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NON-PHARMACOLOGIC PAIN MANAGEMENT FOR CHRONIC PAIN

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Abstract

Non-Pharmacologic are strategies set to reduce and improve the functioning of patients suffering from chronic pain. The therapies used in ensuring that the condition has been managed include the occupational therapy, physical therapy, and the psychotherapy. Many therapies have been derived to help solve the issue of chronic issues among patients. However, the patients suffering from chronic pain can be made to enjoy life as before the suffering by providing the right care and treatment. In addition, the application of the correct therapies will motivate and improve the productivity and feel part of the society. In many cases, the therapies are not utilized until the patients go through other means such as getting injections and others undergoing surgery. The major reason for the delayed application of the therapies is the use of conservational therapies as a trial to the healing process of the chronic pain.

 

 

Non-Pharmacologic Pain Management for Chronic Pain

Psychotherapies

Chronic pains are common among patients with psychological problems. In many cases, such patients are referred to seek psychotherapeutic assistance. The act of seeking assistance from psychotherapeutic modalities makes the patients to create a sense that the pain they are suffering from is not ‘real’ hence the development of depression and anxiety. Psychological issues are because of suffering from chronic pain. However, the psychological problems are created due to suffering from anxiety and depression disorders. The combination of psychological and chronic pain, they become severe and hard to treat because of the combined pain and symptoms. The difficulties in treatment develop from the analgesic effects that are developed towards the medication. The research about the interference of analgesic effect towards medicine was discovered to be facilitated by anxiety and depression. Apart from visiting psychotherapeutic experts, the use of psychotherapeutic techniques van also help to relief the pain. Taking much time to think about the condition can lead to the reduction of activity levels among the patients. On the other hand, the downward spiral levels of activity can also result to increased pain due to the deconditioning (Smith, Deshpande, Collins, Katz, & Losina, 2016).

Cognitive-Behavior Therapies (CBTs)

Cognitive behavior therapies help to change the mind of patients on the perspectives of the pain. Instead of the patients thinking about the suffering, the cognitive behaviors help in translating the thinking into ways that can help in managing the problems. It is human nature t think about a disturbing situation I life; but with the help of strategies that can help to divert the mind from suffering and think of solutions will help to manage the pain among patients. Patients suffering from chronic diseases have no time to think about the set strategies of pain relief hence they create worries that worsen the condition. The severe pain can lead to patients terminating jobs or taking time off for medication. The conditions can make the patients to think more about the activities that they cannot perform any longer hence they were earning or benefiting much from the terminated activities (Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health, 2015). Pain makes the patients to have a negative thinking about the future, as they cannot engage in the same activities any longer. However, cognitive therapies are aimed at making the patients view the future positively and help them in developing alternative ways of doing the same things to get the benefits as before the chronic pain developed. 

Biofeedback, hypnosis, and relaxation techniques

Biofeedback, relaxation, and hypnosis therapies can help patients to obtain more control over the pain and provide alternative methods of coping with the diseases. Hypnosis makes the patients to be completely under the control of the hypnotist. The misconception is wrong because hypnosis is a way of suggesting, relaxing, and heightening concentration among the patients. As much as the patient is under hypnosis, there is no point where they will lose their self-control and fail to determine the activities they perform. The patients who can fall victims of such are those with psychotic issues that can lose the sense of reality if they are hypnotized. It is in virtual cases that those hypnotized cannot suffer any harm from the process.

The psychological mind of the patients can lead to the receiving of less benefit from the hypnosis process due to the lack of understanding on how it works. It is only after an understanding of the fictional portrayal that the patients can derive more benefit from the hypnosis (Azevedo, Costa-Pereira, Mendonça, Dias, & Castro-Lopes, 2016). Another factor that creates a misconception on hypnosis is that the pain is more psychological than physical. However, the opposite of the statement is true. Patients who have a physical etiology benefit more from hypnosis unlike the patients whose pain has secondary factors to psychological. Determining the efficacious of a patient before getting hypnotized can help to determine their state. Putting attention far from the pain is one recommendation that doctors use when interviewing the patients. The way of putting their attention far from the pain is through thinking about relaxation scenes and other comforting situations that happened back in time. Another way of making the patients not to be negative about the situation is through thinking that the burning pain will be cooled down by the psychotherapists.

Group and family psychotherapies

The use of family and group therapies can be another best form of relaxation to chronic pain patients. The company of family and group therapies are an informal way of providing comfort to the chronic pain patients. Family members van go beyond the required level of providing care and help to the patients if the help goes way too far the patients might feel the pan more as they will be uncomfortable when the family members spend more time and resources to better their situation (Carter, Carrougher, & Pham, January 01, 2016). Nevertheless, if the family or group members do less to help the patients, they will again feel the unsympathetic service provide to them and accuse the family members. In addressing such a situation, a moderate level of handling the situation is advised as the patient and the family members do not want to hurt the other party’s feelings. Some of the people solve such issues by isolating the patients. Some of the consequences of the pain include loss of jobs and a reduction of the participation level in the home activities.

The Physical Therapy (PT)

Electrical stimulation and massage fall under the physical therapy. Such therapies are done to the patient’s body to enable the functioning of the body muscles and remain active in the activities they were engaging in before falling sick. Some of the people who require physical therapies are the elderly people who develop chronic diseases such as diabetes and heart attack. In such cases, geriatric assistants are required to ensure that the health conditions of the patients are monitored.

The geriatric care managers have the knowledge and experience of handling the elderly people unlike the family members who are committed in doing other activities. When the family members are left to make decisions on taking care of the elderly without experience and required knowledge can lead to profound consequences. The older people have scheduled programs on attending to doctors’ appointments. Instead of sending the elderly people to the doctors for checkups and collection of medicine and other prescriptions, the geriatric care managers attend the programs on behalf of the elderly people. The geriatric care managers facilitate communication between the family caregivers and the doctors. The movement of information from doctors to the elder people passes through the hired geriatric managers (Naschitz, & Berner, 2012). In other times, the elderly suffer pain and other complications in odd hours of the day. Instead of having the family members or the doctor to visit to the patients’ place, the geriatric care managers take the initiative to move from the patient to the doctor and express the situation. After the communication has gone through well, the geriatric care managers pass the information and the medication to the elderly people at home.

The wishes of family members to the elderly people in the family might not be same as the recommendations of the doctors. The geriatric care managers assess the condition of the patients and make the preferred decisions basing on the ability of the individuals. For example, some older people have the ability to drive a car but under some conditions (Naschitz, & Berner, 2012). If an older person is able to drive during the day and cannot drive during the night, the family members can be advised not to allow the patients go out driving themselves at night hours. Instead of hiring a driver for such a person, the family members can save the expense by ensuring that the person drives during the hours that they can be able to move freely without struggle.

The use of Occupational Therapy (OT)

Occupational therapy and physical therapy overlap and the training for the two therapies are done separately. To the people who feel to be interfered with their daily activities can get benefit from occupational therapy. The activities are done in a set routine every day unless chronic pain attacks the individuals. The effect of suffering from chronic pain is that people no longer have the ability to perform the daily duties. Under the occupational therapy, patients are guided on ways to of performing the same activities with less effort that are not aimed at only exacerbating the pain but to reduce the pain as well (Yu, Amy, Devine, & Christopher, 2016). Performing activities in an ergonomically correct manner can help to know what is best. Apart from being impaired, the occupational therapists can provide guidelines on how to function with the least ability they have and make the best from the efforts. Despite being in a condition that cannot allow the full functionality of the body parts the ability, left from the suffering can be utilized to maximize the output. Occupations run the economy and earn living that determines the lifestyle of the people. Therapists ensure that the patients do not feel the sense of isolation and the effect of losing jobs. However, therapists take the chance to offer training that will help continue with the same lifestyle despite the pain.

Conclusion

Suffering from chronic pain cannot limit the ability of the people from performing duties. The main objective is to help them work under the state of their health conditions and encourage them through support and care. The best recommendations of the support such people require is the attention from geriatric caregivers to the elderly. Geriatric care managers solve the issues posed by the elderly people in managing the conditions that they face. In many occasions, the older people lose the mental ability to remember ideas and some essential details that should not be exposed to other people. Instead of giving all the family members the information, the geriatric care managers advise the people to keep the information with trusted institutions such as banks and insurance companies.

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