PSYC 1101 Review for Chapter 1

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What advice might John B. Watson have offered to psychologists of his time?

A) "Remember that what we accomplish is due to the composition of our genes."
B) "Life is an effort to overcome inferiority."
C) "Focus on observable behavior."
D) "We cannot know others until we know ourselves."

C) "Focus on observable behavior."

The magazine Desperate Wives publishes a survey of its female readers called "The Sex Life of the American Wife." It reports that 87 percent of all wives like to make love in rubber boots. A more accurate title for this survey would be ___________________.

A) "The New Sexuality in America: Rubber Boots in Bed!"
B) "Rubber Boot Preferences and the American Wife"
C) "The Sex Lives of Our Readers: Desperate Wives Women Respond"
D) "Sex in America: These Boots Were Made for Walking and for. . . ."

C) "The Sex Lives of Our Readers: Desperate Wives Women Respond"

In the definition of psychology, the term mental processes refers to _________ .

A) overt actions and reactions
B) internal, covert processes
C) outward behavior
D) only animal behavior

B) internal, covert processes

______________________ is an experiment in which participants do not know if they are in the experimental or the control group but the experimenters do know which participants are part of which group.

A) The single-blind study
B) Correlational research
C) Field research
D) The double-blind study

A) The single-blind study

Which goal of psychology is most closely met through naturalistic observation?

A) describing behavior
B) controlling behavior
C) altering behavior
D) predicting behavior
Points Earned: 1.0/1.0

A) describing behavior

Professor Beverly approaches questions about human behavior from a perspective that emphasizes bodily events and chemicals, such as hormones, associated with behavior. It is most likely that she accepts which of the following psychological approaches?

A) cognitive
B) biopsychological
C) sociocultural
D) learning

B) biopsychological

Dr. Wiseman wants to know about the alcohol consumption patterns among college juniors in the United States. He should _______________________.

A) remember that sample size is the most critical factor in survey research
B) give the survey to every college junior in the country
C) draw a representative sample among college juniors
D) require students’ names on each survey to avoid the tendency to lie

C) draw a representative sample among college juniors

Cognitive neuroscientists can examine the brain with _____________ and _____________.

A) Gama images: electrolysis
B) PET: MRI
C) MRI: electrolysis
D) electrolysis: PET

B) PET: MRI

Mei was sent to the school psychologist to be tested. Based on her IQ scores it was decided that she would do well in the gifted child program. This is an example of which goal of psychology?

A) predicting behavior
B) describing behavior
C) controlling behavior
D) explaining behavior

A) predicting behavior

The question "What is happening?" refers to which of the following goals in psychology?

A) control
B) explanation
C) prediction
D) description

D) description

A correlation coefficient shows that smoking and life expectancy are indeed related. As a result, a researcher could predict _____________ if the direction of the relationship is known.

A) if a person smokes a lot of cigarettes, he or she will have less money monthly to buy gas
B) the person’s life expectancy will go up or down based on the number of cigarettes the person smokes daily
C) a person’s lungs will repair themselves and he or she will live a longer life
D) if a person smokes cigarettes, he or she will eventually develop lung cancer

B) the person’s life expectancy will go up or down based on the number of cigarettes the person smokes daily

The magazine Desperate Wives publishes a survey of its female readers called "The Sex Life of the American Wife." It reports that 87 percent of all wives like to make love in rubber boots. The critical flaw in this research would be ______________.

A) the fact that a psychological test, rather than a survey, should have been given
B) the fact that making love has not been operationally defined
C) the fact that rubber boots are not equally available in all regions of the country
D) the fact that the sample is not representative of American wives

D) the fact that the sample is not representative of American wives

The school of psychology called structuralism used a technique called _____, which involved reporting the contents of consciousness to study a person’s experiences.

A) insight inventory
B) introspection
C) intervention
D) induction

B) introspection

The psychodynamic perspective was based on the work of ________________.

A) Freud
B) Wundt
C) Gestalt
D) Watson

A) Freud

Which of the following statements concerning critical thinking is incorrect?

A) Critical thinking requires an open mind.
B) There are few truths that need not be tested.
C) All evidence is not equal in quality.
D) Some authorities should not be questioned.

D) Some authorities should not be questioned.

Drinking orange juice is negatively correlated with the risk of cancer. Based on this information, which of the following statements is true?

A) The more orange juice you drink, the lower your risk of cancer.
B) The more orange juice you drink, the higher your risk of cancer.
C) Drinking orange juice causes people to be cancer free.
D) The less orange juice you drink, the lower your risk of cancer.

A) The more orange juice you drink, the lower your risk of cancer.

The term ___________________________ refers to a mental health professional who generally has at least an M.S.W. and who typically treats individual dysfunction and family problems but may also deal with other problems such as addiction or abuse.

A) psychiatric social worker
B) educational psychologist
C) psychiatrist
D) psychoanalyst

A) psychiatric social worker

Which of the following is a common ethical guideline suggested by the American Psychological Association?
A) Participants cannot be subjected to any physically or emotionally painful stimuli.

B) Participants may not withdraw once they start.
C) Deception must be justified.
D) Participants cannot be deceived about aspects of the research.

C) Deception must be justified.

________________ is a system used for reducing bias and error in the measurement of data.

A) The double-blind method
B) The scientific method
C) Checks and balances
D) Statistics

B) The scientific method

The majority of psychologists work in ________________.

A) public school
B) private practice
C) colleges and universities
D) government

C) colleges and universities

In a laboratory, smokers are asked to "drive" using a computerized driving simulator equipped with a stick shift and a gas pedal. The object is to maximize the distance covered by driving as fast as possible on a winding road while avoiding rear-end collisions. Some of the participants smoke a real cigarette immediately before climbing into the driver’s seat. Others smoke a fake cigarette without nicotine. You are interested in comparing how many collisions the two groups have. In this study, the independent variable is _____________________.

A) the use of nicotine
B) the number of collisions
C) the driving skills of each driver
D) the use of a driving simulator

A) the use of nicotine

The question "Why is it happening?" refers to which of the following goals in psychology?

A) understanding
B) control
C) description
D) prediction

A) understanding

Which of the following statements concerning using animals in research is correct?

A) There are rules that prevent the killing of animals.
B) Pain and suffering of animals are allowed but only when necessary.
C) There are no ethical guidelines when it comes to animals.
D) New ethical guidelines prevent the use of primates in psychological research.

B) Pain and suffering of animals are allowed but only when necessary.

Josh has been participating in a clinical study by a cognitive neuroscientist. It is likely that his brain is being studied to explore _________________.

A) memory
B) thinking
C) all of the above
D) thinking

C) all of the above

Which perspective focuses on free will and self-actualization?

A) behaviorism
B) cognitive
C) psychoanalysis
D) humanistic

D) humanistic

Pavlov’s research demonstrated that ________________.

A) involuntary reaction (sound of a bell) could occur in response to an unrelated stimulus (food)
B) an unrelated stimulus (salivation) could occur in response to an involuntary reaction (sound of a bell)
C) involuntary reaction (salivation) could occur in response to an unrelated stimulus (sound of a bell)
D) an unrelated stimulus (food) could occur in response to an unrelated stimulus (barking)

C) involuntary reaction (salivation) could occur in response to an unrelated stimulus (sound of a bell)

Vido has an M.S.W. and is interested in working on the causes of poverty. What type of professional is Vido most likely to become?

A) psychiatrist
B) psychiatric social worker
C) school psychologist
D) educational psychologist

B) psychiatric social worker

There are several subfields of psychology according to the present research. The three largest subfields of psychology are ________________, ________________, and ________________.

A) Cognitive; Clinical; and Developmental
B) Clinical; Counseling; and Developmental
C) Social; Experimental; and School
D) Industrial/Organizational; Counseling; and Clinical

B) Clinical; Counseling; and Developmental

Researchers must report their results completely whether the hypothesis was supported or not. Complete reporting is necessary for the purpose of ______________.

A) replication
B) finding a better way to support the hypothesis
C) educational knowledge
D) publication

A) replication

Professor Wenches approaches questions about human behavior from a perspective that emphasizes unconscious dynamics within the individual, such as inner forces or conflicts. It is most likely that she accepts which of the following psychological approaches?

A) psychodynamic approach
B) social-cognitive learning
C) cognitive approach
D) learning

A) psychodynamic approach

Sallie noticed that when her alarm clock goes off in the morning her dog, Ruffles, is standing by her bed salivating. Every morning when Sallie wakes to the alarm, she immediately rolls out of bed and feeds Ruffles who very much enjoys his canned dog food. It is likely that ________________.

A) Sallie has conditioned Ruffles to salivate to the sound of her alarm clock
B) Sallie has conditioned Ruffles to salivate over canned dog food
C) Sallie has conditioned Ruffles to enjoy canned dog food
D) Sallie has conditioned Ruffles to sleep next to her bed

A) Sallie has conditioned Ruffles to salivate to the sound of her alarm clock

Which of the following is NOT an empirical question?

A) Would Martin Luther King, Jr. have been a good president?
B) Is there life on Mars?
C) Did the universe start with a big bang?
D) Will you get an A in this class?

A) Would Martin Luther King, Jr. have been a good president?

Which topic would NOT be investigated by a psychologist if the definition of psychology were limited to "the science of behavior"?

A) effectiveness of several treatments for people who suffer from depression
B) relation between grade-point average and salary
C) how changes in the rate of television violence influence real-life violence
D) thought processes students used while trying to answer this question

D) thought processes students used while trying to answer this question

A correlation is a numerical measure of the __________________.

A) strength of the relationship between two variables
B) unintended changes in participants’ behavior due to cues from the experimenter
C) behaviors of participants of different ages compared at a given time
D) behaviors of participants followed and periodically assessed over time

A) strength of the relationship between two variables

One of the reasons psychodynamic theories have persisted over the years is that they are ________________.
A) supported by significant scientific research
B) difficult to scientifically test and, thus, difficult to disprove
C) based on facts
D) used by the majority of psychologists

B. Difficult to scientifically test and, thus, difficult to disprove

Wesleyan University researchers Jamison and colleagues conducted a study to explore the negative stereotypes of collegiate athletes as "dumb jocks." In their study, the researchers found ________________.

A) collegiate student athletes performed better in the classroom if they were made aware of the impact of negative stereotypes
B) negative stereotypes in higher education may contribute to collegiate student athletes underperforming in academics
C) a correlation between collegiate athletes exposure to the negative stereotypes, the better they performed on an intelligence test
D) professors often excuse absences by collegiate student athletes who miss class due to attending practices

B) negative stereotypes in higher education may contribute to collegiate student athletes underperforming in academics

Which of the following is CORRECT concerning random assignment?

A) In random assignment each participant has an equal chance for each condition.
B) Random assignment can only be determined after an experiment is over.
C) The best formula for random assignment is birth dates.
D) In random assignment each participant is assigned alphabetically to each condition.

A) In random assignment each participant has an equal chance for each condition.

Dr. Littman-Smith is conducting research in Kenya into the ways that mothers and their toddlers interact throughout the day. Given the purpose of her study, it is most likely that she is engaged in ______________________.

A) case study research
B) laboratory observation
C) naturalistic observation
D) experimental research

C) naturalistic observation

In the 1970s, a 13-year-old girl was found locked up in a room, strapped to a potty chair. Since she had grown up in a world without human speech, researchers studied "Genie’s" ability to acquire words, grammar, and pronunciation. This type of research is called ________________________.

A) a naturalistic observation
B) a case study
C) a single-blind study
D) a representative sample

B) a case study

Dr. Braunz has been treating a child with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. She decides to write a prescription for Ritalin. Given this information, it is most likely that Dr. Braunz is a _________________.

A) school psychologist
B) psychiatrist
C) humanistic psychologist
D) psychoanalyst

B) psychiatrist

Which of the following is a common ethical guideline suggested by the American Psychological Association?
A) Participants must be allowed to make an informed decision.

B) Participants cannot be subjected to shock of any kind.
C) Participants may not withdraw once they start.
D) Participants cannot be deceived about aspects of the research.

A) Participants must be allowed to make an informed decision.

John B. Watson believed that psychology should involve the study of _________.

A) consciousness
B) the brain
C) the mind
D) behavior

D) behavior

In a laboratory, smokers are asked to "drive" using a computerized driving simulator equipped with a stick shift and a gas pedal. The object is to maximize the distance covered by driving as fast as possible on a winding road while avoiding rear-end collisions. Some of the participants smoke a real cigarette immediately before climbing into the driver’s seat. Others smoke a fake cigarette without nicotine. You are interested in comparing how many collisions the two groups have. In this study, the dependent variable is ____________________.

A) the number of collisions
B) the driving skills of each driver
C) the use of nicotine
D) the use of a driving simulator

A) the number of collisions

"There is no life outside this solar system and nothing you can say will change that fact!" Which criterion of critical thinking does this person lack?

A) All evidence is not equal in quality.
B) Evidence is only necessary if it can be tested.
C) Authority or expertise does not make the claims of the authority or expert true.
D) Critical thinking requires an open mind.

D) Critical thinking requires an open mind.

Sam conducted a naturalistic observation as a project for a psychology class. He observed the interactions of parents and children at a restaurant. Many of the people he observed seemed to notice him. When Sam described his work to his teacher, she suggested he find out more about the _________________.

A) butterfly effect
B) restaurant effect
C) observer effect
D) parent effect

C) observer effect

You attend a lecture by a psychologist who uses terms such as free will, human nature, and self-actualization. Which psychological perspective is most consistent with the points the psychologist presented?

A) behaviorism
B) psychodynamics
C) humanism
D) functionalism

C) humanism

Description is to assessment as _________ is to prognosis.

A) control
B) indication
C) prediction
D) explanation

C. Prediction

Sandy Sue was participating in an experiment in which she was given a pill that was supposed to cause her to get drowsy. Five minutes after taking the pill, Sandy Sue reported that she felt drowsy and wanted to lie down. The pill was actually made of sugar and had no ingredients to cause drowsiness. How do you explain Sandy Sue’s drowsy feeling?

A) placebo effect
B) treatment effect
C) subject bias
D) experimenter effect

A) placebo effect

The administration of Midwest State University wants to know if arrangement of chairs affects student participation in classrooms. What would be a good operational definition of the dependent variable in an experiment designed to measure this relationship?

A) frequency with which students ask questions
B) number of students enrolled in each class
C) class size: under 50 or over 50
D) chair arrangement: theater style or circular

A. Frequency with which students ask questions

Critical thinking means making judgments based on ________________.

A) keeping a closed mind
B) authority and expertise
C) reason and logical evaluation
D) emotion

C) reason and logical evaluation

Which perspective assumes that human behavior may have developed in certain directions because it served a useful function in preserving the species?

A) behaviorism
B) psychoanalysis
C) evolutionary psychology
D) cognitive psychology

A. Behaviorism

A correlation coefficient is represented by the symbol _____________.

A) small letter "c"
B) small letter "r"
C) large letter "C"
D) large letter "R"

B. Small letter "r"

Freud stressed the importance of _________________.

A) adolescence
B) early childhood experiences
C) early adulthood
D) middle adulthood

B. Early childhood experiences

Which of the following statements is correct concerning correlation coefficients?

A) A correlation of +.89 is strong and -.89 is weak.
B) A correlation of +.89 and -.89 are both strong and equally so.
C) A correlation of +1.5 is very strong
D) Correlation coefficients are indicators of cause and effect.

B. A correlation of +.89 is strong and -.89 are both strong and equally so

A correlation coefficient shows that alcohol consumption and driving accidents are indeed related. As a result, a researcher could predict _____________ if the direction of the relationship is known.

A) the number of arrests a person has will go up or down based on the type of car an individual drives
B) the number of arrests will increase the fewer drinks an individual consumes
C) the number of driving accidents a person has will go up or down based on the number of alcoholic drinks consumed
D) the number of driving accidents a person has will contribute to the number of days spent in jail

C. The number of driving accidents a person has will go up or down based on the number of alcoholic drinks consumed

In the statement "Critical thinking requires reasoned judgments," the word reasoned means __________________.

A) giving it a lot of thought
B) seeing one side of an argument very clearly
C) logical and well thought out
D) focusing on opinion

C. Logical and well thought out

Kerri wanted to study the effects of having the oldest child in a family go off to college. She decided to use her own family after her brother went off to a college in France. She took notes each day on her parents’ behavior and kept a diary of her own reactions. Kerri was using the technique called ____________________.

A) attribution effect
B) participant observation
C) family survey
D) observer bias

B. Participant observation

Which of these is the most accurate definition of the discipline of psychology?

A) the scientific study of behavior and mental processes
B) the scientific study of human behavior and mental processes
C) the scientific study of mental processes
D) the scientific study of behavior

A. The scientific study of behavior and mental processes

A case study would be the most appropriate method to investigate which of these topics?

A) the math skills of students in Japan as compared to those of U.S. students
B) the development of a male baby raised as a female after a surgical error destroyed his penis
C) the ways in which the games of boys differ from the games of girls
D) physiological changes that occur when people watch violent movies

B. The development of a male baby raised as a female after a surgical error destroyed his penis

The goals of psychology are to _____.

A) improve psychological well-being in all individuals from birth until death
B) explore the conscious and unconscious functions of the human mind
C) describe, understand, predict, and control behavior
D) understand, compare, and analyze human behavior

C. Describe, understand, predict, and control behavior.

Why was the perspective followed by Wilhelm Wundt and his followers called structuralism?

A) They focused their efforts on analyzing the elements of the nervous system.
B) Their primary focus was on describing the structure of conscious experience.
C) They wanted to identify the major brain structures.
D) Their primary goal was to understand the physiology of the mind.

B. Their primary focus was on describing the structure of the conscious experience

A perfect correlation, whether positive or negative, is _____________ in the real world.

A) imperfect
B) common
C) expected
D) rare

D. Rare

Which founding contributors to psychology helped develop behaviorism?

A) Gestalt and Wundt
B) Freud and Watson
C) Watson and Pavlov
D) Pavlov and Wundt

C. Watson and Pavlov

Experimenters can justify the use of deception because ___________.

A) it is not that harmful
B) research is more important than people
C) there is informed consent
D) it may be necessary for the experiment to work

D. It may be necessary for the experiment to work

Roger went to McDonald’s to observe people eating in fast-food restaurants. He brought a camera crew and bright lights, and they all wore yellow jump suits. Roger said he wanted to do a naturalistic observation but may have had some problems because of ________________.

A) observer effects
B) eating McDonald’s food
C) participant observation
D) room crowding

A. Observer effects

All of the following variables, except for ____________ show a negative correlation.

A) height and weight
B) alcohol consumption and scores on a driving test
C) men’s educational level and their income
D) school grades and IQ scores

B. Alcohol consumption and scores on a driving test

All of the following variables, except for _________________ show a negative correlation.

A) the value of a car and the age of a car
B) adult shoe size and IQ scores
C) average income and the incidence of dental disease
D) hours spent watching TV and grade-point average

B. Adult shoe size and IQ scores

What is one of the major reasons that psychologists use operational definitions?

A) to comply with legal requirements
B) so that effects can be measured
C) to identify all the extraneous variables
D) to explain research results so that nonpsychologists can understand

B. So that effects can be measured

All of the following are accurate statements regarding random assignment EXCEPT ___________

A) it is a procedure that allows individual characteristics to be roughly balanced between groups
B) it is a procedure in which subjects are assigned to a positive correlation or a negative correlation condition
C) it is a procedure in which each subject has the same possibility of being assigned to a given group
D) it is a procedure for assigning people to experimental and control groups

B. It is a procedure in which subjects are assigned to a positive correlation or negative correlation condition

The steps or procedures an experimenter must use to control or measure the variables in a study is called the ________________.

A) operational definition
B) hypothesis
C) theory
D) double-blind study

A. Operational definition

Who claimed that behavior is affected by reinforcement?

A) Sigmund Freud
B) Wilhelm Wundt
C) B. F. Skinner
D) William James

C) B. F. Skinner

The tendency to look for information that supports one’s own belief is called _____.

A) confirmation bias
B) volunteer bias
C) the principle of falsifiability
D) criterion validity

A. Confirmation bias

In 1879, in Leipzig, Germany, the first psychological laboratory was developed by ______________.

A) Sigmund Freud
B) William James
C) Wilhelm Wundt
D) William Tell

Wilhelm Wundt

Who was an early proponent of functionalism?

A) Wilhelm Wundt
B) Max Wertheimer
C) Ivan Pavlov
D) William James

William James

Two groups of graduate students were given rats and were told to teach them how to run mazes. Group 1 was told that they had "very smart" rats that should learn quickly. Group 2 was told that they had "very stupid" rats that should learn slowly. In actuality, neither group was any different and the rats were randomly assigned. In spite of that, when the experiment concluded, Group 1 rats had learned the maze much more quickly. How can that be explained?

A) subject bias
B) experimenter effect
C) placebo effect
D) treatment effect

B. Experimenter effect

A detailed description of a particular individual being studied or treated is called ______________________.

A) a case study
B) a naturalistic observation
C) a representative sample
D) a single-blind study

A) A case study

Several years ago two scientists announced that they had evidence of "cold fusion" in the laboratory, but further studies failed to replicate their findings and it was later found that the original scientists had used sloppy methods. This highlights which of the following critical thinking principles?

A) All evidence is not equal in quality.
B) Few "truths" do not need to be tested.
C) Critical thinking requires an open mind.
D) Authority or expertise does not make the claims of the authority or expert true.

A. All evidence is not equal in equality

You overhear psychology students preparing for a test. They note that one of the research methods often "fails to generalize." Which method is the MOST likely topic of their discussion?

A) correlation
B) case study
C) experiment
D) surveys

B. Case study

A psychologist is interested in finding out why identical twins have different personalities. This psychologist is most interested in the goal of ______________.

A) control
B) prediction
C) description
D) explaining

D. Explanation

Which of the following situations best illustrates the placebo effect?

A) You have surgery to repair a defective heart valve.
B) You sleep because you are tired.
C) You drink a nonalcoholic drink and become "intoxicated" because you think it contains alcohol.
D) You throw up after eating bad meat.

C. You drink a nonalcoholic drink and become "intoxicated" because you think it contains alcohol

A(n)_______________ is a measure of how strongly two variables are related to one another.

A) experimental effect
B) dependent variable
C) correlation
D) independent variable

C. Correlation

Julie finds that the number of hours she sleeps each night is related to the scores she receives on quizzes the next day. As her sleep approaches 8 hours, her quiz scores improve; as her sleep drops to 5 hours, her quiz scores show a similar decline. Julie realizes that ______________________.

A) her low quiz scores are caused by sleep deprivation the night before a quiz
B) there is a negative correlation between the number of hours she sleeps and her quiz grades
C) she should sleep about 10 hours a night to ensure 100 percent quiz grades
D) there is a positive correlation between the number of hours she sleeps and her quiz grades

D. There is a positive correlation between the number of hours she sleeps and her quiz grades.

Ken is planning on studying the influence of intelligence on the ability to recall events from the 1960s. If Ken does not account for variables such as age that could also influence one’s ability to recall these events, age could be considered a(n) __________________.

A) independent variable
B) confounding variable
C) dependent variable
D) random variable

B. Confounding variable

The placebo effect means _______________________.

A) the expectations of the participants influence their behavior
B) all conditions in an experiment are the same
C) experimenter bias causes the subjects to act strangely
D) that there is no control group

A. The expectations of the participants influence their behavior

After reading about the possible causes of schizophrenia, a scientist thinks that a virus is the most likely cause. What term most accurately describes the scientist’s idea?

A) extraneous variable
B) experimental estimate
C) dependent variable
D) hypothesis

D. A hypothesis

Sandi is a single mother living in a project in a poor section of the city. She has addiction issues and just lost custody of her three children. What type of psychologist is most likely to get involved in Sandi’s situation?

A) psychiatric social worker
B) psychiatrist
C) counselor
D) educational psychologist

A. Psychiatric social worker

A negative correlation means that ______________________.
A) there is no relationship between the two variables
B) high values of one variable are associated with low values of the other
C) high values of one variable are associated with high values of the other
D) low values of one variable are associated with low values of the other

B. High values of one variable are associated with low values of another

The early perspective called Gestalt psychology has evolved into the current perspective called _______________.

A) psychoanalysis
B) social psychology
C) behavioral psychology
D) cognitive psychology

D. Cognitive psychology

Adaris has always been drawn to the saying "Absence makes the heart grow fonder," and she decides to incorporate this saying into her research project. Adaris is trying to define absence in a way that can be empirically tested. She is attempting to find an appropriate __________________.

A) theory
B) operational definition
C) double-blind study
D) hypothesis

B. Operational definition

In preparation for his master’s thesis, Tan spends some time in the local mall observing the behavior of shoppers. His notes reveal a tendency for people to smile when someone, even a stranger, smiles at them. Later in the semester, he designs a questionnaire that asks questions of participants concerning their typical reactions when someone smiles. He wonders if the face of a person who smiles has any influence on returned smiles, so he designs a study to answer this question. Which of the following lists in order, from first to last, the research methods Tan has used?

A) case study, survey, experiment
B) naturalistic observation, survey, experiment
C) experiment, case study, survey
D) correlation, case study, experiment

B. Naturalistic observation, survey, experiment

According to the present research on psychologists, the three most popular work settings are ________________, ________________, and ________________.

A) self-employed; state and local government; non-profit
B) universities and four year colleges; non-profit; federal government
C) universities and four year colleges; self-employed; private for-profit
D) state and local government; federal government; self-employed

C. Universities and four year colleges; self-employed; private for-profit

Which of the following statements is correct concerning critical thinking and astrology?

A) Although there are many skeptics, astrology has strong evidence suggesting it is a valid science.
B) Research shows no connection between astrological signs and personality.
C) Astrology is based on stars and, therefore, it is scientific.
D) Astrology is used by a lot of people.

In the early part of the past century, psychologists who broke down thought processes into their basic elements and analyzed them were called structuralists. What term might we use to describe psychologists with similar interests today?

A) cognitive
B) behavioral
C) humanistic
D) Gestalt

B. Cognitive

Professor Holden gives a psychology exam on the origins of intelligence. She gives a short answer question based on the IQ scores of a parent-child pair. In order to answer the question correctly, her students need to remember that ________________.

A) given these variables, the correlation will be positive
B) given these variables, the correlation will be uncorrelated
C) given these variables, the correlation will be negative
D) a parent’s high IQ does not necessarily cause a child to have a high IQ

D. A parent’s high IQ does not necessarily cause a child to have a high IQ

According to __________, nervous disorders arose in patients as a result of their repressed unconscious urges trying to surface.

A) Sigmund Freud
B) B. F. Skinner
C) Ivan Pavlov
D) John Watson

A. Sigmund Freud

Which of the following statements about research with animals is incorrect?

A) Animal researchers do not use anesthesia in surgery, causing some concern about pain.
B) Animals are only used in about 7 percent of psychological research.
C) Scientists who oppose animal rights activists argue that the goals of scientific research justify some animal suffering, although they agree it should be minimized.
D) Animals are no longer allowed to be used in research in which it would be clearly unethical to use humans.

While on a visit to a large city, you observe several billboards in which a series of lights seems to move. Which perspective in psychology would most likely help you understand this phenomenon?

A) Gestalt
B) humanistic
C) psychodynamic
D) behavioral

A. Gestalt

The word correlation is often used as a synonym for _____________.

A) validity
B) relationship
C) reliability
D) variable

B. Relationship

If you are interested in how patterns, beliefs, and customs influence behavior, you are interested in the __________ perspective.

A) behavioral
B) psychodynamic
C) sociocultural
D) cognitive

C. Sociocultural

A teacher tells the school psychologist that Kate is late to class, does not turn in her homework, squirms around a lot in her seat, and swings her feet constantly. This is an example of which goal of psychology?

A) predicting behavior
B) explaining behavior
C) controlling behavior
D) describing behavior

D. Describing behavior

The Russian physiologist Ivan Pavlov discovered that ________________.

A) dogs would salivate to the sounds of a bell due to reflexology
B) dogs would salivate to the sound of a bell due to habituation
C) dogs would salivate to the sound of a bell due to a learned reflexive response called conditioning
D) dogs would salivate to the sounds of a bell due to their fear response

C. Dogs would salivate to the sound of a bell due to a learned reflexive response called conditioning

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