PSY 240 Chapter 10 – Sexual and Gender Identity Disorders

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The difference between hypoactive sexual desire disorder and sexual aversion disorder is that

A. hypoactive sexual desire disorder involves excessive sexual desire.
B. sexual aversion disorder involves excessive sexual desire.
C. hypoactive sexual desire disorder involves fear, panic, or disgust brought about by the thought of
sex or a brief touch.
D. sexual aversion disorder involves fear, panic, or disgust brought about by the thought of sex or a
brief touch.

D. sexual aversion disorder involves fear, panic, or disgust brought about by the thought of sex or a brief touch.

_____ refers to psychological dissatisfaction with one’s biological gender.

A. Paraphilia
B. Gender identity disorder
C. Transvestic fetishism
D. Dyspareunia

B. Gender identity disorder

_____ describes a group of disorders in which sexual arousal occurs in the context of inappropriate objects or non-consenting people.

A. Paraphilia
B. Gender identity disorder
C. Transvestic fetishism
D. Dyspareunia
E. My diary

A. Paraphilia

The incidence of _____ shows the largest difference between the genders in sexual behaviors.

A. oral sex
B. casual sex
C. masturbation
D. unprotected sex

C. masturbation

The major aspect(s) involved in the assessment of sexual behavior include(s):

A. interviewing
B. thorough medical evaluation
C. psychophysiological assessment
D. all of the above

D. all of the above

Which of the following is not a paraphilia?

A. sadistic rape
B. fetishism
C. exhibitionism
D. sexual sadism

A. sadistic rape

Major biological contributions to the development of sexual dysfunctions include:

A. endocrine deficiencies
B. neurobiological diseases
C. anxiety
D. both a and c

B. neurobiological diseases

Research reports have suggested that homosexuality is

A. more likely concordant among monozygotic twins than among dizygotic twins or non-twin siblings.
B. associated with exposure to hormones before birth.
C. dependent upon certain environmental contributions.
D. all of the above

D. all of the above

If a man can obtain a normal erectile response while asleep, but not while with a partner, the cause of his sexual dysfunction likely

A. is psychological in nature.
B. is physiological in nature.
C. involves problems with his biological clock.
D. is non-existent.
E. is still unknown.

E. is still unknown.

_____ is defined as recurrent, intense sexually arousing fantasies, sexual urges, or behaviors involving acts in which the psychological or physical suffering of a victim is sexually exciting to a person. Recurrent, intense sexually arousing fantasies, sexual urges, or behaviors involving acts of being humiliated, beaten, bound, or otherwise made to suffer is characteristic of _____.

A. Sexual sadism; sadistic rape
B. Sexual sadism; sexual masochism
C. Sexual masochism; sadistic rape
D. Sadistic rape; sexual masochism

B. Sexual sadism; sexual masochism

Which of the following is NOT characteristic of sex disorders involving pain?

A. The two types of pain disorders are dyspareunia and vaginismus.
B. Vaginismus is more common than dyspareunia.
C. Women report more cases of dyspareunia than do men.
D. Prevalence of vaginismus does not vary significantly in different cultures.

D. Prevalence of vaginismus does not vary significantly in different cultures.

Male orgasmic disorder is

A. most commonly referred to as retarded ejaculation disorder.
B. also known as premature ejaculation disorder.
C. commonly referred to as retrograde ejaculation disorder.
D. none of the above

A. most commonly referred to as retarded ejaculation disorder.

The development of deviant patterns of sexual arousal may be associated with

A. levels of "desired" arousal in consenting adults.
B. deficiencies in consensual adult social skills.
C. early sexual fantasies that are reinforced through masturbation.
D. all of the above

D. all of the above

Which of the following is true about sexual practices in the United States?

A. There are more females than males engaged in exclusively homosexual activity.
B. The regular use of condoms during sexual intercourse has not increased over the last 20 years.
C. Sexual practices in the United States are very similar to those in Britain and France.
D. Masturbation is positively correlated with better sexual functioning in older age.

C. Sexual practices in the United States are very similar to those in Britain and France.

_____ is a psychosocial treatment carried out entirely in the imagination of the patient.

A. Orgasmic reconditioning
B. Covert sensitization
C. Imaginary relapse reconditioning
D. Relapse prevention

B. Covert sensitization

Because of the high risk involved, it is disturbing that approximately _____ of men in the United States have had 20 or more sexual partners.

A. 5%
B. 13%
C. 25%
D. 50%

C. 25%

A likely explanation for the gender differences in frequency of masturbation is

A. anatomical differences between men and women.
B. women being socialized to associate sex with intimacy whereas men are socialized to associate sex with physical gratification.
C. gender differences in attitudes toward sexuality.
D. greater societal approval of masturbation in women than in men.

A. anatomical differences between men and women.

What is considered to be "normal" sexual behavior

A. is remarkably similar across cultures.
B. is culture-dependent.
C. is determined by the dominant religious organizations.
D. will vary greatly depending on gender.
E. should be determined by the legislature or ruling group

B. is culture-dependent.

Unlike most boys his age, young Tim spends most of his time with girls, playing games usually associated with girls. According to one theorist, this pattern may contribute to homosexual development in Tim because

A. it makes girls too familiar to consider as sex partners.
B. it makes boys more exotic.
C. it makes boys more attractive.
D. all of the above derive from the theory.

D. all of the above derive from the theory.

Which of the following sexual disorders are gender-specific?

A. vaginismus and sexual arousal disorder
B. hypoactive sexual desire disorder
C. vaginismus and premature ejaculation
D. dyspareunia and premature ejaculation

C. vaginismus and premature ejaculation

According to the text, each stage of sexual activity has disorders associated with it. These stages,in order, are

A. desire, orgasm, arousal.
B. arousal, desire, orgasm.
C. desire, arousal, orgasm.
D. arousal, orgasm, desire.
E. lather, rinse, repeat.

C. desire, arousal, orgasm.

As you prepare to open your own Sexual Disorders Clinic, you need to order some specialized equipment. All of the following devices can be used to measure the ability of individuals to become sexually aroused except

A. penile strain gauge.
B. vaginal photoplethysmograph.
C. sphygmomanometer.
D. all of the above are appropriate measures.

C. sphygmomanometer.

You have a friend who plans to use alcohol as part of a seduction scenario. You warn of the increased risk of unprotected sex in these conditions. You also point out the effect(s) of alcohol on sexual arousal and behavior:

A. alcohol increases arousal and facilitates performance.
B. alcohol suppresses central nervous system functioning, thus making it more difficult for men to achieve erection and for women to achieve lubrication.
C. alcohol makes one socially more inhibited.
D. alcohol increases central nervous system functioning, thus making it easier for men to achieve erection but more difficult for women to achieve lubrication.

B. alcohol suppresses central nervous system functioning, thus making it more difficult for men to achieve erection and for women to achieve lubrication.

A client you are treating for her sexual dysfunction relates a recent situation where a sexual encounter seemed likely. In that situation she probably

A. had excessively high expectations.
B. became totally focused on sex alone, to the exclusion of any distraction.
C. underestimated how physically aroused she was.
D. all of the above
E. none of the above

C. underestimated how physically aroused she was.

Tom thinks he shows his love and worthiness as a sex partner by working hard at the office and keeping the house in good repair. His wife Maria can’t feel sexy unless he woos her with gifts and loving words. Theorist John Gagnon would say they differ in their

A. cognitive restructuring.
B. irrational beliefs.
C. texts.
D. scripts.
E. proposals.

D. scripts.

Roderick and his partner are seeking treatment for Roderick’s premature ejaculation. The therapist encourages the couple to stimulate Roderick’s penis to nearly full erection and then to squeeze the penis firmly to quickly reduce arousal. After repeating this process, insertion is to be attempted without thrusting and the penis removed if arousal proceeds too quickly. This treatment is called

A. torture.
B. erotic desensitization.
C. stimulus removal.
D. the squeeze technique.
E. retarded ejaculation.

D. the squeeze technique.

About 50% of patients who seek treatment at sexuality clinics complain of

A. sexual aversion.
B. loss of appetite.
C. premature ejaculation.
D. vaginismus.
E. hypoactive sexual desire.

B. loss of appetite.

Which of the following statements characterize men with sexual dysfunction?

A. They show decreased arousal under "performance demand" conditions.
B. They are distracted by nonsexual stimuli.
C. They experience negative affect.
D. a and c
E. all of the above

E. all of the above

Which of the following is a procedure used to strengthen more appropriate patterns of sexual arousal?

A. the squeeze technique
B. telephone scatologia
C. klismaphilia
D. orgasmic reconditioning

D. orgasmic reconditioning

Gender identity disorders are characterized by dissatisfaction with:

A. sexual experiences
B. gender role expectations
C. one’s biological sex
D. media portrayals of gender

C. one’s biological sex

Among men surveyed for a CDC study, _____ were sexually experienced:

A. almost 100%
B. just over 40%
C. approximately 75%
D. about 12%

A. almost 100%

Sexual behavior surveys suggest that:

A. almost all men have more than 20 sexual partners
B. most men have very little sexual experience
C. about 23% of men have had more than 20 sexual partners
D. about 11% of men have had more than 20 sexual partners

A. almost all men have more than 20 sexual partners

Recent studies on sexual practice indicate that sexual practices are:

A. consistent all over the world
B. very different in Western and Asian countries
C. inconsistent no matter where they are measured
D. culturally diverse

A. consistent all over the world

The largest difference in sexual behavior for men versus women is that:

A. men are more likely to engage in premarital sex
B. women are more likely to engage in premarital sex
C. men are more likely to masturbate
D. women are more likely to masturbate

C. men are more likely to masturbate

Differences in male and female attitudes toward sexuality have generally _____ over the past 40
years.

A. decreased
B. increased
C. remained the same
D. disappeared completely

A. decreased

Data from research studies on gender differences in human sexuality reflect all of the following themes EXCEPT:

A. men masturbate more than women
B. men are more permissive about casual premarital sex than women
C. men are less accepting about homosexuality than women
D. men and women value sexual satisfaction equally

B. men are more permissive about casual premarital sex than women

Gender differences in attitudes towards premarital sex have been ____ over time

A. shrinking
B. increasing
C. fluctuating
D. unreliable

A. shrinking

Data from research studies on gender differences in human sexuality (Peplau, 2003) reflect all of the following themes EXCEPT:

A. men show more sexual desire and arousal than women
B. men emphasize committed relationships more than women
C. men’s self-concept is characterized in part by power, aggression and independence
D. women’s sexual beliefs are more influenced by cultural, social and situational factors

B. men emphasize committed relationships more than women

Which of the following is true regarding sexuality?

A. Women desire demonstrations of love and intimacy during sex, while men focus on arousal.
B. Men and women focus mostly on sexual arousal during sex.
C. Men tend to be aroused by both males and female sexual stimuli, while women respond only to male sexual stimuli.
D. Men and women focus equally on the romantic aspects of their sexual experiences.

A. Women desire demonstrations of love and intimacy during sex, while men focus on arousal.

In Sweden, where attitudes toward sexuality are somewhat more permissive than they are in the United States, the percentage of Swedish women reporting use of contraception during their first sexual intercourse was:

A. significantly higher than it was for American women
B. significantly lower than it was for American women
C. approximately the same as it was for American women
D. just about 100%

A. significantly higher than it was for American women

Research regarding sexual orientation suggests that homosexuality is:

A. purely genetic
B. completely caused by biological factors
C. based on learning and choice only
D. influenced by biological/genetic, psychological and social factors

D. influenced by biological/genetic, psychological and social factors

Joe is homosexual and has an identical (monozygotic) twin named Sam. The following statement is true:

A. Sam is more likely than the general population to be homosexual.
B. Sam is no more likely than the general population to be homosexual.
C. Sam is homosexual also.
D. Sam is only likely to become homosexual if Joe is a positive role model.

A. Sam is more likely than the general population to be homosexual.

Of those identical (monozygotic) twins where one twin is homosexual, the other twin is also homosexual in 50% of cases. This means:

A. homosexuality is determined by genetics
B. genes are only one influence for sexual orientation
C. the environment determines sexual orientation
D. genes are not an influence for sexual orientation

B. genes are only one influence for sexual orientation

Which of the following does not support the fact that homosexuality is related to differential hormone exposure in utero?

A. Homosexual males are more likely to be left handed or mixed handed than right handed.
B. Males and masculine lesbians often have a longer fourth ring finger than index finger.
C. Homosexual males have smaller feet than heterosexual males.
D. Actual structure of the brain might be different in homosexuals than heterosexuals.

C. Homosexual males have smaller feet than heterosexual males.

Recent research on the causes of sexual orientation indicates that:

A. there is a single genetic cause for the development of one’s orientation
B. there is a single psychological cause for development of one’s orientation
C. there are many pathways to the development of sexual orientation
D. people develop sexual orientation randomly

C. there are many pathways to the development of sexual orientation

Statistically, homosexual males are more likely to have grown up with:

A. older brothers
B. older sisters
C. younger brothers
D. younger sisters

A. older brothers

Gender identity disorder is diagnosed when:

A. a person’s physical gender is inconsistent with the person’s gender identity
B. an individual receives sexual pleasure from cross-dressing
C. an individual is born with ambiguous genitalia
D. all of these are correct

A. a person’s physical gender is inconsistent with the person’s gender identity

According to recent surveys (Diokno et al., 1990), the following statement is true regarding sexual activity of the elderly:

A. very few individuals remain sexually active beyond age 70
B. more than half of the individuals over age 70 remain sexually active
C. 80% of males and 50% of women aged 75 – 79 remained sexually active
D. 50% of males and 36% of women aged 75 – 79 remained sexually active

D. 50% of males and 36% of women aged 75 – 79 remained sexually active

Of the following, the individual who should be diagnosed with gender identity disorder is:

A. Joe, who gets sexually aroused by wearing women’s bras
B. Lisa, who is gay and has many traditional masculine traits
C. Mark, who feels like a woman trapped in a man’s body
D. Sid, who can only become sexually aroused while dressed like a woman

C. Mark, who feels like a woman trapped in a man’s body

The incidence of gender identity disorder is:

A. very low, with far less than 1% of the population affected
B. very low, with approximately 1% of the population affected
C. moderately low, with approximately 1% to 5% of the population affected
D. moderate, with about 5% or more of the population affected

A. very low, with far less than 1% of the population affected

The new approaches to understanding and treating intersexed individuals that have been proposed recently (Fausto-Sterling, 2000) are based on the concept of "five sexes" which include all of the following EXCEPT:

A. "herms"
B. "merms" and "ferms"
C. males and females
D. "andros" and "estros"

D. "andros" and "estros"

Transsexuals who change gender identity:

A. are always attracted to people of their previous sex
B. are always attracted to people of their new sex
C. vary in who they are attracted to
D. lose their sexual attractiveness

C. vary in who they are attracted to

The psychosocial treatment of Joe, a young man with gender identity disorder, described in your textbook suggests that:

A. gender identity can be influenced with therapy but sexual orientation will not change B. sexual orientation can be influenced by therapy but gender identity will not change
C. both gender identity and sexual orientation can be influenced by therapy
D. sex reassignment surgery is the only treatment option for gender identity disorder

C. both gender identity and sexual orientation can be influenced by therapy

Recent twin studies suggest that the majority of the vulnerability for gender identity disorder comes from:

A. genetic factors
B. environmental factors
C. medical accidents
D. media exposure

A. genetic factors

Studies suggest that in comparison to other girls and boys, CAH girls are:

A. more feminine
B. more masculine
C. smaller
D. smarter

B. more masculine

Sexual dysfunctions are:

A. more common in heterosexuals than homosexuals
B. more common in homosexuals than heterosexuals
C. equally common in heterosexuals and homosexuals
D. generally not reported, so little is known about their incidence

C. equally common in heterosexuals and homosexuals

The incidence of sexual dysfunctions in the United States is approximately:

A. 43% of women and 31% of men
B. under 10% for both men and women
C. 43% of men and 31% of women
D. 31% for both men and women

A. 43% of women and 31% of men

A boy who consistently behaves in feminine ways is exhibiting:

A. gender non-activation
B. gender experimentation
C. gender crises
D. gender non-conformity

D. gender non-conformity

Research suggests that gender non-conformity typically results in:

A. gender identity issues
B. homosexual preferences
C. bisexuality
D. none of the above

D. none of the above

Intersexuality refers to people who:

A. are born with the physical characteristics of both sexes
B. are sexually attracted to members of both sexes
C. like to dress like the opposite sex
D. are no longer sexually active

A. are born with the physical characteristics of both sexes

Which of the following is not one of the 3 stages of sexual response?

A. desire
B. arousal
C. orgasm
D. refractory period

C. orgasm

Which of the following is the most prevalent of any psychological or physiological disorder in the U.S.?

A. depression
B. schizophrenia
C. anxiety
D. sexual disorders

D. sexual disorders

Sexual problems are difficult to diagnose when:

A. dysfunction is present and the person is distressed about it
B. dysfunction is present but the person is not distressed about it
C. the couple has been together a long time
D. the couple is sexually inexperienced

B. dysfunction is present but the person is not distressed about it

Happily married couples typically report:

A. occasional sexual dysfunction which does not result in sexual dissatisfaction
B. occasional sex dysfunction which is associated with sexual dissatisfaction
C. very little sexual dysfunction
D. sexual dysfunction on the part of women but not men

A. occasional sexual dysfunction which does not result in sexual dissatisfaction

Of the following, the individual most likely to receive an appropriate diagnosis of hypoactive sexual desire disorder is:

A. Sue, who fantasizes about sex often but is so exhausted when she gets home that she only has sex about twice a month
B. John, who thinks about sex, but does not have sexual relations because he thinks it is morally wrong to do so unless the goal is procreation
C. Mary, whose husband wishes she thought about sex more often because she seems satisfied having sex a few times a month
D. Fred, who has sex at least once a week to satisfy his wife, but would prefer to be left alone since he is rarely interested in sex

D. Fred, who has sex at least once a week to satisfy his wife, but would prefer to be left alone since he is rarely interested in sex

The individual with the greatest likelihood of hypoactive sexual desire disorder is a(n):

A. 18-year-old male
B. 30-year-old male
C. 30-year-old female
D. 45-year-old female

C. 30-year-old female

A person who reports low sexual disorder might:

A. never think about sex
B. never have sex
C. have sex, but not because of desire
D. all of the above

D. all of the above

Just the thought of sex makes Harry anxious. When exposed to sexual images, he reports feeling disgust. Harry would most likely be diagnosed with:

A. hypoactive sexual desire disorder
B. hyperactive sexual desire disorder
C. sexual aversion disorder
D. gender identity disorder

C. sexual aversion disorder

Approximately 25% of the patients with sexual aversion disorder also suffer from associated:

A. panic attacks
B. paraphilias
C. hypoactive sexual desire disorder
D. gender identity disorder

A. panic attacks

The main feature of sexual arousal disorders is:

A. lack of desire for sex despite normal physical sexual response
B. sexual arousal to inappropriate stimuli
C. the experience of pain during sex
D. lack of physical sexual response despite desire for sex

D. lack of physical sexual response despite desire for sex

Sexual arousal disorders are diagnosed when there is an:

A. inability to achieve or maintain an erection in males and a lack of desire for sex in females
B. inability to achieve or maintain an erection in males and a lack of orgasm in females
C. inability to achieve orgasm for either gender despite erection in males and lubrication in females
D. inability to achieve or maintain an erection in males and a lack of lubrication in females

D. inability to achieve or maintain an erection in males and a lack of lubrication in females

Based on stringent criteria, research data indicate that the percentage of men between the ages of 18 and 59 with erectile dysfunction is:

A. 1%
B. 3%
C. 5%
D. 10%

C. 5%

What is the percentage of men in their 70s with at least some impairment of erectile function?

A. 3%
B. 5%
C. 20%
D. 70%

D. 70%

The prevalence of sexual arousal disorders is:

A. much higher for men than it is for women
B. much lower for men than it is for women
C. about the same in both sexes
D. slightly lower for men than it is for women

A. much higher for men than it is for women

The percentage of women reporting significant difficulty reaching orgasm is:

A. 5%
B. 10%
C. 25%
D. 40%

C. 25%

One reason that different diagnostic criteria are used for males and females with inhibited orgasm disorder is that:

A. the disorder is relatively rare in men
B. only about 20% of women regularly experience orgasm from intercourse
C. both a and b are correct
D. neither a nor b is correct

C. both a and b are correct

Sandra and Jim have been happily married for several years. Sandra reports that she reaches orgasm from intercourse only about half of the time and she wonders if something is "wrong" with her. Sandra should:

A. seek treatment for inhibited orgasm disorder
B. realize that her inhibited orgasm problem means that she doesn’t really love Jim
C. relax and realize that this is not unusual for women
D. have a medical exam before assuming that she has a diagnosable psychological disorder

C. relax and realize that this is not unusual for women

Jody and Howard have been happily married for several years. Howard reports that in spite of being sexually aroused and having an erection, he only reaches orgasm from intercourse about half of the time. Howard wonders if something is "wrong" with him. Howard should:

A. seek treatment for inhibited orgasm disorder
B. realize that this problem means that he does not really love his wife
C. relax and realize that this is normal
D. seek treatment for sexual aversion disorder

A. seek treatment for inhibited orgasm disorder

The most common of all the male sexual dysfunctions is:

A. erectile dysfunction
B. inhibited orgasm
C. premature ejaculation
D. sexual aversion

C. premature ejaculation

The following paring is correct based on the ages most affected by the disorders:

A. young men – premature ejaculation; older men – sexual aversion
B. young men – premature ejaculation; older men – erectile dysfunction
C. young men – inhibited orgasm; older men – erectile dysfunction
D. young men – erectile dysfunction; older men – sexual aversion

B. young men – premature ejaculation; older men – erectile dysfunction

One reason that it is difficult to provide a precise diagnosis of premature ejaculation is that:

A. the concept of "too soon" is dependent on the individual and the couple
B. most men are too ashamed to admit the problem
C. women generally are reluctant to tell their partners of the problem
D. men are often unaware of what is considered "normal"

A. the concept of "too soon" is dependent on the individual and the couple

Premature ejaculations are:

A. clearly defined by the amount of time between penetration and climax
B. generally a result of perception of control rather than actual time
C. are always a sign of serious sexual problems
D. increase with sexual experience

B. generally a result of perception of control rather than actual time

Before diagnosing a sexual pain disorder, it is necessary to rule out:

A. relationship issues that could be the cause of the dysfunction
B. other sexual dysfunction such as sexual aversion disorder that has almost identical symptoms
C. a medical cause of the pain
D. vaginismus

C. a medical cause of the pain

The condition called "dyspareunia" is diagnosed:

A. when intercourse is uncomfortable or painful
B. when medical conditions are ruled out as a cause of painful intercourse
C. only when vaginismus is also present
D. only when pain is present in the genital area

B. when medical conditions are ruled out as a cause of painful intercourse

Vaginismus refers to:

A. painful pelvic spasms during penetration
B. painful cramps during the menstrual cycle
C. strong orgasms
D. a disorder of male sexual responsivity

A. painful pelvic spasms during penetration

The experience of vaginismus is highest in:

A. sexually liberal cultures
B. sexually conservative cultures
C. poor countries
D. developed countries

B. sexually conservative cultures

One reason that your text suggests questionnaires be used when assessing sexual behavior is that:

A. people may provide more sexual information in writing than during an interview
B. written information regarding sexuality has been shown to be more accurate than verbal report
C. therapists are often uncomfortable asking questions regarding sexual behavior
D. the therapist needs a written record in the patient’s own words to demonstrate progress as the patient improves

A. people may provide more sexual information in writing than during an interview

One of the most important skills that therapists must possess when conducting an interview regarding sexual behavior is:

A. communicating their own sexual values
B. using only the proper clinical terms for sexual behavior
C. demonstrating that they are comfortable talking about sexual issues
D. being able to diagnose medical causes of sexual dysfunction

C. demonstrating that they are comfortable talking about sexual issues

Psychophysiological assessment of sexual dysfunction is generally conducted by:

A. using a device that measures physical arousal during exposure to an erotic video or audio tape
B. asking patients to keep a diary of their sexual activities
C. a physician during a medical exam
D. using a device that measures brain waves during exposure to an erotic video or audio tape

A. using a device that measures physical arousal during exposure to an erotic video or audio tape

A male patient complaining of erectile dysfunction is observed to have a complete lack of nocturnal penile erections while sleeping. We can conclude that:

A. more information is needed to diagnose his problem
B. his erectile dysfunction is caused by a medication side effect
C. his erectile dysfunction is due to psychological difficulties
D. his erectile dysfunction is caused by a medical problem

A. more information is needed to diagnose his problem

A situation in which a patient experiences more than one sexual disorder at the same time (for example, erectile dysfunction and premature ejaculation) is:

A. very uncommon
B. impossible in many cases (i.e., erectile dysfunction and premature ejaculation)
C. common
D. almost always due to a medical condition

C. common

Two extremely common medical causes of erectile dysfunction are:

A. asthma and diabetes
B. vascular disease and diabetes
C. vascular disease and asthma
D. arthritis and diabetes

B. vascular disease and diabetes

Approximately 75% of individuals taking ____ medication experience some degree of sexual dysfunction.

A. SSRI
B. beta blocker
C. tricyclic antidepressant
D. anti-hypertensive

A. SSRI

Sherri and Leo have been having some sexual difficulties lately. Both have experienced some symptoms of sexual arousal disorders. They decide to have a few glasses of wine before engaging in sex tonight. Is this a good idea or a bad idea?

A. It’s a good idea since wine could increase desire.
B. It’s a good idea since wine could help performance.
C. It’s a bad idea since wine could further impair arousal.
D. It’s a bad idea since wine tends to decrease desire.

C. It’s a bad idea since wine could further impair arousal.

The effects of alcohol on sexual behavior were well noted by William Shakespeare and can be summarized as:

A. alcohol decreases desire and performance
B. alcohol may increase desire but it decreases performance
C. alcohol may increase performance but it decreases desire
D. alcohol may increase desire, but nobody wants to sleep with a drunk!

C. alcohol may increase performance but it decreases desire

Our current understanding of the psychological causes of sexual dysfunction suggests that the primary psychological factor in sexual dysfunction is:

A. anxiety
B. distraction
C. relationship issues
D. unreasonable expectations

B. distraction

As a typical male with erectile dysfunction, we can expect Bill to show:

A. decreased arousal during performance demand and an inaccurate sense of how aroused he is
B. decreased arousal during performance demand and an accurate sense of how aroused he is
C. increased arousal during performance demand and an inaccurate sense of how aroused he is
D. increased arousal during performance demand and an accurate sense of how aroused he is

A. decreased arousal during performance demand and an inaccurate sense of how aroused he is

The original concept of performance anxiety as a cause of sexual dysfunction has been replaced with a more modern view that performance anxiety is comprised of:

A. distraction, cognition and depression
B. arousal, anxiety and distraction
C. cognition, arousal and distraction
D. arousal, cognitive processes and negative affect

D. arousal, cognitive processes and negative affect

Greg often has problems with premature ejaculation. As he becomes more anxious about his problem, the amount of time between initiating intercourse and ejaculation will most likely:

A. increase
B. decrease
C. remain the same
D. depend upon what is making him anxious

B. decrease

Research indicates that sexual arousal is strongly determined by:

A. cognitive factors
B. affective factors
C. biological factors
D. all of the above

D. all of the above

The most accurate description for the condition called erotophobia is:

A. negative feelings toward sexuality
B. negative feelings about other people
C. fear of sex
D. fear of being raped

A. negative feelings toward sexuality

Children or young adults who experience sexual victimization are:

A. no more likely to experience sexual dysfunction as adults than anyone else
B. more likely to experience sexual dysfunction as adults if they are females
C. more likely to experience sexual dysfunction as adults if they are males
D. more likely to experience sexual dysfunction as adults

D. more likely to experience sexual dysfunction as adults

Sexual dysfunction is often related to:

A. dislike for partner
B. perception of self as less attractive than before
C. guilt about sex
D. all of the above

An unusually high concern with nocturnal emissions has been reported in where there is a _____ strong culturally held belief that loss of semen causes depletion of physical and mental energy.

A. Ireland
B. Indonesia
C. India
D. Iceland

C. India

Belief in common sexual myths such as "women normally reach orgasm every time they have intercourse" are more commonly held by men:

A. who do not have sexual disorders
B. with conservative sexual attitudes
C. who have sexual disorders
D. who are homosexual

C. who have sexual disorders

Development of sexual dysfunction can be viewed as a "vicious circle" since the typical case progresses in the following manner:

A. initial dysfunction may be triggered by an event such as substance use; concern about the dysfunction then leads to more dysfunction and sex itself becomes associated with negative feelings
B. initial dysfunction may be triggered by an event such as substance use; this causes a strain on the relationship and reduces the intimacy in the relationship, which then leads to anxiety about one’s desirability
C. initial dysfunction occurs through slow and gradual deterioration, possibly due to a medical condition; as the medical condition develops, the individual’s concern with failing sexuality increases, resulting in relationship problems
D. a general medical condition triggers the first dysfunction, which is followed by increased anxiety; as the anxiety increases, the sexual dysfunction becomes more severe over time and causes loss of interest in sex

A. initial dysfunction may be triggered by an event such as substance use; concern about the dysfunction then leads to more dysfunction and sex itself becomes associated with negative feelings

The authors of your textbook suggest that one of the most effective treatments for many sexual dysfunctions is:

A. exploration of the patient’s sexual orientation
B. improving the relationship with the patient’s partner
C. education regarding normal sexuality
D. anti-anxiety medication

C. education regarding normal sexuality

Sensate focus and non-demand pleasuring were designed by Masters and Johnson to treat sexual dysfunctions primarily through:

A. improving a couple’s sexual skills
B. identifying medical conditions that contribute to sexual dysfunction
C. involving an objective third party
D. elimination of psychologically-based performance anxiety

D. elimination of psychologically-based performance anxiety

Maggie and Jim have started sex therapy to deal with Jim’s recent erectile dysfunction. The therapist has instructed them to refrain from intercourse or genital touching but to spend the next several days enjoying each other through hugging, kissing and mutual massage. This is an example of:

A. stage one of sensate focus treatment
B. stage two of sensate focus treatment
C. a strict behavioral treatment for erectile dysfunction
D. the first step in cognitive therapy for erectile dysfunction

A. stage one of sensate focus treatment

Stage two of sensate focus involves "genital pleasuring" but prohibits intercourse or orgasm. The main purpose of this stage is to:

A. allow an individual to communicate his or her desires to the partner
B. change the usual ways that the couple has tried to have sex
C. allow sexual experience without the anxiety of performance
D. provide increased anticipation of intercourse

C. allow sexual experience without the anxiety of performance

As a couple completes stage two of sensate focus therapy, they are instructed to:

A. return to full, prior sexual activity
B. slowly begin sexual activity, continuing non-demand pleasuring as they progress
C. take a break from sexual activity for several weeks and then slowly return to normal sexuality
D. begin the "genital pleasuring" stage of the treatment

B. slowly begin sexual activity, continuing non-demand pleasuring as they progress

Masters and Johnson reported that the use of sensate focus therapy for the treatment of premature ejaculation was effective in _____ of cases treated.

A. 50%
B. 65%
C. 75%
D. almost 100%

D. almost 100%

Treatment effectiveness studies of Masters and Johnson’s sensate focus therapy have indicated that:

A. certain aspects of the treatment such as two therapists and daily therapy are not necessary
B. many therapists using Masters and Johnson’s techniques are able to demonstrate even greater treatment effectiveness than Masters and Johnson did
C. daily treatment is a critical component of the method
D. sensate focus is generally only effective when administered by Masters and Johnson

A. certain aspects of the treatment such as two therapists and daily therapy are not necessary

Sex therapy for erectile dysfunction has produced a positive treatment outcome in approximately ____ of the cases treated.

A. 25%
B. 45%
C. 65%
D. 85%

C. 65%

The sex therapy technique designed specifically to treat premature ejaculation is:

A. the squeeze technique
B. sensate focus
C. non-demand pleasuring
D. cognitive restructuring

A. the squeeze technique

The specific treatment found effective in the treatment of female orgasmic disorder is:

A. anti-anxiety medication
B. sensate focus
C. explicit training in masturbation procedures
D. increased sexual relations

C. explicit training in masturbation procedures

A woman is sent home from sex therapy with an assignment to purchase a vibrator and practice masturbating. She is likely being treated:

A. for vaginismus
B. for hypoactive sexual desire disorder
C. for female orgasmic disorder
D. by a sex therapist with little or no formal training in psychology

C. for female orgasmic disorder

Dilators of gradually increasing sizes are used in the treatment of:

A. female orgasmic disorder
B. vaginismus
C. hypoactive sexual desire disorder
D. all of these

B. vaginismus

According to your textbook, what is the percentage of women who successfully overcome vaginismus?

A. less than 30%
B. 30% to 45%
C. 50% to 75%
D. 80% to 100%

D. 80% to 100%

The percentage of men with erectile dysfunction who take Viagra and are then able to maintain an erection sufficient for intercourse is between:

A. 5% and 40%
B. 50% and 80%
C. 80% and 90%
D. 90% and 100%

B. 50% and 80%

What significant side effect is experienced by as many as 30% of Viagra users?

A. severe headache
B. addiction
C. groin pain
D. dizziness

A. severe headache

Research studies on Viagra users indicate that:

A. most users are able to engage in intercourse and are very satisfied with the results
B. approximately half of the users are able to engage in intercourse and are highly satisfied with results
C. most users are able to engage in intercourse but only 32% rated the results as "good" or better
D. most users were unable to engage in intercourse and were not satisfied with results

C. most users are able to engage in intercourse but only 32% rated the results as "good" or better

Papaverine and prostaglandin, vasodilating drugs used in the treatment of erectile dysfunction, are delivered to the patient:

A. in a capsule taken orally
B. as a dietary supplement
C. by injection directly into the penis
D. by injection into the arm or hip

C. by injection directly into the penis

Although vasodilating drugs such as papaverine and prostaglandin are effective in producing an erection for patients with erectile dysfunction, many patients discontinue use of the drugs because of:

A. painful side effects
B. the fact that these drugs eventually cure the disorder
C. the expense of the drug
D. the fact that the effectiveness of the drug decreases with continued use

A. painful side effects

Which of the following treatments is NOT currently used in the treatment of erectile dysfunction?

A. vasodilating drugs
B. anti-anxiety medication
C. surgical prosthetic implant
D. vacuum device therapy

B. anti-anxiety medication

One of the reasons that Viagra has become so widely accepted as a treatment for erectile dysfunction is that:

A. it is more effective than the other available treatments
B. it is less expensive than other medications such as vasodilators
C. people are unaware of the other options
D. an oral medication is less awkward and intrusive than other treatments

D. an oral medication is less awkward and intrusive than other treatments

Therapy for sexual dysfunctions such as hypoactive sexual desire disorder can best be described as:

A. well-studied and widely available
B. well-studied but only available in specialty clinics
C. not well-studied and not available in all locations
D. not well-studied but generally available everywhere

C. not well-studied and not available in all locations

Paraphilia is defined as:

A. a dysfunction
B. an attraction to inappropriate individuals or objects
C. an attraction to machines
D. a desire that dominates the personality

B. an attraction to inappropriate individuals or objects

The definition of a fetish is sexual:

A. dysfunction
B. attraction to inappropriate individuals
C. attraction to nonliving objects
D. desire that dominates the personality

C. attraction to nonliving objects

Charles gets very sexually excited by women’s shoes. While he used to fantasize about women wearing particular shoes, he now focuses almost exclusively on the shoes themselves. Charles has a(n):

A. sexual dysfunction
B. unusual interest but does not have a diagnosable disorder
C. fetish
D. frotteuristic obsession

C. fetish

Greg and Diana often begin their sexual activity with Greg putting on a striptease show for Diana. They both report great satisfaction and excitement with this activity. In fact, Greg says that he gets aroused by exposing himself and Diana reports getting aroused when she watches him undress. Which of the following statements is true?

A. Greg is an exhibitionist and Diana is a voyeur.
B. Greg is a voyeur and Diana is an exhibitionist.
C. Both Diana and Greg have nonspecific fetishes because they admit to getting sexually excited by their atypical behaviors.
D. Neither Greg nor Diana should be diagnosed with a fetish because these behaviors involve consenting individuals.

D. Neither Greg nor Diana should be diagnosed with a fetish because these behaviors involve consenting individuals.

One psychological aspect of voyeurism and exhibitionism that seems to maintain the disordered behavior is:

A. some anxiety about getting caught
B. the fact that these individuals are rarely caught
C. the desire to hurt their victims
D. some sense that their victims really enjoy being subjected to their fetish

A. some anxiety about getting caught

All of the following are true statements regarding transvestic fetishism EXCEPT:

A. transvestic fetishists are either homosexual or transsexual
B. a significant percentage of individuals with this disorder are married
C. there are cross-dressing clubs and newsletters for individuals with this fetish
D. some transvestic fetishists compensate by joining macho or paramilitary organizations

A. transvestic fetishists are either homosexual or transsexual

____ are individuals who receive a sexual thrill from inflicting pain on others and ____ are individuals who receive a sexual thrill from receiving physical pain.

A. Sadists; masochists
B. Masochists; sadists
C. Transvestites; paraphiliacs
D. Paraphiliacs; transvestites

A. Sadists; masochists

According to the authors of your textbook, the concurrent existence of masochistic and sadistic fetish within the same individual is:
A. very rare
B. impossible because the behaviors are opposite
C. always present
D. common

D. common

"Opportunistic" rape differs from sadistic rape in that the rape in the latter is committed by an individual:

A. who meets the criteria for antisocial personality disorder
B. with a particular pattern of sexual arousal
C. who rarely masturbates
D. during an unplanned assault

B. with a particular pattern of sexual arousal

When the term paraphilia is used to describe the behavior of a rapist, it means that the rapist is aroused by:

A. images of forced sex
B. any sexual image
C. consensual sex
D. nonviolent sexual imagery

A. images of forced sex

Which of the following is true about most rapists?

A. They are sexually aroused only by violence.
B. They are aggressive and have little regard for others.
C. They are either hyposexual or asexual.
D. They are hypersexual and generally obsessed with sex.

B. They are aggressive and have little regard for others.

Victims of incest tend to be _____ and victims of pedophilia (who are not also incest victims) tend to
be _____.

A. male; female
B. young children; girls who are beginning to mature physically
C. girls who are beginning to mature physically; young children
D. female; male

C. girls who are beginning to mature physically; young children

Research with both non-incestuous pedophiles and perpetrators of incest (Marshall, et al., 1986 and Marshall, 1997) suggests that:

A. non-incestuous pedophilia is generally influenced by paraphilia, where incest may be more opportunistic
B. incest is generally influenced by paraphilia, where non-incestuous pedophilia may be more opportunistic
C. both behaviors tend to be motivated by paraphilia
D. both behaviors tend to be motivated by opportunistic individuals rather than by paraphilia

A. non-incestuous pedophilia is generally influenced by paraphilia, where incest may be more opportunistic

The typical adult who molests a child:

A. is violent and aggressive
B. threatens the child physically but is not violent
C. does not use physical force
D. is fully aware of the psychological damage that he is causing the child

C. does not use physical force

Inappropriate sexual arousal, e.g., fetishism, appears to be learned through:

A. exposure to pornography
B. masturbatory fantasies about the object
C. social "scripts" that are transferred from one generation to the next
D. poor social skills

B. masturbatory fantasies about the object

The classical conditioning model of learning predicts that the following boy might grow up to be a voyeur:

A. Tim whose father is a voyeur
B. Joe who watches a lot of pornography
C. Sid who masturbates while peeping at his neighbor
D. Jim who thinks it’s funny to spy on people

C. Sid who masturbates while peeping at his neighbor

Of the various hypothesized influences of paraphilia, the ones that we know the least about involve:

A. biological influences such as genetics and neurotransmitters
B. reinforced but inappropriate masturbatory fantasies
C. social influences such as inadequate development of social skills
D. paradoxical effects of repeated attempts to suppress unwanted arousal

A. biological influences such as genetics and neurotransmitters

The procedure that is carried out entirely in the patient’s imagination and used to reduce the inappropriate sexual arousal that exists in fetishistic behavior is called:

A. classical conditioning
B. sexual re-training
C. sensate focus
D. covert sensitization

D. covert sensitization

The basic concept behind the covert sensitization method of treating unwanted sexual arousal is to:

A. create empathy for the victim of the behavior
B. replace the immediate reinforcement of the behavior with the unpleasant consequences that ordinarily take longer to be experienced
C. create a physically painful experience to replace the immediate reinforcement that the unwanted behavior has previously produced
D. improve family functioning, social skills, and overall effectiveness of appropriate adult relations

B. replace the immediate reinforcement of the behavior with the unpleasant consequences that ordinarily take longer to be experienced

Patients undergoing the procedure called orgasmic reconditioning are instructed to:

A. masturbate to their usual fantasies but to substitute more desirable ones just before ejaculation
B. masturbate to their usual fantasies but substitute images of the consequences associated with their behavior (such as getting caught, hurting someone else, etc.) just before ejaculation
C. substitute images of the consequences associated with their behavior (such as getting caught, hurting someone else, etc.) every time they feel aroused by thoughts of their inappropriate desires
D. watch video tapes of normal adult sexuality repeatedly until such images result in arousal

A. masturbate to their usual fantasies but to substitute more desirable ones just before ejaculation

The procedure called orgasmic reconditioning works according to the principle of:

A. punishment of inappropriate arousal
B. extinction of inappropriate arousal
C. reinforcement of appropriate arousal
D. reinforcement of self control

C. reinforcement of appropriate arousal

Research regarding the success of treating paraphilias with procedures such as orgasmic reconditioning and covert sensitization indicates that:

A. treatment is generally not successful
B. treatment is successful in only the small number of cases where the patient completes all treatment sessions
C. the number of cases in the research studies is too small to make conclusions at this point
D. treatment is generally effective

D. treatment is generally effective

A poor prognosis associated with the treatment of paraphilia is related to all of the following factors EXCEPT:

A. having multiple paraphilias
B. having had the paraphilia for more than 10 years
C. a history of unstable social relationships
D. continuing to live with the victim (an incestuous situation, for example)

B. having had the paraphilia for more than 10 years

Which of the following is true regarding drugs currently available for the treatment of paraphilias?

A. The drugs eliminate sexual desire but are only effective while they are being taken.
B. The drugs reduce sex drive and continue to be effective long after the patient stops the medication.
C. The drugs dramatically reduce sex drive but have side effects that make them harmful to many patients.
D. They produce a "chemical castration" that effectively eliminates all sex drive permanently so that the patient will never desire sex even after discontinuing the medication.

A. The drugs eliminate sexual desire but are only effective while they are being taken.

In the study reported by Federoff, et al., 1999, the women had all the following types of paraphilias EXCEPT:

A. fetishism
B. pedophilia
C. exhibitionism
D. sadomasochism

A. fetishism

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