PSY 456 CHAPTER 2

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1. (p. 51) Regarding a mature concept of death, which of the following is true about universality?
A. Organisms that die cannot be made alive again. B. Death involves the cessation of all physiological functions or signs of life.
C. All living things must eventually die.
D. There are biological reasons for the occurrence of death.

C. All living things must eventually die.

2. (p. 51-52) A mature concept of death involves

1. universality.
2. irreversibility.
3. empiricism.
4. causality.

A. 1, 2, and 3
B. 2, 3, and 4
C. 1, 2, and 4
D. 1, 3, and 4

C. 1, 2, and 4

3. (p. 52) What subcomponent of universality makes explicit the understanding not only that all living things die but also that each living thing will die?
A. Personal mortality
B. Inevitability
C. Purposefulness
D. Organicity

A. Personal mortality

4. (p. 52-53) In discussing how people understand death, the term "noncorporeal continuity" refers to the idea that A. death occurs suddenly, without warning.
B. death involves cessation of functioning.
C. human beings survive in some form after the death of the physical body.
D. legal issues must be addressed after death.

C. human beings survive in some form after the death of the physical body.

5. (p. 53) By what age do most children understand that death is a changed state?
A. Preschool years
B. Early elementary years
C. Late elementary years
D. Early middle school years

A. Preschool years

6. (p. 54) Children who have had first-hand encounters with death tend to
A. still believe in reversible death.
B. avoid any mention of it.
C. deny its existence.
D. have a developmentally more mature understanding of death.

D. have a developmentally more mature understanding of death.

7. (p. 54) Studies conducted in the early 1940s by Sylvia Anthony showed that children can give general explanations for death by what age?
A. 5 years old
B. 7 years old
C. 9 years old
D. 12 years old

C. 9 years old

8. (p. 55) The model of human development devised by Erikson focuses on
A. self-identity decisions.
B. stages of psychosocial development.
C. academic operations.
D. internalizing cultural norms.

B. stages of psychosocial development.

9. (p. 55) Which theorist is associated with the developmental model that emphasizes changes in attitudes toward death during different psychosocial stages?
A. Mark Speece
B. Jean Piaget
C. Erik Erikson
D. Gerald Koocher

C. Erik Erikson

10. (p. 56) According to Erikson psychosocial development depends significantly on developing a sense of identity and is linked to the individual’s A. connectedness and independence.
B. genes.
C. cognitive transformation.
D. knowledge base.

A. connectedness and independence.

11. (p. 56) Jean Piaget’s model of development emphasizes
A. cognitive transformations.
B. separation-individuation.
C. the need for developing a sense of basic trust. D. psychosocial development.

A. cognitive transformations.

12. (p. 57) In Piaget’s model, the first two years of life are characterized as the
A. preoperational period.
B. incompetent to competent period.
C. autonomy vs. shame and doubt.
D. sensorimotor.

D. sensorimotor.

13. (p. 58) According to Erik Erikson’s theory, during which developmental stage do children increasingly seek their own direction and purpose?
A. Trust vs. mistrust
B. Autonomy vs. shame
C. Initiative vs. guilt
D. Industry vs. inferiority

C. Initiative vs. guilt

14. (p. 58-59) In Erikson’s model of psychosocial development, in what period is bodily mutilation and disfigurement one of the death related fears?
A. Initiative vs. guilt
B. Anxious vs. confused
C. Industry vs. inferiority
D. Identity vs. role confusion

A. Initiative vs. guilt

15. (p. 59) In Erickson’s model, approximately what age marks the beginning of the child’s moral sense?
A. Birth-2 years
B. Preschool and kindergarten years
C. Middle childhood or school age
D. Adolescent

B. Preschool and kindergarten years

16. (p. 59) According to Jean Piaget, at what stage does a child learn to use language and symbolic thinking to understand the world?
A. Preoperational
B. Concrete operational
C. Formal symbolism
D. Assimilation

A. Preoperational

17. (p. 59) When asked, "What makes things die?" a child responds, "You can die if you swallow a dirty bug." According to Piaget’s theory, this child is probably in which developmental stage?
A. Sensorimotor
B. Formal operational
C. Concrete operational
D. Preoperational

D. Preoperational

18. (p. 60) In the study done by Helen Swain, what percentage of children said that death is unlikely or avoidable?
A. 95 percent
B. 10 percent
C. 50 percent
D. 66 percent

D. 66 percent

19. (p. 60) In Erikson’s model, the years from about six to the beginning of puberty correspond to what stage? A. Autonomy vs. shame
B. Initiative vs. guilt
C. Industry vs. inferiority
D. Identity vs. role confusion

C. Industry vs. inferiority

20. (p. 60) In Erikson’s model, the years from about 6 to the beginning of puberty is sometimes known as the A. elementary age.
B. age of control and adequacy.
C. industrial age.
D. pre-pubescent precocious age.

C. industrial age.

21. (p. 63) In Piaget’s model, what phase is marked by formulating concepts that are abstract or symbolic? A. Symbol-abstract
B. Preoperational
C. Fundamental operations
D. Formal operations

D. Formal operations

22. (p. 67) The acquisition of a mature understanding of death is part of the developmental process known as A. cognition.
B. socialization.
C. maturation.
D. ethnocentrism.

B. socialization.

23. (p. 67) Which of the following best defines socialization?
A. A process of creating visionary beliefs
B. Uprooting and restructuring basic attitudes, values, or identities
C. Learning and internalizing the norms, rules, and values of the society in which a person lives
D. Ways of thinking, feeling, and acting

C. Learning and internalizing the norms, rules, and values of the society in which a person lives

24. (p. 68) What term refers to the uprooting and restructuring of basic attitudes, values, or identities? A. Emerging adulthood
B. Psychosocial transformations
C. Resocialization
D. Enculturation

C. Resocialization

25. (p. 68) Which of the following is an example of resocialization?
A. Learning about death from a hospice caregiver B. Getting married
C. Relocating to a new neighborhood
D. Joining a new urban gang

B. Getting married

26. (p. 68) __________ refers to strategies used to informally teach people about death and dying, involving an effort to change people’s perceptions and behaviors. A. Tactical socialization
B. Resocialization
C. Cognitive transformations
D. Initiative manipulation

A. Tactical socialization

27. (p. 71-75) All of the following tends to be an important influence on the development of children’s attitudes toward death EXCEPT
A. rising funeral costs.
B. social network.
C. children’s literature.
D. family.

A. rising funeral costs.

28. (p. 71-76) Agents of socialization include

1. family and peers.
2. school.
3. employers.
4. religion.

A. 1, 2, and 3
B. 2, 3, and 4
C. 1, 3, and 4
D. 1, 2, and 4

D. 1, 2, and 4

29. (p. 73) Which answer best reflects children’s understandings of John F. Kennedy’s assassination? A. Older children did not express concerns about the impact of Kennedy’s death on the political system. B. Young children worried about the appearance of the president’s body and having to watch the news coverage. C. Younger children did not know who the president was and had no interpretation of his death.
D. Younger children worried about the appearance of the president’s body and the effects of the death on his family.

D. Younger children worried about the appearance of the president’s body and the effects of the death on his family.

30. (p. 74) What is the name of the Chinese version of Little Red Riding Hood or Granny Wolf?
A. Fêng-shui
B. Lon Po Po
C. Kung Hei Fat Choy
D. Koi Lai-Mai

B. Lon Po Po

31. (p. 74-75) The story of Little Red Riding Hood in Chinese tradition differs from the Western version in which of the following ways?
A. The wolf does not die in the Chinese version.
B. The wolf eats the children in the Chinese version. C. There is no wolf in the Chinese version.
D. The three children in the Chinese version work together as a group to kill the wolf.

D. The three children in the Chinese version work together as a group to kill the wolf.

32. (p. 75) Lullabies and nursery rhymes often contain A. wolves who eat people.
B. fairies who save people.
C. themes of death and violence.
D. supernatural powers.

C. themes of death and violence.

33. (p. 75) The text cites the lullaby "Rockabye Baby" to illustrate the point that
A. some lullabies are improper bedtime stories.
B. a number of lullabies contain messages about human and animal death.
C. each ending in life is followed by renewal.
D. singing lullabies is a relatively new ritual.

B. a number of lullabies contain messages about human and animal death.

34. (p. 75) In a study of nursery rhymes, approximately what percentage describe ways in which humans or animals die or are mistreated?
A. 10 percent
B. 25 percent
C. 50 percent
D. 75 percent

C. 50 percent

35. (p. 76) While more young people than ever claim no religion, there seems to be a growing interest in A. spirituality.
B. friendship.
C. near death experiences.
D. social constructionism.

A. spirituality.

36. (p. 76) According to the text, approximately what percentage of Americans are affiliated with a religious tradition?
A. 60 percent
B. 33 percent
C. 50 percent
D. 90 percent

D. 90 percent

37. (p. 76) A "teachable moment" is one in which
A. an opportunity for learning arises out of ordinary experiences.
B. learning flows in a single direction.
C. a parent creates a situation that encourages talking about death.
D. a parent’s questions, enthusiasm, and motivation guide the education process.

A. an opportunity for learning arises out of ordinary experiences.

38. (p. 76) What concept describes opportunities for learning that arise out of unplanned or unexpected occurrences?
A. Concrete operations
B. Primary socialization
C. Teachable moments
D. Nonempirical ideas

C. Teachable moments

39. (p. 51) A child’s mature understanding of death is seen as a single, unidimensional concept.
TRUE or FALSE

FALSE

40. (p. 51) The major aspects of a mature concept of death are mastered in an unfixed, irregular sequential order.
TRUE or FALSE

FALSE

41. (p. 52) Nonfunctionality means that your everyday functioning (going to school or work, self-care, etc.) has diminished due to a recent loss.
TRUE or FALSE

FALSE

42. (p. 52) A mature concept of death includes causality, which implies that adults will often blame someone or something for a loved one’s death.
TRUE or FALSE

FALSE

43. (p. 52) Personal mortality is a subcomponent of universality.
TRUE or FALSE

TRUE

44. (p. 52) Non-empirical ideas are subject to strict scientific proof and observation.
TRUE or FALSE

FALSE

45. (p. 56) According to Piaget, we construct our knowledge based on what we already know.
TRUE or FALSE

TRUE

46. (p. 57) Exercising independence is a hallmark of Erikson’s autonomy versus shame and doubt stage.
TRUE or FALSE

TRUE

47. (p. 59) The Copernican stage marks the beginning of a child’s moral sense.
TRUE or FALSE

FALSE

48. (p. 60) In Helen Swain’s study, most children expressed the notion that death is reversible.
TRUE or FALSE

TRUE

49. (p. 67) Through socialization, younger members of a society acquire knowledge from older generations.
TRUE or FALSE

TRUE

50. (p. 68) An example of the term resocialization is the starting of a new job.
TRUE or FALSE

TRUE

51. (p. 68) Tactical socialization involves actively attempting to change people’s perceptions and behaviors about some aspect of their social world.
TRUE or FALSE

TRUE

52. (p. 73) Following the assassination of President Kennedy, older children were more concerned than younger children about the appearance of the president’s body.
TRUE or FALSE

FALSE

53. (p. 73) In the nineteenth century, violence in children’s stories was downplayed, virtually non-existent, and rarely graphic or gory.
TRUE or FALSE

FALSE

54. (p. 75) Lullabies containing themes of death and violence are seen predominantly in American culture and first appeared as a twentieth century form of mourning songs.
TRUE or FALSE

FALSE

55. (p. 76-77) A "teachable" moment is most often best reserved for the classroom.
TRUE or FALSE

FALSE

56. (p. 80-81) Veterinary schools can provide information on pet cemeteries, burials and cremation, but may not discuss hospice care for pets.
TRUE or FALSE

FALSE

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