PSY-120- CH9

Total Word Count: 662
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A classic method of measuring the retention of material in long-term memory over time is to ____.

a. conduct MRI scans of the brain at annual or biennial intervals

b. measure levels of cortisol and other hormones

c. test and re-test regarding the same material at regular intervals

d. compare the rate of learning material the first time to the rate of learning the same material a second time

compare the rate of learning material the first time to the rate of learning the same material a second time

A cue is ____.

a. the transformation of information from one form to another

b. the process of grouping similar or meaningful information together

c. a memory aid that links new information to well-known information

d. a stimulus that aids retrieval of information

a stimulus that aids retrieval of information

An implicit memory is also known as a(n) ____.

a. nondeclarative memory
b. episodic memory
c. autobiographical memory
d. declarative memory

declarative memory

Chunking is the ____.

a. recovery of stored information

b. process of grouping similar or meaningful information together

c. repetition of information

d. transformation of information from one form to another

process of grouping similar or meaningful information together

Declarative memories are consciously retrieved memories that are easy to verbalize and include ____.

a. semantic, episodic, and autobiographical information

b. explicit and implicit memories

c. semantic, procedural, and autobiographical memories

d. non-declarative and implicit aspects

semantic, episodic, and autobiographical information

Episodic memories are affected by damage to the ____.

a. basal ganglia
b. hippocampus
c. prefrontal cortex
d. amygdala

prefrontal cortex

Interference is ____.

a. a decrease in the ability to remember a previously formed memory

b. the reduction in ability to retrieve rarely used information over time

c. a failure to retrieve negative memories

d. competition between newer and older information in memory

competition between newer and older information in memory

In most cases, information moves from short-term or working memory to long-term memory through ____.

a. chunking
b. mnemonics
c. the method of loci
d. rehearsal

rehearsal

Long-term memory is characterized by ____.

a. long duration and large capacity

b. limited capacity and long duration

c. limited duration and large capacity

d. limited capacity and limited duration

long duration and large capacity

Memory aids that link new information to well-known information are called ____.

a. mnemonics
b. elaborative rehearsal
c. chunks
d. recitations

mnemonics

Priming is a change in a response to a stimulus as a result of exposure to a ____.

a. subliminal message

b. stimulus above the subjective threshold

c. stimulus below the objective threshold

d. previous stimulus

previous stimulus

The "magic number 7 plus or minus 2" refers to the ____.

a. capacity of short-term memory

b. duration of short-term memory

c. duration of semantic memory

d. capacity of semantic memory

capacity of short-term memory

The effect of our motivations on our retrieval of memories ____.

a. can be one of distortion such that the original information is hardly recognizable

b. can exist but is unlikely to affect current attitudes or actions

c. has not been substantiated by research studies

d. is primarily one of mild distortion, like a ripple in a pond

can be one of distortion such that the original information is hardly recognizable

The hippocampus plays an essential role in ____.

a. assessing emotional situations

b. the formation of new declarative memories

c. the formation of new implicit memories

d. assessing analytical situations

the formation of new declarative memories

What is the correct ordering of the processes of memory?

a. storage, encoding, and retrieval

b. retrieval, storage, and encoding

c. encoding, storage, and retrieval

d. encoding, retrieval, and storage

encoding, storage, and retrieval

Your text discusses recovered memories of childhood abuse. In the absence of proof, the authors recommend ____.

a. assuming the memories are confabulations

b. encouraging the detailed recovery of repressed memories

c. reliving the experience to reduce the traumatic effect

d. therapy aimed at relieving distressing symptoms without reference to their source

therapy aimed at relieving distressing symptoms without reference to their source

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