate and funnel sound waves to the eardrum

D. To concentrate and funnel sound waves to the eardrum

Receptor cells in the retina responsible for night vision are ______.

A) bipolar cells
B) rods
C) cones
D) ganglion cells

B. Rods

A sound mixer is impressed by the new equipment that was just installed in his recording studio. He says that now he will be able to help singers and musicians produce better CDs because he can eliminate unneeded and undesired wavelengths. What term describes the characteristic of sounds waves that the sound mixer is now able to alter?

A) saturation
B) frequency
C) amplitude
D) volleying

B. Frequency

Which of the following occurs when because one object appears to be blocking another object, the viewer assumes that the blocked object is farther away?

A) linear perspective
B) overlap
C) texture gradient
D) convergence

B. Overlap

Which is the best description of the vestibular senses?

A) They have to do with your location as compared to the position of the sun.
B) They have to do with movement and body position.
C) They have to do with the location of body parts in relation to the ground and to each other.
D) They have to do with touch, pressure, temperature, and pain.

B. They have to do with movement and body position

Texture gradient refers to the fact that texture appears to become ______.

A) more detailed as brightness increases
B) less detailed when it is brighter
C) more detailed in the distance
D) less detailed in the distance

D. Less detailed in the distance

Each olfactory receptor cell has a half dozen to a dozen little hairs that project out. These are called ______________.

A) olfactory rods
B) cilia
C) olfactory buds
D) olfactory cones

B. Cilia

If a person hears a tone of 300 Hz, three groups of neurons take turns sending the message to the brain—the first group for the first 100 Hz, the second group for the next 100 Hz, and a third for the next 100 Hz. This principle is known as the _________________.

A) volley principle
B) place theory
C) rotational theory
D) frequency theory

A. Volley principle

The best explanation of the moon illusion is ___________.

A) the top-down processing hypothesis
B) the apparent distance hypothesis
C) the cultural bias hypothesis
D) the angle world hypothesis

B. The apparent distance hypothesis

The smallest amount of a particular stimulus required to produce any sensation at all in the person to whom the stimulus is presented is the ______.

A) minimum threshold
B) noticeable threshold
C) absolute threshold
D) difference threshold

C. Absolute threshold

Joachim and Maricella are going for a romantic walk in the park after an afternoon storm. Maricella looks up in the sky and sees a rainbow. She exclaims, "How beautiful!" Joachim, being something of a geek, might correctly say ______________________

A) All of these things would be true if Joachim said them.
B) "You are just seeing the visible spectrum."
C) "That’s because you are seeing all the wavelengths of light we can see from short to long."
D) "That’s because different wavelengths lead to the perception of different colors."

A. All of these things would be true if Joachim said them.

The place theory of pitch was suggested by __________.

A) Hering
B) Helmholtz
C) Rutherford
D) Wald

B. Helmholtz

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