PSY1010CH7LearningSummativeQuiz

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the children think is similar to them.

A guest will be spending time in a teacher’s classroom. To make sure the students imitate this person’s prosocial behaviors, the teacher should pick a guest who: the children think is different from them. the children think is similar to them. the children think is kind of average but works hard. the children think is boring.

the conditioned response (CR).

Youri had leukemia as a child and had to undergo numerous bouts of chemotherapy. The chemotherapy always made him nauseous. As he underwent a year of treatment, the waiting room began to make him nauseous. The nausea from the chemotherapy is: the conditioned response (CR). the unconditioned stimulus (US). the neutral stimulus (NS). the unconditioned response (UR).

Negative reinforcement

_____ involves any stimulus that, when removed after a response, strengthens the response. Neutral reinforcement Moderate reinforcement Negative reinforcement Positive reinforcement

Monkeys who were reared apart from their mothers and exposed to high levels of aggression showed greater aggression as adults.

Which statement is evidence for the environmental (as opposed to genetic) transmission of aggression? Monkeys who were reared apart from their mothers and exposed to high levels of aggression showed greater aggression as adults. Monkeys who were reared with their mothers and exposed to high levels of aggression showed greater aggression as adults. Monkey siblings that were reared apart from their mothers showed greater aggression as adults. Monkey siblings that were reared with their mothers showed greater aggression as adults

conditioned reinforcer; primary reinforcer

A word of praise is to a delicious meal as _____ is to _____. delayed reinforcer; immediate reinforcer operant conditioning; classical conditioning partial reinforcement; continuous reinforcement conditioned reinforcer; primary reinforcer

9

It is not unreasonable to predict that when today’s U.S. teenagers are in their mid-70s, they will have watched television for the equivalent of about _____ years. 3 6 9 12

two stimuli.

Most learning involves the process of association. With classical conditioning, an organism comes to associate: something observed and its consequences. a neutral stimulus and a reward. two stimuli. a response and its consequences.

fixed-ratio

Airline frequent flyer programs that reward customers with a free flight after every 25,000 miles of travel illustrate the use of a _____ schedule of reinforcement. fixed-interval variable-interval fixed-ratio variable-ratio

generalization.

Marlee was raped at gunpoint in a parking garage. Her attacker was wearing strong cologne, and she refuses to go through the male fragrance department at the department store, will not be alone by herself or with any man, and will not park in any garages. This reaction BEST illustrates: discrimination. generalization. operant conditioning. an unconditioned response (UR).

the conditioned response (CR)

Kennedy had leukemia as a child and had to undergo numerous bouts of chemotherapy. The chemotherapy always made her nauseous. As she underwent a year of treatment, the waiting room started to make her nauseous. The nausea from the waiting room is: the conditioned response (CR). the conditioned stimulus (CS). the neutral stimulus (NS). the unconditioned response (UR).

cognitive processes

Children who are promised a payoff for playing with an interesting toy have later been observed to play with the toy less than those who are not promised the reward. These findings provide support for the role of _____ in operant behavior. spontaneous recovery primary reinforcers cognitive processes negative reinforcers

Rats appear to experience latent learning while exploring mazes.

Although B. F. Skinner and other behaviorists did not think that it was necessary to refer to thoughts or expectations when explaining human learning, findings from experiments with rats suggest otherwise. Which finding suggests that cognitive processes are involved in operant learning? Rats do NOT seem to develop a cognitive map of mazes. Rats appear to experience latent learning while exploring mazes. Children learn from observing their parents and exhibit the learning immediately. Learning is merely the association of a response with a consequence.

fixed-ratio

George received a great money-saving credit card offer in the mail complete with a rewards program. He reads on to find that the one dollar for every mile spent may not be such a great offer after all because he only receives a $500 airline ticket after he acquires 25,000 miles or spends $25,000. This is a _____ schedule.* fixed-interval variable-interval fixed-ratio variable-ratio

14

Infants by age _____ months will imitate acts modeled on television. 16 14 12 10

She would act rudely but talk about how important it is to be polite.

Nicole’s parents are often She would act rudely but talk about how important it is to be polite in terms of their behaviors and what they say. For example, they often tell Nicole how important it is to be polite, but are not very polite themselves when it comes to letting other people off airplanes or giving up seats in public buses. How would one expect this contradiction to impact Nicole’s behavior? She would act politely and talk about the importance of being polite. She would act rudely and talk about how being polite is not important. She would act rudely but talk about how important it is to be polite. She would not be influenced by her parents’ words or behaviors.

classical conditioning

If people have a frightening experience immediately after hearing a strange sound, their fear may occur when they hear that sound again. This BEST illustrates: the law of effect. classical conditioning. spontaneous recovery. generalization.

Tina should do all of these to foster musical enjoyment in her children.

Tina’s goal is to raise children who enjoy playing musical instruments. Given what is known about observational learning, which action would one recommend to her? Tina should play her own musical instrument. Tina should send her children to music camp. Tina should encourage her children to go to concerts. Tina should do all of these to foster musical enjoyment in her children.

spontaneous recovery

This is the reappearance, after a pause, of an extinguished conditioned response. spontaneous recovery acquisition generalization negative conditioning

homicide

In the United States and Canada, _____ rates doubled between 1957 and 1974, coinciding with the introduction and spread of television. homicide literacy graduation pregnancy

modeling

Jonny is "hammering" the nail in with his toy hammer as his father is hammering the deck boards. His behavior is an example of: modeling. classical learning. observational conditioning. reinforced learning.

Operant; respondent

_____ behavior operates on the environment, whereas, _____ behavior occurs as an automatic response to some stimulus. Operant; respondent Uncontrollable; controllable Involuntary; voluntary Respondent; operant

negative reinforcement

Michael is busy with his work project that he brought home. His son wants him to put a movie in the DVD player. Michael tells him to wait for 10 minutes; however, his son whines and complains so much that Michael decides to put the movie in right now. This BEST illustrates the value of: erratic behavior. positive reinforcement. secondary reinforcement. negative reinforcement.

mirror neuron

If a child is watching a favorite sibling getting scolded for misbehavior, which type of neuron is likely to be activated in an empathetic response to this observation? mirror neuron motor neuron sensory neuron interneuron

unconditioned response (UR)

In classical conditioning, this is the unlearned, naturally occurring response to the unconditioned stimulus (US), such as salivation when food is in the mouth. conditioned response (CR) unconditioned response (UR) neutral stimulus (NS) conditioned stimulus (CS)

cognitive

The predictability of an association between a conditioned stimulus (CS) and an unconditioned stimulus (US) facilitates an organism’s ability to expect or anticipate the occurrence of the US. This fact is MOST likely to be highlighted by a _____ perspective. Pavlovian behaviorist cognitive neuroscientific

He realizes his nausea is caused by the drug, not simply the cigarette.

Henry, a heavy smoker, is interested in quitting. Given what is known about the cognitive processes involved in classical conditioning, what is the most likely reason he still has trouble quitting after he is treated with a drug that induces nausea when he smokes a cigarette? He realizes his nausea is caused by the drug, not simply the cigarette. The nausea does NOT immediately follow his inhalation of the smoke. Reinforcement does not work as well as punishment. He is afraid of the side effects of the drug.

mirror neurons.

An empathic husband who observes his wife in pain will exhibit some of the same brain activity she is showing. This BEST illustrates the functioning of: cognitive maps. spontaneous recovery. mirror neurons. the law of effect.

spontaneous recovery

Long after her conditioned fear of dogs had been extinguished, Marcy experienced an unexpected surge of nervousness when she first met her cousin’s new cocker spaniel. Her unexpected nervousness BEST illustrates: latent learning. spontaneous recovery. delayed reinforcement. shaping.

negative punishment

Nannette’s daughter refused to brush her teeth and threw her toys across the room. Nannette gave her daughter a 20-minute time-out. This is an example of: positive punishment. negative reinforcer. conditioned reinforcer. negative punishment.

generalization.

A year after surviving a classroom shooting, Angie still responds with terror at the sight of toy guns and the sound of balloons popping. This reaction BEST illustrates: latent learning. generalization. operant conditioning. an unconditioned response (UR).

variable-ratio

For professional baseball players, swinging at a pitched ball is reinforced with a home run on a _____ schedule. fixed-interval variable-interval fixed-ratio variable-ratio

operant conditioning

At work, there is a vending machine that gives extra candy bars when a worker selects either the "A" or "B" choices. This worker continues to frequent this machine regularly. This BEST illustrates: spontaneous recovery. respondent behavior. latent learning. operant conditioning.

B. F. Skinner’s experiments on reinforcement.

The law of effect is MOST clearly highlighted by: Ivan Pavlov’s studies of conditioned salivation. John Garcia and Robert Koelling’s research on taste aversion. B. F. Skinner’s experiments on reinforcement. John B. Watson and Rosalie Rayner’s findings on fear conditioning.

Neglectful parenting could be the cause of increased aggression and increased television watching.

Correlational evidence suggests that there is a link between viewing television violence and exhibiting violent behavior. However, it is possible that the television viewing is not causing the violence. Which alternative hypothesis might explain the correlations? To learn to be more aggressive with their peers, passive children often would rather watch violent shows than nonviolent shows. Neglectful parenting could be the cause of increased aggression and increased television watching. Society has become more passive as television programs have become more aggressive. There is no way to measure the effect of television violence on aggression.

positive reinforcement

Jenni has been working nights and weekends to get a project completed for her job. She is successful, and a couple of weeks later she comes into work and her boss presents her with a bonus check. This BEST illustrates the value of: erratic behavior. positive reinforcement. secondary reinforcement. negative reinforcement

repeatedly pairing a loud noise with the presentation of a white rat.

In 1920, John B. Watson and Rosalie Rayner taught "Little Albert" to fear white rats by: repeatedly pairing a loud noise with the presentation of a white rat. showing Albert a white rat and then punishing him when he touched it. negatively reinforcing Albert when he approached a rat. showing Albert movies of children being bitten by rats.

conditioned response (CR)

Susie repeatedly hears a tone just before having a puff of air directed into her eye. Blinking in response to a tone presented without a puff of air is a(n): unconditioned response (UR). unconditioned stimulus (US). conditioned response (CR). conditioned stimulus (CS).

Parents should express their anger by yelling at the girl.

According to operant conditioning principles, which action would NOT be recommended when dealing with a young girl who is resistant to going to school every morning? When the girl cooperates by getting into the car in the morning, her parents should reward her. Parents should ignore complaints or whining about school. Parents should express their anger by yelling at the girl. If the girl refuses to get in the car, parents should explain why this is a problem and use time-outs.

increase; decrease

One main difference between punishment and reinforcement is that the goal of reinforcement is to _____ a behavior, while the goal of punishment is to _____ a behavior. shape; change discourage; encourage decrease; increase increase; decrease

frontal lobe; observational learning

Mirror neurons are found in the brain’s _____ and are believed to be the neural basis for _____. frontal lobe; observational learning frontal lobe; classical conditioning temporal lobe; operant conditioning temporal lobe; observational learning

Edward L. Thorndike

The law of effect states that rewarded behavior is likely to recur; it was first enunciated by this psychologist. Ivan Pavlov Rosalie Rayner B. F. Skinner Edward L. Thorndike

his methods demonstrated the importance of subjective judgments

Which of these is NOT one of Ivan Pavlov’s major contributions to the field of psychology? his methods demonstrated the importance of subjective judgments principles of learning apply across species significant psychological phenomena can be studied objectively the discipline of psychology could be based on objective laboratory methods

Albert Bandura

A 5-year-old girl observes a stranger in a store pretending to discipline a stuffed dog. When the stranger moves on to the next aisle, the girl picks up another stuffed animal and does the same thing. Her behavior is similar to findings in studies conducted by: Albert Bandura. Leta Hollingworth. Rosalie Rayner. Edward Thorndike.

the men expressed less sympathy for the rape victims.

Researchers are conducting a research study with 24 men on the relationship between movies and sexual violence. They will have the men watch three violent films over the next two days and then assess their attitudes toward women and violent sexual acts by reading actual cases of rape victims. The researchers find that: the men expressed more sympathy for the rape victims. the men expressed less sympathy for the rape victims. the men became more empathic toward the rape victims. the men became bothered by the violent acts according to physiological readings, but they did not express this verbally.

Spanking increases the frequency of the behavior.

Irene is having trouble convincing her husband that spanking is not necessarily the best way to control their child’s behavior. Which argument should she NOT use to support her position? Spanked, children do not forget the punished behavior but simply suppress it, and are not taught what behavior to exhibit in its place. Spanking provides a model of aggressive behavior as a tool for problem solving. Spanking can create fear in children. Spanking increases the frequency of the behavior.

fixed-interval

Continuously checking to see if the cookies are ready is an example of the _____ schedule of reinforcement. fixed-interval variable-interval fixed-ratio variable-ratio

who use consistent actions and words

In observational learning, the most effective models are those: who are perceived as different from the observer. who are respected only a little by the general population. who use consistent actions and words. who use inconsistent actions and words.

unconditioned stimulus (US); conditioned stimulus (CS)

Conditioning seldom occurs when a(n) _____ repeatedly comes before a(n) _____. negative reinforcer; operant behavior secondary reinforcer; operant behavior stimulus-response pair; conditioned stimulus (CS) unconditioned stimulus (US); conditioned stimulus (CS)

Rats appear to experience latent learning while exploring mazes

Although B. F. Skinner and other behaviorists did not think that it was necessary to refer to thoughts or expectations when explaining human learning, findings from experiments with rats suggest otherwise. Which finding suggests that cognitive processes are involved in operant learning? Rats do NOT seem to develop a cognitive map of mazes. Rats appear to experience latent learning while exploring mazes. Children learn from observing their parents and exhibit the learning immediately. Learning is merely the association of a response with a consequence.

involuntary responses to stimuli

Classical and operant conditioning are similar in many ways. Which process does NOT apply to both types of learning? involuntary responses to stimuli extinction associative learning discrimination

spontaneous recovery

Khalid had leukemia as a child and had to undergo numerous bouts of chemotherapy. He had associated the waiting room with nausea. Now 35 years old, he had to take his mother to the same hospital for breast cancer treatment, and he became nauseous while in the waiting room with her mother. His nausea BEST illustrates: spontaneous recovery. delayed reinforcement. shaping. latent learning.

spontaneous recovery

Long after her conditioned fear of dogs had been extinguished, Marcy experienced an unexpected surge of nervousness when she first met her cousin’s new cocker spaniel. Her unexpected nervousness BEST illustrates: latent learning. spontaneous recovery. delayed reinforcement. shaping.

two stimuli

Most learning involves the process of association. With classical conditioning, an organism comes to associate: something observed and its consequences. a neutral stimulus and a reward. two stimuli. a response and its consequences.

desensitizes

Studies have shown that exposure to violence also _____ viewers when later viewing other violent acts on television. sensitizes desensitizes confuses saddens

rats are more likely to develop aversions to taste than they are to sights or sounds.

Findings from John Garcia’s research on taste aversion in rats indicate that: the unconditioned stimulus (US) MUST immediately follow the conditioned stimulus (CS). organisms do NOT have biological predispositions when learning associations. rats are more likely to develop aversions to taste than they are to sights or sounds. rats are more likely to develop aversions to sights or sounds than they are to taste.

observational; Albert Bandura

Learning by imitating the behavior of others is called _____ learning. The researcher BEST known for studying this type of learning is _____. secondary; B. F. Skinner observational; Albert Bandura secondary; Ivan Pavlov observational; Rosalie Rayner

involuntary responses to stimuli

Classical and operant conditioning are similar in many ways. Which process does NOT apply to both types of learning? involuntary responses to stimuli extinction associative learning discrimination

increase; decrease

One main difference between punishment and reinforcement is that the goal of reinforcement is to _____ a behavior, while the goal of punishment is to _____ a behavior. shape; change discourage; encourage decrease; increase increase; decrease

conditioned stimulus (CS)

Ivan Pavlov noticed that dogs began salivating at the mere sight of the person who regularly brought food to them. For the dogs, the sight of this person had become a(n): conditioned stimulus (CS). immediate reinforcer. unconditioned stimulus (US). primary reinforcer.

guide an organism to exhibit a complex behavior using successive approximations.

Shaping was a method used by B. F. Skinner in order to: decrease an undesirable behavior. guide an organism to exhibit a complex behavior using successive approximations. explain how classical conditioning works. condition taste aversions in rats.

conditioned response (CR)

Susie repeatedly hears a tone just before having a puff of air directed into her eye. Blinking in response to a tone presented without a puff of air is a(n): unconditioned response (UR). unconditioned stimulus (US). conditioned response (CR). conditioned stimulus (CS).

mirror neurons

An empathic husband who observes his wife in pain will exhibit some of the same brain activity she is showing. This BEST illustrates the functioning of: cognitive maps. spontaneous recovery. mirror neurons. the law of effect.

Randomly assign some children to play violent video games and some children to play educational games and then measure aggressive behaviors

To determine if watching television violence and playing violent video games CAUSE children to act more aggressively, which research study would you conduct? Examine the association between the number of violent video games in the home and aggressive acts in the household. Randomly assign some children to play violent video games and some children to play educational games and then measure aggressive behaviors. Examine the correlation between the number of hours watching violence on television and aggressive acts in school. Record the number of times a child hits his/her siblings and the number of hours the child is engaged in playing violent video games.

repeated pairing of lemonade with the immune enhancing drug

Researchers have found that classical conditioning can be used to produce an immune response in patients. Of the following pairings, which would be the MOST likely to produce this response? repeated pairing of lemonade with the immune enhancing drug repeated pairing of minor electric shock followed by immune enhancing drug repeated pairing of immune enhancing drug followed by a tone repeated pairing of immune enhancing drug followed by a puff of air into the eye

observation

When a 4-year-old girl suddenly picks up her ironing board and plays it like it is an electric guitar, it is likely that she has seen someone playing a real electric guitar in the same manner. Thus she has learned via: observation. classical conditioning. operant conditioning. neural networks.

he relied too heavily on animals to explain general learning principles

Critics of B. F. Skinner were concerned that: his research methods were flawed. he relied too heavily on animals to explain general learning principles. he dehumanized people because he ignored the existence of personal freedom and dignity. he ignored the influence of stimulus-response associations.

Albert Bandura

Which pioneering learning researcher highlighted the antisocial effects of aggressive models on children’s behavior? John Watson Albert Bandura Mamie Phipps Clark B. F. Skinner

observational learning

Tina is a 7-year-old girl who frequently witnesses her father’s anger and physical abuse of her mother. In Tina’s room, she is playing with her toys and begins to yell at them and hit them for "being so stupid and not having dinner ready." Her behavior is a clear example of: observational learning. classical learning. observational conditioning. reinforced learning.

Generalization; discrimination

_____ is the tendency to respond to stimuli that are similar to the conditioned stimulus (CS). Whereas, _____ is the ability to differentiate between the CS and other stimuli that have NOT been associated with the unconditioned stimulus (US). Spontaneous recovery; acquisition Acquisition; extinction Generalization; discrimination Operant conditioning; negative conditioning

variable-ratio

For professional baseball players, swinging at a pitched ball is reinforced with a home run on a _____ schedule. fixed-interval variable-interval fixed-ratio variable-ratio

discrimination

Walter was bitten by a dog when he was 5 years old. To this day, he will not pet dogs; however, he will pet cats. This reaction BEST illustrates: discrimination. generalization. operant conditioning. an unconditioned response (UR).

variable-interval

Pop quizzes and random checks of quality help to produce slow, steady responding and are examples of the _____ schedule of reinforcement. fixed-interval variable-interval fixed-ratio variable-ratio

laws of learning are the same for all animals.

John B. Watson and Ivan Pavlov agreed that: the study of consciousness should be a goal of psychology. laws of learning are the same for all animals. laws of learning are NOT the same for all animals. psychologists should study "mentalistic concepts."

who use consistent actions and words.

In observational learning, the most effective models are those: who are perceived as different from the observer. who are respected only a little by the general population. who use consistent actions and words. who use inconsistent actions and words.

operant conditioning

If children get attention for doing cartwheels, they will repeat the trick if they find this attention to be enjoyable. This BEST illustrates: spontaneous recovery respondent behavior operant conditioning latent learning

unconditioned stimulus (US)

Researchers conditioned a flatworm to contract when exposed to light by repeatedly pairing the light with electric shock. The electric shock is a(n): unconditioned stimulus (US). conditioned reinforcer (CR). conditioned stimulus (CS). negative reinforcer.

The restaurant became an unconditioned stimulus (US) for nausea.

Three hours after eating at an airport fast-food restaurant, Karen got extremely nauseous while in flight. The next time she was in the airport and walked by that restaurant, she felt a wave of nausea. Which statement does NOT explain this? The restaurant became an unconditioned stimulus (US) for nausea. The nausea became associated with the restaurant. The restaurant became a conditioned stimulus (CS) for nausea. Humans are biologically prepared to learn which foods make them sick.

after a few hours without the conditioned stimulus or the unconditioned stimulus, the tone was presented again.

In his experiments, Ivan Pavlov found that spontaneous recovery often occurred after a conditioned response was extinguished if: after a few hours without the conditioned stimulus or the unconditioned stimulus, the tone was presented again. the neutral stimulus was presented before the conditioned response. the tone was sounded again and again while presenting food to the dogs. the tone was sounded again and again without presenting food to the dogs.

models who commit violent acts but go unpunished

Which factor would be important in the acquisition of aggressive behaviors through observational learning? models perceived as somehow different from the observer models who are not respected by the observer models who commit violent acts but go unpunished the socioeconomic status of the observer

unconditioned response (UR)

Blinking in response to a puff of air directed into one’s eye is a(n): conditioned stimulus (CS). conditioned response (CR). unconditioned stimulus (US). unconditioned response (UR).

variable-ratio

Jack finds it extremely difficult to pull himself away from the blackjack table. He keeps thinking he will break even because the next hand will be his winning one. This is a _____ schedule. fixed-interval variable-interval fixed-ratio variable-ratio

conditioned stimulus (CS)

In classical conditioning, this is an originally irrelevant stimulus that, after association with an unconditioned stimulus, comes to trigger a conditioned response. conditioned response (CR) unconditioned response (UR) unconditioned stimulus (US) conditioned stimulus (CS)

observational learning

One chimpanzee watches a second chimpanzee solve a puzzle for a food reward. The first chimp then imitates how the second chimp solved the puzzle. This BEST illustrates: operant conditioning. observational learning. respondent behavior. spontaneous recovery.

food

Secondary reinforcers are powerful tools for shaping behavior because they have become associated with primary reinforcers. Which is NOT a secondary reinforcer? money grades praise food

Fixed Ratio

Every so many: reinforcement after every nth behavior, such as buy 10 coffees, get 1 free, or pay per product unit produced. What kind of schedule of reinforcement? Fixed Ratio Variable Ratio Fixed Interval Variable Interval

Variable Ratio

Reinforcement after a random number of behaviors, as when playing slot machines or fly casting. What kind of schedule of reinforcement? Fixed Ratio Variable Ratio Fixed Interval Variable Interval

Fixed Interval

Every so often: reinforcement for behavior after a fixed time, such as Tuesday discount prices. What kind of schedule of reinforcement? Fixed Ratio Variable Ratio Fixed Interval Variable Interval

Variable Interval

Reinforcement for behavior after a random amount of time, as in checking for a Facebook response. What kind of schedule of reinforcement? Fixed Ratio Variable Ratio Fixed Interval Variable Interval

Positive punishment

A type of punishment that administers (adds) an aversive stimulus.

Negative punishment

A type of punishment that withdraws (subtracts) a rewarding stimulus.

Punishment

An event that tends to decrease the behavior it follows.

Positive reinforcement

A desired response by presenting (adding) a pleasurable stimulus afterwards.

Negative reinforcement

A desired response by reducing or removing (subtracting) something negative

Theory of Mind

What is known as the ability to infer another’s mental state.

Associative and Cognitive

The two types of learning.

Acquisition (associating events)

In classical conditioning, _________ is associating an NS with the US so that the NS begins triggering the CR.

Generalization

The tendency to respond to stimuli that are similar to a CS.

Discrimination

The learned ability to distinguish between a CS and other relevant stimuli.

Reinforcement

Any consequence that strengthens behavior

Operant Behavior

Behavior that operates on the environment, producing rewarding or punishing consequences.

Respondent Behavior

An inherent response to some stimulus. What type of behavior?

Positively; stronger, more frequent tantrums

A child that has a temper tantrum when frustrated and the parents give in to the child’s demands to end the tantrum. How is the child’s behavior being reinforced? What would be the result of such reinforcement?

Negatively; sooner, more frequent giving-in

Parents giving-in to a child’s tantrum and the child responds by ending the tantrum. How is the parents behavior being reinforced? What would be the result of such reinforcement?

FR

Fixed or variable? Ratio or interval? Rat gets food every third time it presses the lever.

FI

Fixed or variable? Ratio or interval? Getting paid weekly no matter how much work is done.

FR

Fixed or variable? Ratio or interval? Getting paid for every ten boxes you make.

VR

Fixed or variable? Ratio or interval? Hitting a jackpot sometimes on the slot machine.

VR/VI

*Fixed or variable? Ratio or interval? Winning sometimes on the lottery you play once a day.

VI

Fixed or variable? Ratio or interval? Checking cell phone all day; sometimes getting a text.

FR

Fixed or variable? Ratio or interval? Buy eight pizzas, get the next one free.

VR

Fixed or variable? Ratio or interval? Fundraiser averages one donation for every eight houses visited.

VR

Fixed or variable? Ratio or interval? Kid has tantrum; parents sometimes give-in.

FI

Fixed or variable? Ratio or interval? Repeatedly checking mail until paycheck arrives.

FI

Fixed or variable? Ratio or interval? If I’m only paid for my Saturday work, I’m not going to work as hard on the other days.

VI

Fixed or variable? Ratio or interval? If I never know which day my lucky lottery number will pay off, I better play it every day

FR

Fixed or variable? Ratio or interval? Buy two drinks, get one free? I’ll buy a lot of them!

VR

Fixed or variable? Ratio or interval? If the slot machine sometimes pays, I’ll pull the lever as many times as possible because it may pay this time!

+ punishment

Positive or negative? Punishment or Reinforcement? You’re playing video games instead of practicing piano, so I am justified in yelling at you.

– punishment

Positive or negative? Punishment or Reinforcement? You’re avoiding practicing, so I’m turning off your game.

– reinforcement

Positive or negative? Punishment or Reinforcement? I will stop staring at you and bugging you as soon as I see that you are practicing.

+ reinforcement

Positive or negative? Punishment or Reinforcement? After you practice, we’ll play a game!

+ & – reinforcement

Positive and/or negative? Punishment or Reinforcement? The outcome of which strengthens behavior.

+ & – punishment

Positive and/or negative? Punishment or Reinforcement? The outcome of which reduces target behavior.

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