PSY TEST 3

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Nervous

The body’s electrochemical communication circuitry is known as the _____ system.

Complexity

Ashley, a secretary at Plato Inc., is typing on her computer, talking on the phone, and handing some papers to her colleague simultaneously. Which of the following characteristics of the nervous system is best illustrated in this scenario?

Integration

Roy, the conductor of an orchestra, guides and coordinates other musicians during stage performances. Which of the following characteristics of the nervous system predominantly commands Roy’s behavior while conducting the orchestra?

Plasticity

Lolita, a nine-year-old girl, met with an accident that led to a head injury. However, a few months later, she was able to recover from this injury. Which of the following characteristics of the nervous system most likely played a predominant role in her recovery?

help adjust to changes in one’s environment

In the context of characteristics of the nervous system, adaptability specifically refers to the brain’s ability to:

plasticity

In the context of characteristics of the nervous system, the brain’s special physical capacity for change is referred to as its

Plasticity

Stand-up comedians who improvise constantly while on stage are demonstrating their ability to change according to the environment. Which of the following characteristics of the nervous system is most likely playing a predominant role in their adaptability?

Simplicity

Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of the human nervous system?

to the brain and spinal cord via sensory receptors

In the context of pathways in the nervous system, afferent nerves carry information:

out of the brain and spinal cord to other areas of the body.

In the context of pathways in the nervous system, efferent nerves carry information:

afferent

In the context of nervous system pathways, nerves that carry information about the external environment to the brain and spinal cord are known as _____ nerves.

efferent

In the context of nervous system pathways, nerves that carry information out of the brain and spinal cord to other areas of the body are known as _____ nerves.

a brain and spinal cord

In the context of divisions of the nervous system, the central nervous system consists of the _____.

central

In the context of the divisions of the nervous system, the brain is categorized within the _____ nervous system.

peripheral nervous system

The _____ is the network of nerves that connects the brain and spinal cord to other parts of the body.

parasympathetic nervous system and sympathetic nervous system

In the context of divisions of the nervous system, the autonomic nervous system consists of the _____.

sympathetic

Catherine is confronted by a man with a gun as she walks home from work one night. In this scenario, Catherine’s _____ nervous system will be most likely to help her escape from the situation quickly.

the somatic nervous system

Maya burns her fingers while cooking dinner. Which of the following divisions of the nervous system will be primarily responsible for the pain she feels?

symaphetic

Nancy is in her building elevator going down to the lobby when the elevator stops suddenly between floors, and the doors won’t open. Nancy’s heart starts pounding, and her palms start sweating. In this scenario, Nancy’s physiological responses can be best attributed to her _____ nervous system.

sympathetic

Lionel is preparing for his first job interview. The night before the interview, he is restless and anxious; his palms sweat and his heart beats faster than usual. In this scenario, Lionel’s physiological responses can be best attributed to his _____ nervous system.

sympathetic

If a person needs to run away from a dangerous situation, the _____ nervous system sends blood to the person’s extremities to prepare him or her for taking off.

convey information from the skin and muscles to the central nervous system

In the context of the divisions of the nervous system, the somatic nervous system consists of sensory nerves, whose function is to _____.

autonomic nervous system

Which division of the peripheral nervous system is responsible for carrying messages to and from the body’s internal organs and monitoring processes such as breathing, heart rate, and digestion?

it monitors processes such as breathing and digestion

Which of the following is true about the autonomic nervous system?

sympathetic

Harry is driving on the interstate highway for the first time since he obtained his license. He is nervous and wants to get off the interstate but cannot do so; his heart and pulse are racing. In this scenario, Harry’s physiological responses can be best attributed to his _____ nervous system.

autonomic nervous system

In the context of the divisions of the nervous system, such processes as heart rate, breathing, and digestion are monitored by the _____.

sympathetic; parasympathetic

Julie hears some news about a bus accident on television. She believes her son was on the same bus and is overcome by anxiety which is primarily caused by her _____ nervous system. When her son phones and informs her that he was not on the bus, Julie is relieved and begins to relax. This response is primarily caused by her _____ nervous system.

sympathetic nervous system

Which part of the nervous system will be most active when Martin, a backpacker, acts quickly in response to a wild animal approaching him?

parasympathetic

After taking her English final, Natalie attempts to relax in her chair by meditating. She is attempting to reduce her heart and respiration rates, as well as her muscular tension. In this scenario, her physiological relaxation can be best attributed to the functioning of her _____ nervous system.

symathetic

Elizabeth feels her heart racing while she waits for her turn at a job interview. These physiological symptoms are most likely produced by her _____ nervous system.

sympathetic nervous system

Which division of the peripheral nervous system is responsible for physiological symptoms such as increased heart rate and butterflies in the stomach?

mirror neurons

_____ are activated in human and nonhuman primates both when they perform an action and when they watch someone else perform that same activity.

Mirror neurons appear to respond to both kinds of information, doing and seeing.

Which of the following characteristics makes mirror neurons so fascinating?

mirror neurons

Nine-year-old Anna learns ballet by watching her mother and imitating her mother’s movements. In the context of neurons, which of the following types of cells is most directly responsible for Anna’s method of learning?

provide support and nutritional benefits to neurons.

In the context of neurons, glial cells in the nervous system:

glial cells

In the context of the nervous system, _____ are specifically responsible for keeping neurons running smoothly.

They are responsible for the majority of information processing in the brain.

In the context of the nervous system, which of the following is NOT true of glial cells?

neurons

In the context of the nervous system, by far, the majority of information processing in the brain is done by _____.

cell body

In the context of specialized cell structure, the nucleus of a neuron is located in the _____.

nucleus

The cell body of a neuron contains the _____, which directs the manufacture of substances that the neuron needs for growth and maintenance.

It directs the manufacture of substances required for growth and maintenance of neurons.

Which of the following is a function of the cell body in a nerve cell?

receive information

In the context of specialized cell structure, the primary function of dendrites is to _____.

It carries information away from the cell body toward other cells.

Which of the following is a function of the axon in a nerve cell in the context of specialized cell structure?

axon

In the context of specialized cell structure, the _____ is the part of the neuron that carries information away from the cell body toward other cells.

Dendrite → cell body → axon

Which of the following best describes the process of transmitting information within a neuron in the context of specialized cell structure?

Amber is waxing her surfboard so that it will move easily through water.

In the context of specialized cell structure, which of the following scenarios acts as the closest analogy to the function of the myelin sheath in the brain?

fat

In the context of specialized cell structure, the myelin sheath is a layer of cells containing _____.

It facilitates the transmission of nerve impulses.

Which of the following is true about the myelin sheath in a nerve cell?

myelin sheath

A neurobiologist explains to his students that the human nervous system is analogous to electrical circuits in homes. If the circuit wires are not insulated, they are likely to cause a short circuit. In this scenario, the insulation on the wires can be likened to the _____ in the neural system.

hardening of the myelin sheath

Walter has a degenerative condition known as multiple sclerosis (MS). In the context of specialized cell structure, his disease is most likely caused by the:

myelin sheath

In the context of specialized cell structure, which of the following components of a nerve cell hardens in patients with multiple sclerosis?

semipermeable

In the context of the neural impulse, the cell membrane of a neuron permits some substances to pass through it but not others. This is because the membrane is _____.

fluids and ions can sometimes flow into and out of it

In the context of the neural impulse, the outer membrane of a neuron is semipermeable, which indicates that _____.

It decreases the charge difference between the fluids inside and outside of the neuron.

In the context of the neural impulse, which of the following is true about the depolarization of neuron membranes?

A negative charge on the inside of the cell membrane and a positive charge on the outside

In the context of the neural impulse, which of the following is the status of the charges on each side of the cell membrane during the stage of resting potential?

resting

Normally, when a neuron is not transmitting information and a slight negative charge is present on the inside of the cell membrane, it is said to be _____.

action

In the context of the neural impulse, another term that describes "firing" of neurons is the _____ potential.

all-or-nothing

In the context of the neural impulse, the action potential in a neuron abides by the _____ principle.

The intensity of the impulse would not be affected.

According to the all-or-nothing principle, which of the following would happen if the size of the electrical charge in a neural impulse was twice the size needed for the electrical impulse?

synapse

Jen and Jack are seated in the same row in an airplane but across the aisle from each other. If the information they exchange across the aisle represents the neural impulse between neurons, and Jen and Jack represent the neurons, the aisle most likely represents the _____.

synapse

In the context of the neuron structure, the tiny space between two neurons is called the _____.

terminal buttons

In the context of the neuron structure, neurotransmitters are stored in the _____.

neurotransmitters

Chemical substances that are stored in very tiny sacs within the terminal buttons and are involved in transmitting information across a synaptic gap to the next neuron are known as _____.

reuptake

After delivering its message, some of the neurotransmitter is used up in the production of energy, and some of it is reabsorbed by the axon that released it to await the next neural impulse. In the context of synaptic transmission, this reabsorption is called _____.

At any given time, a neuron is receiving a mixture of messages from the neurotransmitters.

In the nervous system, which of the following is true of neurons and the neurotransmitters they secrete?

acetylcholine deficiency

In the context of neurotransmitters, individuals with Alzheimer’s disease, a degenerative brain disorder that gradually destroys memory, most likely have a(n) _____.

acetylcholine

Martin’s father is experiencing memory loss related to Alzheimer disease. In the context of neurotransmitters, this is most likely due to the insufficient production of _____ in his brain.

It is involved in muscle action, learning, and memory.

Which of the following is true of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine?

acetylcholine

The neurotransmitter that is specifically involved in muscle action, learning, and memory is _____.

throughout the peripheral nervous system

The neurotransmitter gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA) is found _____.

acetylcholine

A neurotransmitter that plays a role in Alzheimer disease is _____.

GABA

Which of the following is an example of an inhibitory neurotransmitter in the nervous system?

It is an inhibitory neurotransmitter.

Which of the following is true of the neurotransmitter gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA)?

too much glutamate

Melinda suffers from migraine headaches and seizures. In the context of neurotransmitter functioning, which of the following most likely plays a significant role in her symptoms?

overstimulation caused by glutamate

Dorothy has been suffering from epileptic seizures for the past four years. In the context of neurotransmitter functioning, her seizures can be best attributed to the _____.

norepinephrine

Depression is associated with low levels of the neurotransmitter _____.

It helps to control the level of alertness.

In the context of neurotransmitters, which of the following best describes the effect of norepinephrine stimulation?

dopamine

Parkinson disease is specifically associated with low levels of the neurotransmitter _____.

schizophrenia

Kenny has been diagnosed with Parkinson disease and has been prescribed medication to manage some of his symptoms. The medication elevates the levels of dopamine in his system. If the levels of dopamine in his system become excessive, Kenny might start to exhibit symptoms associated with _____.

It is in excess in patients with schizophrenia.

Which of the following is true of the neurotransmitter dopamine?

It is involved in the regulation of mood and attention.

Which of the following is true of the neurotransmitter serotonin?

the release of endorphins

Dominic is a marathon runner. He admits that whenever he runs, he feels euphoric. He cannot begin his day without running for an hour. In the context of neurotransmitters, which of the following is most likely responsible for his feelings of pleasure from running?

They shield the body from pain and elevate feelings of pleasure.

Which of the following best describes the function of endorphins?

oxytoncin

Which of the following neurotransmitters is released in excess during the onset of lactation and breastfeeding in mothers who have just given birth?

oxytocin

The release of which of the following hormones and neurotransmitters plays an important role in the experience of love and social bonding?

seek support from a friend

Based on the provocative research that has linked oxytocin to stress, if Julia finds herself in a stressful situation she is most likely to:

It gives a sense of the functions of the damaged brain regions.

Which of the following is a significance of the brain lesioning process?

Electroencephalography

Harry has been diagnosed with epilepsy by his neurologist, Dr. Craig. Which of the following should Dr. Craig use to assess Harry’s epilepsy by studying his brain-wave activity?

electroencephalograph (EEG)

A(n) _____ records the brain’s electrical activity by placing electrodes on the scalp.

an electroencephalograph (EEG)

Sasha, a researcher, is working on a project on the human brain. Part of her research requires her to place electrodes on the scalps of her subjects to study their brain-wave activity. In this scenario, Sasha is most likely using _____.

Positron-emission tomography (PET scan)

Judith has been asked to visit a well-known neurologist in her town, who will examine the levels of glucose in Judith’s brain. Which of the following techniques will the neurologist most likely use to conduct the examination?

CAT scan

Meredith suspects that her mother is suffering from dementia. However, Joy, the psychiatrist, asks her to visit the neurologist to get an X ray of her mother’s brain to confirm this diagnosis. Which of the following brain imaging techniques will the neurologist most likely use to get the X ray?

constructs images of a person’s tissues and biochemical activities.

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a technique that:

It exploits changes in blood oxygen that occur in association with brain activity.

In which of the following ways does functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) detect the functioning of the brain?

MRI

Adrian, a neurologist, is examining the brain activity of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. He observes images of their brains while they are performing a reading task and then again when they are not engaged in the activity. He compares these readings. Although he establishes a relationship between the two variables, he is not able to establish that one variable causes the other. Which of the following brain imaging techniques is he most likely to have used for his study?

It rests on the principle that mental activity is associated with changes in the oxygenated blood levels in the brain.

Which of the following principles underlies the technique of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)?

TMS

Which brain imaging technique allows scientists to draw causal inferences between variables?

TMS

Michael, a researcher in the field of neuroscience, has a theory about a specific area of the brain causing difficulties in face recognition. To draw a solid causal inference, he intends to test his hypothesis on dogs by disrupting regions of their brains and examining the effects of this disruption on the dogs’ face-recognition capacity. Which of the following techniques should be used by Michael to achieve his purpose?

It does examine neuronal functioning following brain-injuring events.

Which of the following is true of the brain imaging technique known as transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS)?

Medulla

In the context of the organization of the brain, which part of the hindbrain regulates vital functions such as breathing and heart rate?

pons

In the context of the organization of the brain, the _____ is the part of the hindbrain that is involved in sleep and arousal.

pons

Damien has been unable to sleep for the past few weeks. He wakes up in the middle of the night and cannot go back to sleep. On certain occasions, he cannot fall asleep at all and at other times, he is unable to wake up from sleep. In the context of the organization of the brain, Damien’s problem with sleep and arousal is most likely caused by the poor functioning of the _____.

cerebellum

Donny suffered a stroke a few years ago. For many months, he was unable to coordinate his movements making it impossible for him to even stand up. Since then, he has been walking in a jerky, uncoordinated manner. In this scenario, Donny’s symptoms after the stroke are most likely due to damage to his _____.

balance and muscle coordination

Derek met with an accident that caused severe damage to his cerebellum. In the context of the organization of the brain, Derek is most likely to experience problems in _____ as a result of the damage.

cerebellum

Tricia suffers a stroke at the age of 35 years. As a result, her motor functioning is severely impaired. Her movements become awkward, jerky, and uncoordinated. In this scenario, her symptoms are most likely caused by damage to the _____.

have tremors

Emma just received word that her grandfather’s stroke damaged a region in his brain called the substantia nigra. As a consequence of this damage, Emma’s grandfather will most likely:

reticular formation

When Sam walks into his class, he does not have to think consciously about how to walk. When he gets there, he pays attention to the lecture even though it is boring and he is tired. In this scenario, the brain structure that is most likely causing these stereotyped patterns of behavior in Sam is the _____.

Ginny will try to eat the plate on which her sandwich is placed.

Ginny was in a car accident in which her amygdala was severely damaged. Which of the following is a likely consequence of this damage?

hippocampus

Joe has suffered a massive stroke. Since then, he has started repeating many of his actions through the day. He brushes his teeth many times in the morning and takes a shower many times before bedtime. This is because he is unable to retain any memories of his actions. In the context of the organization of the brain, these behavioral symptoms are most likely due to a damaged _____.

memory formation

In the context of the organization of the brain, damage to the hippocampus impairs:

hippocampus

Nathan is suffering from amnesia, an illness that prevents the retrieval of new memories. In the context of the organization of the brain, which area of Nathan’s brain is most likely responsible for the amnesia?

thalamus

Old-fashioned telephone systems relied on operators to take incoming calls and connect them to the appropriate persons they were intended for. Which structure of the brain functions in an analogous manner?

basal ganglia

Ronald has a habit of vacuuming his apartment at seven in the morning. Which of the following brain regions is likely to be most active during and directly related to this routine?

the maintenance of body temperature

In the context of the organization of the brain, one of the important functions of the hypothalamus is:

hypothalumus

Carrie suffered brain damage when she was injured in a car accident. Since then, she is unable to take pleasure in the things she used to. She has also lost interest in sexual intimacy with her husband and does not enjoy the taste of her favorite foods. In this scenario, damage to which of the following areas of the brain is most likely causing her inability to experience pleasure?

hypothalumus

In the context of the organization of the brain, body temperature, emotional states, and coping with stress are functions controlled by the _____.

hypothalumus

In the context of the organization of the brain, one of its pleasure centers is found in the _____.

cerebral cortex

In the context of the organization of the brain, thinking and planning are mediated by the _____ of the brain.

hemispheres

The two halves of the cerebral cortex are called cerebral _____.

occipital

In the context of the cerebral cortex, the area critical for processing visual information is the _____ lobe.

occipital lobe

James’s brain injury has resulted in him not being able to process information about the things he sees around him or to react to them appropriately. In the context of the cerebral cortex, which of James’s brain regions is most likely to be damaged?

occipital lobe

Alfred is a middle-aged man whose eyes can physically see the car driving up to him but whose brain is unable to interpret the information and move away in time. In this scenario, the area of Alfred’s brain that is most likely damaged is the _____.

frontal

Zeus was injured in a mining accident and suffered severe brain damage. In time, his brain healed and he was back to working in the mines. The only change was in his personality. From being a highly aggressive and temperamental individual, he became mild-mannered and calm, almost to the extent of being placid. In this scenario, the region of the cerebral cortex that was most likely damaged in the accident was the _____ lobe.

prefrontal

Which of the following regions of the cerebral cortex is involved in higher cognitive functions such as planning, reasoning, and self-control?

parietal lobe

Gregory is an excellent basketball player. He is always able to gauge the distance between himself and the basket correctly, and he never misses a shot. Which of the following regions of the cerebral cortex should function most efficiently to help him use this spatial location skill?

body sensations

The somatosensory cortex in the human brain processes information about _____.

motor cortex

The area of the cerebral cortex in the human brain which controls voluntary muscle movement is the _____.

motor cortex

While Professor Travis is on the phone, he notices a glass vase sliding off the top shelf of his bookcase and about to fall on his dog. He moves quickly to catch the vase and prevent it from falling on his dog. In the context of the cerebral cortex, the quick movement of his hand is most likely a result of a process in the:

Wernicke’s area

David damaged a part of his brain in a ski accident. Once he was out of his coma, the doctors noticed that even though he could produce words in speech, he couldn’t seem to understand the meanings of the words spoken by others. In this scenario, damage to which of the following areas of David’s brain is most likely causing this symptom?

Janine is unable to produce any words

Which of the following scenarios correctly illustrates the effect of damage to Broca’s area in the brain?

severence of the corpus callosum

In the context of the cerebral hemispheres, a split brain occurs due to _____.

corpus callosum

What is the name of the large bundle of axons that connects the two halves of the brain?

corpus callosum

Neurosurgeons can reduce the unbearable seizures some epileptics experience by severing the _____.

a bundle of axons that connects the right hemisphere with the left hemisphere.

In the context of the cerebral hemispheres of the brain, the corpus callosum is:

Melissa recognizes that Norah is sad by looking at her face.

Which of the following scenarios illustrates the effective functioning of the right hemisphere of the human brain?

interpreting emotions

Which of the following is a function of the right hemisphere of the brain?

fusiform gyrus

In the context of the cerebral hemispheres of the brain, the brain region associated with face recognition is located in the _____.

endocrine

The set of glands that regulates the activities of certain organs in the body is called the _____ system.

pituitary

In the context of the endocrine system, the _____ gland regulates all the other glands.

help regulate mood

In the context of the endocrine system, a function of the adrenal glands is to _____.

epinephrine

In the context of the endocrine system, which of the following neurotransmitters is secreted by the adrenal glands?

pancreas

Wanda has a particular type of diabetes that requires her to inject herself with insulin every few hours. In the context of the endocrine system, which gland is most likely responsible for Wanda’s diabetes?

hippocampus

In the context of the human brain’s plasticity, research has found which of the following brain regions to be responsible for neurogenesis?

they can develop into most types of human cells

In the context of brain tissue implants, what is unique about stem cells?

molecular genetics

The field of _____ involves the manipulation of genes using technology to determine their effect on behavior.

is used to choose organisms for reproduction based on how much of a particular trait they display.

In the context of genetics, the technique of selective breeding:

observable charactaristics

In the context of genes and the environment, an individual’s phenotype refers to his or her _____.

phenotype

Molly’s natural hair color is brown but she dyes it blonde. In the context of genes and the environment, Molly has changed her _____.

edward has to rush to the hospital to perform heart surgery

Which of the following scenarios accurately illustrates acute stress?

It may lead to persistent autonomic nervous system arousal.

Which of the following is true of chronic stress in human beings?

sensation

The process of receiving stimulus energy from the environment and transforming it into neural energy is called _____.

perception

Jack sees a sleek object with four wheels and four doors on the street and recognizes that it is a car. This process of interpreting what he sees as a car is called _____.

perception

In psychology, the process of organizing and interpreting incoming sensory information is called _____.

sensation

Every day, one sees, hears, smells, tastes, and feels stimuli from the outside world. The process of collecting this data about the world is referred to as _____.

sensation

Lionel steps on a jellyfish as he walks barefoot on the beach. At the moment of contact, the physical pain he experiences most accurately exemplifies _____.

perception

Rachel is walking in the woods and feels a sudden pain in the back of her neck. Due to the nature of the pain she recognizes that she has been stung by a bee. In this scenario, which of the following processes has most likely helped her identify the source of her pain?

top-down

In the context of perception, _____ processing involves starting with a sense of what is happening and then applying that framework to incoming information from the world.

sensory receptors

In the context of perception, bottom-up processing involves analysis that begins with:

As Jack is walking down the street, he sees people around him running indoors for shelter and runs indoors because it is raining.

Which of the following scenarios illustrates top-down processing in sensation and perception?

top-down processing

Mrs. Robinson shows her students different fruits every day. At the end of the month, she tests the children by showing them pictures of the same fruits to see if the children are able to recognize them. The children are able to accurately recall the names of all the fruits. Which of the following processes is specifically involved in the children’s successful recall?

bottom-up

A teacher uses pictures of animals to help her students identify those animals. The children look at each picture and then say the name of the animal in the picture out loud. This method of learning is most reflective of _____ processing.

Top-down processing starts with cognitive processing; bottom-up processing starts with the external environment.

Which of the following correctly differentiates between top-down processing and bottom-up processing?

bottom-up

Four-year-old Jimmy is reading for the first time. He is paying no attention to the meaning of the words because he is busy trying to say the words out loud by placing the letters together. In this scenario, Jimmy is primarily using _____ processing.

perception

_____ is a very subjective interpretation of information received from the sense organs.

sensory receptors

In the context of sensation and perception, specialized cells that detect stimulus information and transmit it to afferent nerves and the brain are called _____.

sensory receptors

_____ are the openings through which the brain and nervous system experience the world.

frequency

In the context of sensory receptors, the intensity of the stimulus is communicated to the brain by varying the _____ of the action potential sent to the brain.

mechanoreception

Which of the following sensory processes is most activated when a person is listening to a song?

photoreceptors

Which of the following receptors is most activated when a person is watching a silent movie?

mechanoreception

In the context of sensation and perception, the detection of pressure by sensory receptors is called _____.

a person smells a rose

In the context of sensory receptors, chemoreception occurs when:

mechanoreceptors

In the context of sensation, which of the following receptors is most activated when a person is tickled?

synaesthesia

Teresa, a young woman, is an object of interest for psychological researchers because her senses work differently from other people. She hears her favorite song when she eats meatballs and she smells fish when she touches a rose. In the context of sensory receptors and the brain, Teresa’s experiences best illustrate the phenomenon of _____.

phantom limb pain

Thomas, a war veteran, still experiences occasional aches in the arm that was amputated when he was injured in a war. In the context of sensory receptors and the brain, Thomas’s condition best illustrates the phenomenon of _____.

Jeff reads another person’s mind

Which of the following examples best illustrates extrasensory perception (ESP)?

telepathy

In the context of sensory receptors and the brain, a person’s ability to read another person’s mind is known as _____.

precognition

In the context of sensory receptors and the brain, a person’s ability to sense future events is known as _____.

absolute threshold

Gary is watching a movie. He can hear the dialogue at all times except when the actors are whispering in a scene. This is because the actors’ whispers are too soft for Gary to hear. In other words, the whispers are most likely below the level of Gary’s _____.

absolute threshold

In the context of sensation and perception, _____ is the minimum amount of stimulus energy that a person can detect.

absolute threshold

An architect is designing an apartment for his client, who wants to soundproof the interiors so that she cannot hear noises from the outside. In order for the client to be satisfied, the architect should ensure that the walls are thick enough to keep external noises out. In other words, the architect will work to increase his client’s _____.

below her absolute threshold

Mary requests her neighbor to turn down the volume of his television so that Mary does not hear it. The volume at which Mary cannot hear the television most of the time is:

absolute threshold

. Rachel is at home awaiting her son’s arrival; she has not seen him for three months. She does not hear his car until it is in her driveway, at which point she runs to the door to greet him. The point at which she can detect the sound of the car 50 percent of the time is her _____.

absolute threshold

Daniel conducts an experiment to see whether he can taste a quarter teaspoon of sugar dissolved in a glass of water. The same quantity of water is used for ten trials. Five out of ten times, Daniel does detect the taste of the sugar in the water. His taste of the sugar five out of ten times represents his _____.

difference threashold

If a person hears two sounds that fluctuate in intensity, the point at which he or she can detect the contrast in the sounds is referred to as the _____.

Weber’s law

In the context of the difference threshold, _____ is the principle that two stimuli must differ by a constant proportion to be perceived as different.

Weber’s law

Jenny detects a change in brightness when a 25W light bulb is replaced with a 100W light bulb but not when it is replaced with a 50W light bulb. However, she detects a change if the same 50W light bulb is replaced with a 200W light bulb. The differences in Jenny’s ability to perceive these changes can be explained by _____.

Weber’s law

When a person is paid $5 instead of $10, he or she feels cheated. When the same person is paid $90 instead of $100, it does not seem like a big difference to him or her. However, if the person is paid 90$ instead of $180, he or she feels cheated again. This scenario can be best explained by _____.

$100 instead of $50

John is appalled when he is charged $50 for a cake instead of its usual price of $25. When he is charged $50 instead of $40, he barely notices the difference. In the context of Weber’s law, which of the following price increases for a cake would most likely be equally appalling to John?

can sometimes be subconsciously perceived

Subliminally presented stimuli:

signal detection

The _____ theory of perception states that detection of sensory stimuli depends on a variety of factors besides the physical intensity of the stimulus and the sensory abilities of the observer.

information aquisition

Josh, a teenager, is attending his first party. He wants to ask a girl, Fiona, to dance but does not know whether she will say yes. He notices that Fiona is pretty, a little shy, and wants to dance. He also sees that she is not surrounded by friends. Which component of the signal detection theory is Josh illustrating by gathering these details about Fiona?

false alarm

Peter who lives in the United States has been offered a job in India. Before he makes his decision, he reads books on India and likes what he reads. He believes that according to his personal criteria, India will suit him very well. A few months after his move to India, Peter realizes that he cannot adapt to the weather or the culture in India and regrets his decision. According to the signal detection theory, this outcome can best be labeled as a _____.

hit

Nathan is being tutored by one his classmates, Sarah. Nathan wants to ask Sarah to the prom but does not know whether she is interested in him. He looks out for signals of encouragement from her and realizes that she does not have a date for the prom. He also notes that she often calls him on the telephone just to talk, and joins him for lunch on most days. This encourages Nathan to ask Sarah out and when he does, she says yes. According to the signal detection theory, this outcome can best be labeled as a _____.

selective attention

Donna is a marathon runner. When she runs a race, she does not see or hear the spectators because she is completely focused on the finish line. In this scenario, Donna is clearly demonstrating the phenomenon of _____.

cocktail party effect

Lauren is at the airport waiting to board her flight. She initiates a friendly conversation with another passenger. Despite the noise at the airport and multiple announcements being made at the same time, Lauren is able to focus on what the passenger is saying. This scenario best demonstrates the occurrence of the _____.

emotion-induced blindness

As Peter drives down the interstate, he misses his exit because his attention is diverted by the accident site in front of him. In this scenario, Peter is illustrating the phenomenon of _____.

inattentional blindness

Although the volume of the television is low, Katherine does not hear her phone ring when she is watching a movie that she likes. In this scenario, Katherine is demonstrating _____.

inattentional blindness

_____ refers to the failure of a person to detect unexpected events when he or she is focused on another task.

a perceptual set

A person’s predisposition or readiness to perceive something in a particular way is known as _____.

sensory adaption

When Carlos first arrives at his friend’s party, the music is so loud that he covers his ears. After a few hours, even though the music is still at the same volume, it stops bothering him. This change in his reaction to the volume of the music illustrates:

sensory adaption

Jenna is unable to fall asleep because the neighbor’s dog is barking. After fifteen minutes, Jenna stops noticing the dog barking and falls asleep. This scenario best illustrates the process of _____.

hue; brightness

The wavelength of light determines its _____, and the amplitude of light determines its _____.

wavelengths

George is looking at the colors on a paint swatch card to select the right shade of red for his wall. He is able to differentiate between the various shades of red on the card and makes a quick decision. His perception of the differences in the shades can be attributed to the _____ of light reflecting from the shades.

purity

The _____ of the wavelengths of a visual stimulus determines the perceived saturation, or richness, of the stimulus.

lens

In the visual system, the _____ of the eye is filled with a gelatinous material that helps focus light.

sclera

In the visual system, the _____ is the white, outer part of the eye that helps to maintain the shape of the eye and to protect it from injury.

pupil

In the visual system, the opening in the center of the iris is known as the _____.

control the pupil size

In the visual system, the major purpose of the iris of the eye is to:

cornea

In the visual system, the clear membrane just in front of the eye is the _____.

rods

In the visual system, _____ are the receptors in the retina of the eye that are sensitive to light but are not very useful for color vision.

The curved surface of the cornea does most of the bending of the light.

Which of the following statements is true of the structure of the eye?

retina

The multilayered light-sensitive surface in the eye that records electromagnetic energy and converts it into neural impulses for processing in the brain is known as the _____.

The blind spot contains neither rods nor cones.

Which of the following statements is true of the retina in the eye?

cones

Timothy’s vision is a focus of interest for many ophthalmologists. He is able to see well when there is low illumination but not so well when there is a lot of light, for instance, if he is outdoors during the day. He is also unable to detect most colors during the day. Which poorly-functioning structure of the eye is most likely causing Timothy’s unusual vision?

Rods are found everywhere except in the fovea.

Which of the followings statements is true of the rods in the eye’s retina?

Cones are used for color perception.

Which of the following statements is true of the cones of the eye’s retina?

fovea

In the context of the structure of the eye, the area toward the center of the retina that contains only cones is called the:

neither rods nor cones

The blind spot is the area on the retina that contains:

optic nerve

In the context of the structure of the eye, the axons of the ganglion cells make up the _____.

optic nerve

. Jane was in a car accident, which caused severe damage to her head. As a result, Jane’s vision was affected. Although her eyes are able to detect visual stimuli and form images on her retina, her brain is not receiving the visual information. This problem with Jane’s vision is most likely due to improper functioning of the _____.

Marcus is trying to find his seat in the dark in a movie theater.

In the context of the visual system, which of the following scenarios best illustrates the need for the functioning of rods in the retina?

convert light into electrochemical impulses.

In the visual system, the main function of rods and cones is to:

optic nerve leaves the eye

The place on the retina that contains neither rods nor cones is where the:

blind spot

The _____ is the place on the retina where the optic nerve leaves the eye on its way to the brain.

optic chiasm

The crossover point in the eye, where the visual information originating in the right halves of the two retinas is transmitted to the right side of the occipital lobe is called the:

feature detectors

_____ are individual neurons or groups of neurons in the brain’s visual system that respond to particular characteristics of a stimulus.

visual cortex

The _____, located in the occipital lobe at the back of the brain, is the part of the cerebral cortex involved in sight.

parallel processing

In the context of visual processing in the brain, the simultaneous distribution of sensory information across different neural pathways is referred to as:

see and process all information about sensory qualities at once

In the context of visual processing in the brain, the purpose of parallel processing is to:

It is the simultaneous distribution of information across different neural pathways.

. In the visual system, which of the following statements is true of parallel processing?

blinding

In the visual system, _____ is the bringing together and integration of what is processed by different neural pathways or cells.

binding

Mrs. Johnson’s third grade class is creating a model of their school grounds. Each group of students is responsible for different aspects of the model. Some are cutting cardboard, some are painting, and some are making miniature figurines out of play dough. Eventually, Mrs. Johnson will combine all these elements into a finished product. Which of the following visual processes in the brain is this scenario most analogous to?

four

According to the opponent-process theory of color vision, how many types of cone receptors are there in the human eye?

trichromatic

The _____ theory of color vision states that color perception is produced by three types of cone receptors in the retina that are particularly sensitive to different, but overlapping, ranges of wavelengths.

green from blue and red

If Howard, a student, has the most common form of color blindness, he will have trouble distinguishing:

sensations that remain once a stimulus is removed

In the context of the opponent-process theory of color vision, afterimages refer to:

It is based on experiments that show that any color in the spectrum can be matched by combining three other wavelengths.

Which of the following statements is true of the trichromatic theory proposed by Hermann von Helmholtz?

it cannot adequately explains afterimages

Which of the following is a disadvantage of the trichromatic theory of color vision?

opponent-process

According to the _____ theory of color vision, cells in the visual system respond to red-green and blue-yellow colors.

gestalt

_____ psychology is a school of thought interested in how people naturally organize their perceptions according to certain patterns.

Principle of closure

Although several bulbs have burned out on the Movie Buff theater’s sign at the entrance and the letters are not completely formed, Caleb can still read the announcement for the upcoming movie. Which gestalt principle best accounts for this phenomenon?

similarity

Objects that resemble one another are often perceived as a unit. This is the gestalt principle of _____.

closure

The gestalt principle that reflects the tendency to mentally complete forms and figures that are actually incomplete is known as _____.

configuration

A gestalt is best described as a(n):

the whole is different from the sum of its parts.

Gestalt psychology emphasizes that:

depth perception

The ability to perceive objects three-dimensionally is called:

binocular

In the context of depth perception, _____ cues are ones that depend on the combination of the images in the left and right eyes.

convergance

In the context of depth perception, which of the following is a binocular cue?

monocular cues

In the context of depth perception, familiar size, overlap, and shading are examples of:

texture gradient

In the context of depth perception, which of the following is a monocular cue?

linear perspective

Which of the following monocular cues of depth perception accounts for why parallel lines appear to grow closer as an object recedes into the distance?

apparent movement

In the context of motion perception, _____ occurs when a person perceives a stationary object as moving.

perceptual censtancy

The recognition that objects are unvarying and unchanging even though sensory input about them is changing is known as _____.

size constancy

Derek is watching an airplane fly by. The plane seems to get smaller as it goes farther away. Which of the following aspects of perceptual constancy allows Derek to understand that the airplane is not getting smaller?

color constancy

When a person reads a book, the black ink of the words on the white pages looks the same, regardless of the place, time, and lighting in the room. This best demonstrates the phenomenon of:

size constancy

When Taylor sees a German shepherd standing thirty feet from him, he still recognizes its height even though the image of the dog on his retina is much smaller than the dog’s physical height. This scenario best illustrates the phenomenon of:

size constancy

Derek checks on his new car parked on the street before he goes up to his 19th floor apartment. From his apartment, he looks down and makes sure the car is still there. Even though the image of the car on his retina is smaller from where he is looking, Derek knows that the car is still as big as it was downstairs. This scenario best illustrates the phenomenon of:

frequency

Each key on a touch-tone telephone makes a slightly different sound when touched. This difference is due to the pitch of sound produced by each key. The difference in pitch is determined by the _____ of the sound waves coming from each key.

Loud sounds cause the surrounding air to press more forcibly against the ears than do soft sounds.

In terms of amplitude, which of the following statements correctly differentiates between loud and soft sounds?

decibel

In the auditory system, the unit for measuring the amplitude of sound is _____.

frequency

A sound wave’s _____ is the number of cycles or full wavelengths that pass through a point in a given time interval.

pitch

In the auditory system, _____ is the perceptual interpretation of the frequency of a sound.

amplitude

In the auditory system, a sound wave’s _____ is the amount of pressure the sound wave produces relative to a standard.

loudness

In the auditory system, _____ is the perception of a sound wave’s amplitude.

timbre

In the auditory system, _____ is the tone saturation, or the perceptual quality, of a sound.

timbre

Fred always comments that his mother’s and sister’s voices sound alike on the telephone. Both voices are equally high-pitched and loud. Yet, he is able to tell the voices apart by a subtle difference in their voice quality. This difference is most likely due to the feature of sound known as _____.

Stella’s voice fluctuates in pitch

Danny is a sound editor at a recording studio. He is selecting a voice artist for a new animation movie. While listening to various artists’ voice recordings, he realizes that he likes Stella’s voice, even though it has a consistently high decibel level. He notes, however, that the frequency of Stella’s voice changes rapidly. Keeping this information in mind, which of the following is the most reasonable conclusion about Stella’s voice?

outer, visible part of the ear

In the auditory system, the pinna is the:

bones

In the auditory system, the hammer, anvil, and stirrup are an intricately connected chain of the three smallest _____ in the human body.

collecting sounds and channeling them into the interior of the ear.

In the auditory system, the pinna of the ear is responsible for:

eardrum

In the auditory system, the _____ or tympanic membrane separates the outer ear from the middle ear and vibrates in response to sound.

eardrum

In the auditory system, the bones of the middle ear vibrate by vibrations of the:

hammer

In the auditory system, which of the following structures is present in the middle ear?

They transmit sound waves to the fluid-filled inner ear.

In the auditory system, what is the major function of the hammer, anvil, and stirrup?

oval window

In the auditory system, the _____ is the opening of the inner ear.

The hammer, anvil, and stirrup in Tina’s ears were not performing their functions.

Tina was born with a hearing deficiency. When Dr. Albert studied the physiology of her auditory system, he found that Tina’s eardrums were intact and were receiving auditory stimulus. However, the stimulus was not moving forward from the eardrums and was not reaching the inner ear. Which of the following conclusions is Dr. Albert most likely to have drawn from these findings?

stirrup

In the auditory system, which of the following structures of the middle ear is connected to the oval window?

they amplify sound waves

In the auditory system, which of the following is the function of the muscles of the middle ear?

hair cells

In the auditory system, which of the following is the ear’s sensory receptor?

cochlea

In the auditory system, the _____ is a tubular, fluid-filled structure that is coiled up like a snail.

a cochlear implant

Samantha was injured in a skiing accident, due to which she lost her sense of hearing. The doctor who operated on her injuries stated that the hair cells in Samantha’s ears were damaged. In order to help Samantha detect sound again, the doctor should suggest _____.

each frequency produces vibrations at a particular spot on the basilar membrane of the inner ear.

In the context of the auditory system, place theory states that:

low-freqency sounds

In the context of the auditory system, one critique of place theory is that it does not explain:

the perception of a sound’s frequency depends on how often the auditory nerve fires.

In the context of the auditory system, frequency theory states that:

volley principle

In the context of the auditory system, the _____ was developed to overcome the limitations of the frequency theory.

temporal

The cortical destination of most of the auditory nerve fibers crossing over the midline is the _____ lobes of the brain

sound localization

Emma is waiting for a bus at her regular bus stop when she hears someone calling her name. She is able to identify that the voice is on her left because she feels the sound of the voice more quickly and intensely in her left ear. This can be explained through the phenomenon of _____.

hotness

In the context of the skin senses, when warm and cold receptors that are close to each other in the skin are stimulated simultaneously, a person experiences the sensation of _____.

They respond not only to physical stimuli, but also to chemical stimuli.

In the context of the skin senses, which of the following is true of pain receptors?

The fast pathway connects directly with the thalamus; the slow pathway goes through the limbic system.

What is the difference between the fast and slow neural pathways of pain messages?

Jenny’s fast pathway does not function as well as her slow pathway.

Jenny is a little girl whose experience of pain is different from other children her age. She does not have quick reactions to pain that help her avoid painful situations such as pressing a pin between her fingers or biting down on her hand. However, she is able to feel the prolonged pain from these injuries. Which of the following provides the most likely explanation for Jenny’s responsiveness to pain?

papillae

In the context of the chemical senses, taste buds are bunched together in the:

taste buds are housed in the tounge

In the context of the chemical senses, which of the following is true of the tongue?

It first goes to the olfactory areas in the temporal lobe.

In the context of the chemical senses, which of the following is true of the neural pathway of smell?

smelling a flower

Which of the following actions involves the application of chemical senses?

olfactory epithelium

In the context of the chemical senses, the _____ is the lining of the roof of the nasal cavity which contains a sheet of receptor cells for smell.

muscle fibers and joints

What part of the body is most responsible for kinesthetic senses?

no specific organ contains the kinesthetic senses

Which of the following statements is true of the kinesthetic sense in humans?

proprioceptive feedback.

Abel knows that his legs are crossed and that his hands are on top of his head. This is a demonstration of:

eating a wide variety of fruits

Which of the following is required for healthy eyes?

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