PSYC 1101 Review for Chapter 11

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For Freud, the moral guardian of personality is the ______.

A) superego
B) id
C) ego
D) libido

a. Superego

You are quite hungry but don’t have a dime to your name. If you were described as "all id and only id’" what would you do?

A) Use the defense mechanism of denial to thwart the hunger pangs until an appropriate meal can be obtained.
B) Distract yourself with images of food.
C) Steal a hot dog from the vendor on the corner.
D) Run all the way home to get something to eat as soon as possible.

C. Steal a hot dog from the vendor on the corner

Which of the following statements is criticism that one might legitimately make about the humanistic perspective of personality?

A) it’s concept of womb envy cannot be empirically validated.
B) it paints too rosy a picture of humanity, ignoring negative aspects of human nature.
C) it spends way too much time looking at unconscious determinants of behaviors.
D) it relies far too much on the influence of environments

B. It paints to rosy a picture of humanity, ignoring negative aspects of human nature

"Children who watch violent cartoons will become more aggressive." According to the scientific method, this statement is most likely a ____________.

A) conclusion
B) result
C) hypothesis
D) fact

C. Hypothesis

An investigation of students’ housing preferences would probably show that single rooms are preferred by _______whereas suites are preferred by _______.

A) good students; poor students
B) introverts; extraverts
C) extraverts; introverts
D) poor students; good students

B. Introverts; extraverts

In the classic sitcom The Odd Couple, it was amazing that Oscar and Felix got along because Oscar was such a slob and Felix was so obsessively neat. From a Freudian perspective, what could be said about the way these two men made it through the anal stage of development?
A) Neither Oscar nor Felix were anally fixated. They just had different personalities.
B) Oscar was anally fixated, but Felix was not.
C) Oscar and Felix were both anally fixated, but in different ways.
D) Felix was anally fixated, but Oscar was not.

C. Oscar and Felix were both anally fixate, but in different ways

A person who has suffered a major stroke and is now experiencing severe personality problems because of the damage would BEST be advised to see a _____________ because this problem appears to have a significant medical component to it.

A) psychiatric social worker
B) psychiatrist
C) cognitive psychologist
D) psychologist

B. Psychiatrist

All parents think their little kids are geniuses. However, to be classified as a genius, the IQ score must be above __________.

A) 120
B) 130
C) 150
D) 140

D. 140

From what Latin phrase is the term superego derived?

A) "without morals"
B) "beyond me"
C) "above the rules"
D) "over the self"

D. "Over the self"

Which classification of developmental delay affects most of the population classified in this fashion?

A) severe
B) moderate
C) profound
D) mild

D. Mild

What percentage of the population is described as gifted, according to IQ standards?

A) 2 percent
B) 01 percent
C) 10 percent
D) 1 percent

A. 2 percent

Which was NOT a finding of the Terman and Oden (1974) study of gifted kids?

A) They were above average in weight, height, and physical attractiveness.
B) They were clearly much more likely to be females.
C) They were more resistant to mental illness.
D) They were socially well adjusted.

B. They were clearly much more likely to be females

The _____________ theory of personality has its basis in the theories of learning, and focuses on the effects of environment on one’s personal characteristics and actions.

A) behaviorist
B) psychodynamic
C) trait
D) humanistic

A. Behaviorist

A patient waiting for an appointment with Sigmund Freud looks around the room to see who else is waiting. Who among the following is most likely to have been one of Freud’s patients?

A) Hal, a coal-mine worker who is severely depressed
B) Mario, a soldier who is suffering from a hysterical disorder
C) Angela, a maid, who is severely depressed
D) Sue, a wealthy woman who is suffering from sexual repression

D. Sue, a wealthy woman who is suffering from sexual repression

People began measuring intelligence through tests roughly__________ years ago.

A) 200
B) 500
C) 50
D) 100

D. 100

Carl Jung’s term for the part of our personality that Freud referred to as the unconscious was the _____________.

A) archetype
B) personal unconscious
C) collective unconscious
D) animus

B. Personal unconcious

According to Rogers, which of the following people is MOST likely to become a fully functioning person?

A) someone with a strongly developed superego
B) someone with an extraverted personality
C) someone brought up with unconditional positive regard
D) someone brought up with conditional positive regard

C. Someone brought up with an unconditional positive regard

Karesh is from India and really cares about others’ welfare. His wife is Chinese and he is known for the fact that he does not adhere to strict rules and regulations. He is tolerant of others and plans to become a social worker. According to Hofstede, what type of cultural personality would Karesh be?

A) highly individualistic
B) low in uncertainty avoidance
C) feminine
D) highly masculine

B. Low in uncertainty avoidance

Which of the following is NOT one of the three areas of intelligence described by Sternberg?

A) practical
B) analytical
C) creative
D) exponential

D. Exponential

You are about to undergo delicate brain surgery that requires great skill on the part of the surgeon. As the surgical team wheels you into the operating room, you hope the surgeon has a high level of _______.

A) extraversion
B) ego
C) superego
D) self-efficacy

D. Self-efficacy

Which of these is an element of the formal definition of mental retardation?

A) slower than normal reflexes
B) onset of deficits prior to age 6
C) evidence of brain damage
D) IQ below 70

D. IQ below 70

The first true longitudinal study of the effects of giftedness on social success was conducted by ______________.

A) Wechsler
B) Binet
C) Terman
D) Merill

C. Terman

Personality assessments conducted by behaviorists rely primarily on ____________.

A) detailed analysis of dreams
B) interviews
C) projective tests
D) direct observation

D. Direct observation

Which theory of personality was a direct reaction against the psychoanalytic and behaviorist perspectives?

A) trait perspective
B) projective perspective
C) humanistic perspective
D) inventory perspective

C. Humanistic perspective

Tony has devised a test in which people look at clouds and talk about what they see. What type of test would psychologists call this?

A) dynamic
B) projective
C) predictive
D) objective

B. Projective

Which of the following is correct concerning cross-cultural studies on trait theories?

A) No evidence has been found to support these theories.
B) Most cultural research methods are too vague to be validated.
C) Research in this area is too new to report any findings.
D) Evidence for the five trait dimensions has been found in several cultures.

D. Evidence for the five trait dimensions has been found in several cultures

Gardner and his associates are known for proposing ______.

A) the theory of emotional intelligence
B) the Triarchic theory of intelligence
C) the theory of multiple intelligences
D) the generalized theory of intelligence

C. The theory of multiple intelligences

What did Terman’s groundbreaking study of gifted children accomplish?

A) It proved that gifted children and adults are more prone to mental illnesses or odd behavior than other groups.
B) It put to rest the myths that existed about genius in the early part of the twentieth century.
C) It demonstrated genius is the only factor that influences real success in life.
D) It demonstrated that they also have more than their share of failures.

B. It put to rest the myths that existed about genius in the early part of the twentieth century

There were three friends. Harry was rational, logical, and cunning. Hermione was rule oriented, moral, and always ethical. Ron was pleasure seeking, found it hard to delay gratification, and usually just did what he wanted. According to Freud, Hermione was mostly ____________.

A) superego
B) ego
C) id
D) oedipal

A. Superego

Psychological tests that yield relatively consistent results are said to be __________.

A) reliable
B) valid
C) standardized
D) normed

A. Reliable

Which of the following was NOT a neo-Freudian?

A) Horney
B) Adler
C) Rogers
D) Jung

C. Rogers

Which neo-Freudian viewed personality disturbances as resulting from the feelings of inferiority all people share?

A) Carl Rogers
B) Karen Horney
C) Alfred Adler
D) Carl Jung

C. Alfred Adler

According to Carl Rogers, anxiety and neurotic behaviors occur when _______.

A) there is a discrepancy between the real self and ideal self
B) the individual receives too much unconditional positive regard
C) a person has low self-esteem
D) there is matching between the real self and ideal self

A. There is a discrepancy between the real self and ideal self

A theory of intelligence with nine components was postulated by ________.

A) Terman
B) Sternberg
C) Spearman
D) Gardner

D. Gardner

The job of the _________ is to find practical ways for the _________ to get its pleasure needs met without offending the morality of the ________.

A) superego; id; ego
B) id; ego, superego
C) ego; superego; id
D) ego; id; superego

D. Ego; id; superego

A famous psychologist argues that there are three factors that influence personality: environment, person, and behavior. This psychologist is most likely a ______
psychologist.
A) psychodynamic
B) social cognitive
C) trait
D) psychoanalytic

B. Social cognitive

One of the dangers of taking online personality tests is ____________.

A) there is a small normative group
B) they are all invalid
C) there is no face-to-face contact to help put the results in perspective
D) there are too few of them

C. There is no face-to-face contact to help put the results in perspective

The pleasure principle is associated with which element of Freud’s personality theory?

A) superego
B) id
C) ego
D) preconscious

B. Id

"If it feels good do it" best describes the ______________.

A) preconscious
B) superego
C) ego
D) id

D. Id

Charles Spearman believed that intelligence is composed of ____________.

A) crystallized and visual-motor abilities
B) general intelligence and specific abilities
C) analytical, creative, and practical intelligence
D) verbal and mathematical abilities

B. General intelligence and specific abilities

When Freud referred to the sexual drive of babies and young children, to what was he really referring?

A) the fact that children need to be taught about sexual morality from a very early age
B) the fact that sexual orientation is established from birth
C) all of the above
D) the fact that children focus on their bodies to give them physical pleasure

D. The fact that children focus on their bodies to give them physical pleasure

When Anna looks at some modern artwork at the museum, she often thinks she sees human figures or faces and likes to make up stories about them. When she tells the stories to her friend, her friend says that the stories reflect Anna’s unconscious thoughts. In psychological terms, what Anna does is most similar to ______.

A) an objective test
B) behavior sampling
C) classical conditioning
D) a projective test

D. A projective test

Research on _____________ supports the hypothesis that personality differences are due in part to genetic differences.

A) the heritability of traits
B) the use of defense mechanisms
C) peak experiences
D) unconditional positive regard

A. The heritability of traits

Many have compared Freud’s idea of the mind to an iceberg. If that were the case and you were standing on the deck of a ship in Alaska, what part of the mind would you see above the water?

A) superego
B) ego
C) id
D) preconscious

B. Ego

In Sigmund Freud’s theory, the _______ operates according to the pleasure principle.

A) superego
B) id
C) ego
D) thanatos

B. Id

According to Albert Bandura, a person’s belief about his or her skills and ability to perform certain behaviors is known as ________.

A) self-efficacy
B) phenomenology
C) locus of control
D) reciprocal determinism

A. Self-efficacy

_____________ theory is called the third force in personality theory.

A) Behaviorist
B) Cognitive
C) Psychoanalytic
D) Humanistic

D. Humanistic

In Carl Rogers’s theory, our perception of our abilities, behaviors, and characteristics is known as ________.

A) self-esteem
B) personality
C) self-regard
D) self-concept

D. Self-concept

According to Karen Horney, what causes us to develop a neurotic personality?

A) failing to adequately resolve the Oedipus complex
B) being raised without love, affection, and security
C) conflict between the anima and the animus
D) getting fixated at the oral stage of development

B. Being raised without love, affection, and security

According to Freud, the second part of the personality is the ego, which gets its name from the Latin word for __________.

A) "pride"
B) "right"
C) "I"
D) "self"

C. "I"

The neo-Freudian, Carl Jung, suggested the existence of a collective unconscious that contains images shared by all people called ______.

A) prototypes
B) archetypes
C) schemas
D) paradigms

B. Archetypes

What did Raymond Cattell call the underlying traits that direct surface traits?

A) secondary traits
B) source traits
C) background traits
D) subordinate traits

B. Source traits

What is Freud’s term for the executive of the personality that has a realistic plan for obtaining gratification of an individual’s desires?

A) id
B) preconscious
C) superego
D) ego

D. Ego

The ______ controls the satisfaction of the id’s drives in the external world.

A) ego
B) superego
C) personal unconscious
D) persona

A. Ego

The superego develops ____________.

A) at birth
B) during adolescence
C) during the preschool years
D) during infancy

C. During the preschool years

According to Freud, during the first 18 months of life, the dominant source of sensual pleasure is the ______.

A) anus
B) hands
C) mouth
D) genitals

C. Mouth

All the following are projective tests EXCEPT the ______________.

A) Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)
B) Rorschach test
C) Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI)
D) House-Tree-Person Test

C. Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory

For Freud, the mind is divided into ___ levels.

A) three
B) two
C) four
D) one

A. Three

Culture-fair tests attempt to measure ______.

A) cultural background
B) the intelligence of people coming from inside the culture in which the test was devised
C) the intelligence of people coming from outside the culture in which the test was devised
D) the effects of culture on people’s intellectual and creative skills

C. The intelligence of people coming from outside the culture in which the test was devised

Probably the biggest problem with personality assessments by behaviorists is the _______.

A) subject bias
B) experimenter bias
C) test bias
D) observer effect

D. Observer effect

According to Jung, the memories and behavior patterns inherited from past generations are part of the ______.

A) persona
B) collective unconscious
C) alter-ego
D) personal unconscious

B. Collective unconscious

Most standardized tests of intelligence have a distribution of scores that _________.

A) has a negative skew
B) has a positive skew
C) follows the normal curve
D) appears bimodal with two peaks of high frequency

C. Follows the normal curve

An 8-year-old child who scored like an average 10-year-old on an intelligence test would have a mental age of ________ and an IQ of ________.

A) 10; 125
B) 8; 80
C) 10; 100
D) 8; 125

A. 10;125

In Freud’s theory, the id is to fun as the superego is to ____________

A) guilt
B) rules
C) freedom
D) pride

A. Guilt

Jung believed that there were two levels to the unconscious mind, the personal and the ________.

A) preconscious
B) collective
C) animus
D) anima

B. Collective

Which psychological test asks the subject to tell a story based on a picture of one or more people in which it is unclear what is going on?

A) Rorschach test
B) Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI)
C) Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)
D) California Psychological Inventory (CPI)

C. Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)

Toilet training takes place during which of Freud’s psychosexual stages?

A) phallic
B) anal
C) oral
D) latency

B. Anal

A person’s responses to a projective test are thought to reflect ____________.

A) maladaptive patterns of behavior
B) current events
C) daydreaming themes
D) unconscious thoughts and feelings

D. Unconscious thoughts and feelings

According to Freud, the stage in which children develop a marked attachment to the parent of the opposite sex and become jealous of the same-sex parent is the ______.

A) oral stage
B) phallic stage
C) anal stage
D) genital stage

B. Phallic stage

Your teacher organizes a debate on Freudian theory. You are assigned to be on the anti-Freud side and,therefore, must point out problems in the theory. Which of the following would be a reasonable argument for you to make?

A) Parents have little influence on their children’s motives.
B) Defense mechanisms actually increase anxiety.
C) His interpretations of what his patients told him were ambiguous.
D) Psychoanalytic therapy is effective for treating psychotics only.

C. His interpretations of what his patients told him were ambiguous

According to Freud, personality develops through a series of psychosexual stages. The last stage is called the ___________.

A) latency stage
B) anal stage
C) phallic stage
D) genital stage

D. Genital stage

Which element in Freud’s personality theory is composed of the conscience and the ego ideal?

A) preconscious
B) ego
C) id
D) superego

D. Superego

Steve is extremely uptight and compulsively neat and orderly. According to Freudian theory, he became fixated at the ________ stage of psychosexual development.

A) oral
B) anal
C) genital
D) latency

B. Anal

The field of _____________ is devoted to the study of just how much of personality is due to inherited traits.

A) geometric heredity
B) behavioral genetics
C) genetic microbiology
D) genomanalysis

B. Behavioral genetics

While taking the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory, Version II, Vince notices that it contains certain questions that are asked several times in different ways. He asks his daughter, who is a graduate student in psychology, why that is. What is his daughter likely to say?

A) Some items are used to determine if test takers are trying to "fake" the test by not reading.
B) Truly psychotic individuals expect to find "strange" items on tests.
C) The MMPI-2 contains a number of experimental items that are used in developing future versions of the test.
D) Those items contain hidden content that is not apparent to normal people.

A. Some items are used to determine if test takers are trying to "fake" the test by not reading

What is Freud’s term for the primitive, biological side of personality?

A) id
B) ego
C) superego
D) preconscious

A. Id

Which term was given to psychoanalysts who broke away from strict interpretation of Freud’s theory and developed theories of their own that were based upon Freud’s work?

A) anti-Freudians
B) neo-Freudians
C) retro-Freudians
D) nouveau-Freudians

B. Neo-Freudians

Carl Rogers believed people question themselves and experience negative effects on their self-concept when they receive ______.

A) unconditional positive regard
B) unconditional esteem
C) conditional positive regard
D) conditional esteem

C. Conditional positive regard

When assessing personality, many psychologists take the eclectic view, which means they ________.

A) focus on unconscious motives
B) use a variety of approaches
C) focus on behavior
D) use only one specific approach

B. Use a variety of approaches

Most researchers who study the role of race and IQ testing have concluded that ______________.

A) the issue should not be studied because of its disruptive nature to society
B) none of these
C) although differences between ethnic and racial groups on standardized IQ tests may be demonstrated, the more likely factor in this difference is environmental
D) there are strong genetically based differences between ethnic and racial groups in the area of IQ test performance

C. Although differences between ethnic and racial groups on standardized IQ tests may be demonstrated, the more likely factor in this difference is environmental

What is the correct sequence of Freud’s psychosexual stages?

A) anal, oral, latency, phallic, genital
B) oral, genital, latency, phallic, anal
C) latency, anal, oral, genital, phallic
D) oral, anal, phallic, latency, genital

D. Oral, anal, phallic, latency, genital

For Freud, the seething cauldron of unconscious urges and desires continuously seeking expression is the ________.

A) persona
B) ego
C) id
D) superego

C. Id

What do humanistic and psychoanalytic theories have in common?

A) They are both difficult to test.
B) They are both testable.
C) They both rely on stages.
D) They both base much of their theory on early stressful events.

A. They are both difficult to test

According to the American Association of Mental Retardation, diagnosis of developmental disability should consider _________________.

A) all of these
B) intellectual and adaptive behavior skills
C) psychological and emotional factors
D) physical health and environmental considerations

A. All of these

In the metaphor the angel, the devil, and me, the angel is the ____________.

A) unconscious
B) id
C) superego
D) ego

C. Superego

Someone who was interested in measuring a person’s source traits, as described by Raymond Cattell, would use the ______________.

A) Sixteen Personality Factors Questionnaire (16PF)
B) California Psychological Inventory (CPI)
C) Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI)
D) NEO Personality Inventory

A. Sixteen Personality Factors Questionnaire (16PF)

Which of the following statements is a claim often made by critics of projective testing?

A) These tests create anxiety in those being tested.
B) These tests are effective in predicting job performance.
C) The interpretation of projective tests is too subjective.
D) People try to answer questions in ways that make them look better than they are.

C. The interpretation of projective tests is too subjective

The tendency to form a favorable or unfavorable impression of someone at the first meeting is called the _____________.

A) interview bias
B) halo effect
C) bias effect
D) subject bias effect

B. Halo effect

Using Hofstede’s dimensions of cultural personality, how would you describe a culture characterized by loose ties between individuals, shared activities among friends, autonomy, and equality?

A) high in uncertainty avoidance
B) high in power distance
C) masculine
D) individualistic

D. Individualistic

As part of the initial screening for possible employment, a nuclear power company administers a psychological test that yields scores on tendencies toward depression, schizophrenia, and excessive worrying. What is the name of this psychological test?

A) Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)
B) Myers-Briggs Type Indicator
C) Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Adults (WAIS)
D) Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI), Version II

D. Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI), Version II

Which of these might be an example of a performance item on the Wechsler intelligence tests?

A) using blocks to make a design like one shown in a picture
B) defining a word such as lunch
C) adding a series of orally presented numbers
D) repeating a series of digits

A. Using blocks to make a design like one shown in a picture

A psychological test that measures what we intend it to measure is said to be ___________.

A) reliable
B) standardized
C) normed
D) valid

D. Valid

Jessie becomes furious when her favorite hockey player is intentionally hurt by an opponent. According to Freud’s model of the mind, her id would unconsciously say _________.

A) "I’m going to tear this program in half!"
B) "What, me angry? I never get angry"
C) "Thou shalt not kill"
D) "I’m so angry I could kill that player"

D. "I’m so angry I could kill that player"

On a newly developed IQ test, an individual scores at the 110 level on the first half of the test, and 150 on the second half of the test. What does this test appear to lack?

A) appropriate norms
B) standardization
C) reliability
D) predictive validity

C. Reliability

Measuring intelligence by testing is a rather new concept in the history of the world. The idea of such testing came from (the) _____________.

A) Soviet Union
B) France
C) United Kingdom
D) United States

B. France

There were three friends. Maybe you’ve heard of them! Harry was rational, logical, and cunning. Hermione was rule oriented, moral, and always ethical. Ron was pleasure seeking, found it hard to delay gratification, and usually just did what he wanted. According to Freud, Ron was mostly ___________.

A) libido
B) id
C) ego
D) superego

B. Id

The Freudian stage in which boys must resolve the Oedipus complex is the ______ stage.

A) oral
B) anal
C) phallic
D) genital

C. Phallic

Travis is a participant in the X-games every year, which features events that are high flying and exhilarating to watch or participate in, but also very dangerous to the competitors. Because Travis is willing to take chances with his health to get the adrenaline rush from these sorts of events, Costa and McCrae would argue that he ranks high on which of the five factors?

A) conscientiousness
B) neuroticism
C) extraversion
D) openness

D. Openness

Which theories are less concerned with the explanation for personality development and changing personality than they are with describing personality and predicting behavior based on that description?

A) trait theories
B) behaviorist theories
C) archetype theories
D) psychodynamic theories

A. Trait theories

The most commonly used personality inventory is the _____________.

A) CPI
B) MBTI
C) TAT
D) MMPI-2

D. MMPI-2

According to Freud and his followers, what is the most significant event that occurs during the anal stage of psychosexual development?

A) The child is toilet trained.
B) The child develops sexual feelings toward the parent of the other sex.
C) The child discovers his or her genitals.
D) The child has nightmares that reflect the development of sexual feelings.

A. The child is toilet trained

Sigmund Freud proposed that little boys’ fears that their fathers may retaliate against them for forbidden sexual and aggressive impulses may lead to ________.

A) castration phobia.
B) penis anxiety
C) penis envy
D) castration anxiety

D. Castration anxiety

Which neo-Freudian theorist believed social relationships were the key to understanding personality?

A) Carl Rogers
B) Alfred Adler
C) Carl Jung
D) Erik Erikson

D. Erik Erikson

What do Abraham Maslow’s and Carl Rogers’s theories have in common?

A) They focus on unconscious motivation.
B) They are both stage theories.
C) They both fit in the learning/cognitive perspective.
D) They believe that each human being is free to choose his or her own destiny.

D. They believe that each human being is free to choose his or her own destiny

The term Terman’s Termites refers to __________ .

A) a group of Army soldiers who on the basis of their IQ were followed through their military career
B) a set of developmentally delayed students that Terman studied intensively
C) a sample of gifted children who were studied and followed into adulthood
D) none of these

C. A sample of gifted children who were studied and followed into adulthood

According to Freud, the reality principle is ______.

A) the way in which young children instinctively seek self-actualization
B) the way in which the id tries to obtain gratification and avoid pain
C) the way in which the ego ideal establishes standards of what one would like to be
D) the way in which the ego tries to delay satisfying the id’s desires until it can do so safely and successfully

D. The way in which the ego tries to delay satisfying the id’s desires until it can do so safely and successfully

In the classic sitcom The Odd Couple, it was amazing that Oscar and Felix got along because Oscar was such a slob and Felix was so obsessively neat. From a Freudian perspective, what could be said about the way these two men made it through the anal stage of development?

A) Oscar had an anal retentive personality and Felix had an anal expulsive personality.
B) Oscar had an anal expulsive personality and Felix had an anal retentive personality.
C) Both Oscar and Felix were anally fixated.
D) All of the above are correct.

B. Oscar had an anal expulsive personality and Felix had an anal retentive personality

The ego operates according to the ______.

A) guilt/pride principle
B) reflex principle
C) pleasure principle
D) reality principle

D. Reality principle

Beliefs that being gifted or a genius lead to being weird, socially awkward, or more likely to suffer from mental illnesses were put to rest by ___________.

A) the development of the WAIS tests by Wechsler
B) Terman’s longitudinal study of 1,528 gifted children
C) the Army Alpha tests study
D) Binet’s development of the concept of IQ

B. Terman’s longitudinal study of 1,528 gifted children

You are reading an article that critiques Freud’s theory. Which of the following could be the title?

A) "Sex Is More Influential Than We Think"
B) "The Id Really Does Exist!"
C) "Never Use the Dreams of Sexually Frustrated Rich Women as a Basis for a Theory."
D) "Sometimes a Cigar Is Just a Cigar"

C. "Never Use the Dreams of Sexually Frustrated Rich Women as a Basis for a Theory"

Which of the following statements describes the relationship between
temperament and personality?

A) Personality, which we are born with, is the basis upon which one’s temperament is built.
B) Temperament, which we are born with, is the basis upon which one’s personality is built.
C) Temperament and personality are the exact same thing.
D) Temperament refers to negative personal characteristics, while personality refers to positive personal characteristics.

B. Temperament, which we are born with, is the basis upon which one’s personality is build

What is one criticism of projective tests?

A) They fail to take into account differences in the testing environments.
B) They have low validity and reliability.
C) They are too simple in their administration and scoring.
D) They are inappropriate for use with children.

B. They have low validity and reliability

According to Hofstede’s dimensions of cultural personality, cultures that are __________ are assertive and competitive.

A) collectivistic
B) high in uncertainty avoidance
C) high in power distance
D) masculine

D. Masculine

According to Jung, each person’s own repressed thoughts, undeveloped ideas, and forgotten experiences are contained in the ______.

A) personal unconscious
B) persona
C) archetype
D) collective unconscious

A. Personal unconscious

According to Freud’s theory of personality development, there are ________ stages that each person must pass through.

A) 8
B) 5
C) 3
D) 7

B. 5

Jill is an 8-year-old girl who is having a birthday party. According to Freud, since Jill is in the latency period, whom would you expect to be at her party?

A) mostly boys
B) mostly girls
C) mostly male parents who look like her father
D) mostly parents

B. Mostly girls

Which of the following concepts is NOT found in the humanistic perspective of personality?

A) personal freedom of choice
B) each person is unique
C) self-efficacy
D) self-actualization

C. Self-efficacy

What is one purpose of the validity scales of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory, Version II (MMPI-2)?

A) to assess levels of current stressors
B) to distinguish items that incorrectly diagnose from those that correctly diagnose an individual
C) to detect tendencies of test takers to present themselves in a favorable light
D) to check the appropriateness of a particular diagnosis

C. To detect tendencies of test takers to present themselves in a favorable light

Which defense mechanism was a prominent part in both Adler’s and Horney’s theories?

A) intellectualization
B) suppression
C) compensation
D) rationalization

C. Compensation

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