psy test # 3- chapter 15

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what was the dominant way of dealing with schizophrenic people during the first half of the 20th century

institutionalized

the chief contribution of Philippe Pinel to the care of those with severe mental illnesses was to

treat mentally ill as humans; this led to hospitals and then asylums

who was the first physician responsible for developing the prefrontal lobotomy for use on human patients

Egas Moniz

the americans Walter Freeman and James Watts "improved" the procedure developed by Egas Monic by developing the

transorbital lobotomy

one who had a needle inserted into the brain through the eye socket and then rotated in order to destroy brain tissue; experienced a

transorbital lobotomy

why was lobotomy so enthusiastically accepted by the medical community in the 1940’s and 1950’s

because it was practiced by eminent physicians

patients who developed extreme withdrawal, anger, physical aggressiveness, and loss of personal hygiene as a result of poor institutional care were showing a pattern known as

the usual way of dealing with troublesome or violent schizophrenic people in institutions in the first half of the 20th century was to

use physical restraints

long-term mental patients frequently developed anger, aggressiveness, and loss of interest in personal appearance. this condition has been called

social breakdown syndrome

humanistic theorists propose that institutionalized patients deteriorate because they are deprived of opportunities to develop self-respect and independence. the therapy that counters this effect by creating an environment that encourages self-respect and responsibility is known as

milieu therapy

which (humanistic) therapy is based on the premise that when you change the social environment you change the patient

milieu therapy

Maxwell Jones created an approach to psychotherapy of the institutionalized in London called

therapeutical community

a patient (called a resident) who lives in a therapeutic community and actively works with staff members to create a life that is as much like that outside the hospital as possible, is probably receiving ______ therapy

milieu

a token economy approach to treatment is based on principles from the ______ view of abnormal behavior

behavioral

what is the token in behavioral terms

a reinforcer

what is the best example of a token in everyday life

money

a third-grade teacher gives students stickers throughout the day when they engage in appropriate behaviors. at the end of the day, students can trade in their stickers for treats from the class "treasure chest". this program is most similar to which form of therapy used for institutionalized people with schizophrenia

token economy

if you wanted the therapy that would be most likely to reduce your psychotic symptoms and get you out of the mental hospital, you would want

milieu

if researchers/therapists said they wanted to five patients food and a comfortable bed only when they behaved appropriately, the researchers/therapists would probably be told by hospital administrators

that’s illegal

what is the concern over the quality of the changes produced by token economies

person learned new behaviors without changing distorted thinking

recent questions raised about the use of token economy programs in mental hospitals have been

legal and ethical

the first antipsychotic drug to be approved for use in the US was

thorazine

antipsychotic drugs were discovered accidentally when researchers were trying to develop

antihistamine

the discovery of antihistamine drugs in the 1940s indirectly led to the development of

antipsychotic drugs

the term neuroleptic is applied to drugs that

can mimic symptoms of neurological disorders

very high dopamine activity is related to

schizophrenic disorders

the neuroleptic action of many drugs appears to depend on the ability to interfere with the activity of

dopamine

the schizophrenic symptom most likely to be relieved by antipsychotic drugs is

delusions

if you could use only one treatments for schizophrenia and wanted the most effective treatment you should choose

antipsychotic drugs

if a patient’s chart said the patient had extrapyramidal side effects, you would expect to see the patient showing primarily ______ dysfunction

motor

studies of the effectiveness of antipsychotic drugs indicate that

there are substantial improvements and most do not get worse

the side effect of antipsychotic drugs, known as akathisia, is marked by

great restlessness and discomfort of limbs

karen has been taking chlorpromazine for 25 years. lately she has been quite restless and agitated. she complains of soreness in her joints and fatigue from moving all the time. her condition would probably be diagnosed as

agathesia

very low dopamine activity is related to

Parkinson’s disease

one of the unwanted and delayed side effects of antipsychotic medications is

tardive dyskinesia

the neuroleptic side effects marked by muscle rigidity, fever, altered consciousness, and autonomic dysfunction is called

neuroleptic malignant syndrome

after starting treatment with antipsychotic drugs, tardive dyskinesia typically requires at least _____ to develop

a year

donna has been treated with chlorpromazine for several years. lately she seems to be chewing gum all the time and her arms are always in motion. she has begun to display twitches and she has a facial tic. this is an example of

tardive dyskinesia

the proportion of patients taking antipsychotic medication who eventually develop tardive dyskinesia is closest to

10%

the most successful way to eliminate tardive dyskinesia is

to stop taking the drug

if you were working with a patient who displayed muscle tremors and rigidity, dystonia, and akathisia, you would suspect that the person was receiving

antipsychotic drugs

an elderly patient who is taking antipsychotic drugs and shows signs of muscle rigidity, fever, altered state of consciousness, and improper autonomic functioning is probably experiencing

neuroleptic malignant syndrome

researchers study a group of people with schizophrenia who receive just enough of a conventional antipsychotic drug to receive about 90% of the drug’s positive effect. about how much of the drug’s extrapyramidal side effects also will emerge

over 50%

researchers study a group of people with schizophrenia who receive just enough of an atypical drug to receive about 90% of the drug’s positive effect. about how much of the drug’s extrapyramidal side effects also will emerge

almost none

why aren’t atypical antipsychotic drugs universally prescribed for people with schizophrenia? after all, more people with schizophrenia show improvement with atypical antipsychotic drugs than with conventional antipsychotics

atypical usually costs more

clozapine has one potentially dangerous side effect. it is

why do some therpists believe psychotherapy is unsuccessful in treating schizophrenia

too far recovered to form relationships needed

Frieda Fromm-Reichmann’s approach to psychotherapy will schizophrenic patients was to

become a normal part of their life and therefore gain their trust

what is a primary technique that insight therapists use to treat schizophrenia

challenging patients statements

family therapy is an important therapy option for people with schizophrenia because

they feel good towards family

every time you hear about a person who is schizophrenic being arrested for committing a violent crime, remind yourself that, according to the research, people who are schizophrenic are

less than 1/5 commit violent crimes than are victims of violent crimes

the goal of family therapy is to

help recovery in a familiar environment

if you and your family were receiving support, encouragement, and advice from other families with schizophrenic members, you would most likely be participating in

family therapy

what’s the focus of social therapy in treating schizophrenia

maintenance of problem solving and decision making skills

a patient who received help in finding work, in finding a place to live, and in taking medication correctly is probably receiving

social therapy

programs designed to help people recovering from schizophrenia to handle daily pressure, make proper decisions, handle social situations, and make residential and vocational adjustments are called

assertive community treatments

the approximate number of patients in state mental institutions in the early 1950s was about

600,000

the "revolving door" syndrome in the treatment of mental illness refers to

repeatedly releasing and readmitting patients

since the 1950s, deinstitutionalization has led to a significant change in the number of patients in state institutions. the approximate number is now

60,000

in the original Community Mental Health Act, the coordination agency was supposed to be the

Tory lives at home but spends his day at a mental health facility. the facility might be described as providing

partial hospitalization

Helen was just discharged from a public mental health facility. she went to live with a group of other former patients in a group-living arrangement. there were staff members to help out but the former patients controlled most of the day to day activities. Helen’s living arrangements is a

community approach

several people with schizophrenia work at a recycling center, where on time behavior is expected, and payment is made solely for work completed. the people do not compete with each other. most likely this work takes place at a

sheltered workshop

according to the research, what should be done to improve community treatment for people with schizophrenia? your best answer is

provide more service and dispense it better

schizophrenics who also have substance-abuse disorders are assigned a case worker who makes sure they know about and can use whatever is available to support them. they are receiving

coordinates services

about what percent of schizophrenics receive treatment in a given year

40-60%

the person most responsible for coordinating community service and providing practical help with problem-solving social skills, and medication is a

case manager

MICA stands for

mentally ill chemical abusers

today the financial burden of providing community treatment for persons with long-term severe disorders often falls on

the state

SRO— "standing room only"—- may be a good thing for a play producer on opening night, but to many people with schizophrenia, SRO means

living alone in single room

a homeless person approaches you on a city street corner. the change it is a person with schizophrenia is about

33%

if you went to a meeting of a group lobbying for better care for the mentally ill and made up primarily of family members of people with severe mental disorders, you would probably be attending

national alliance for the mentally ill

what proportion of homeless persons are estimated to suffer from severe mental disorders

1/3

about what percent of people who experience schizophrenia recover permanently and completely from the disorder

25%

a little over a hundred years ago, Kraepelin guessed that about one in eight of those with schizophrenia improved. today the number of those who recover completely, plus the number of those who return to relatively independent lives is about

1 in 2

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