PSY 285 exam 3, CH. 10

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Dr. Kline, an environmental psychologist, conducts a survey to examining whether visiting zoos causes people to have more positive attitude toward environmental conservation. He asks a group of 45 people attending the zoo on Saturday morning about their attitudes. He finds that 69% of the people report having a positive attitude after their visit. What is NOT true of Dr. Kline’s study?

He does not have a dependent variable

Which of the following is a threat to internal validity found within groups designs but not in independent designs?
a. design confounds
b. selection effects
c. demand characteristics
d. practice effects

d. practice effects

Dr. Losbury is doing a follow up study in which instead of asking participants to listen to music to induce mood, she has them write either a story about a character who just won the lottery or a story about a character who just experienced death of their spouce. This change in the mood variable is designed to enhance the study’s:
a. statistical validity
b. External validity
c. internal validity
d. construct validity

b. external validity

Dr. Acitelli was concerned that asking participants how long it took them to fall asleep would lead to suspect that was the purpose of the study. Her decision to measure how long it took participants to go to sleep using the EEG instead of self report was meant to decrease which of the following?
a. selection effects
b. demand characteristics
c. counter balancing effects
d. order effects

b. demand characteristics

Random selection enhances _______ and random assignment enhances________
a. external, internal
b. external, external
c. internal, external
d. internal, internal

a. external, internal

Which of the following is NOT true of selection effects?
a. They are unimportant for interpreting internal validity
b. They can occur when researchers assign one type of person to one treatment group and another type of person to another treatment group.
c. they are a type of construct
d. They can occur when experimenters allow participants to choose their own treatment group

a. They are unimportant for interpreting internal validity

Which of the following is NOT a reason that a researcher might choose a pretest/post-test design?
a. to ensure that random assignment made the treatment/comparison groups equal
b. To determine how groups change over the course of the experiment
c. to make a strong causal claim
d. to allow for the study of spontaneous behavior

d. to allow for the study of spontaneous behavior

Running to experiments at the same time is:
a. post test only design
b. repeated measure design
c. concurrent measure design
d. longitudinal design

c. concurrent measure design

Using a matched group design is especially important in which of the following cases?
a. when you have only a few participants
b. when you have a complex dependent variable
c. when you have at least three/ levels of the independent variables
d. when you do not have a control group

a. when you have only a few participants

Which of the following research designs is used to address possible selection effects?
a. correlation designs
b. pretest/post test designs
c. matched groups design
d. post test only designs

c. matched groups design

All of the following are advantages of within-groups designs EXCEPT:
a. It is less time consuming for the participants
b. they require fewer participants
c. It gives researchers more power to find differences between conditions
d. participants in the treatment/control groups will be equivalent

a. It is less time consuming for the participants

Which of the following is NOT a disadvantage of within-groups designs?
a. These designs rely on fewer participants
b. there is a potential for order effects
c. there is a potential for demanded characters
d. depending on the independent variable, these designs are not always possible.

a. These designs rely on fewer participants

Experiments use random assignment to avoid which of the following?
a. selection effects
b. carryover effects
c. demand characteristics
d. Random selection

a. selection effects

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