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Multinational Business – Chapter 6, Bobby Burger

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1) Protectionism will most likely affect which aspect of a company’s operations?
A) selecting employees
B) investing short-term capital
C) acquiring foreign supplies
D) relocating personnel overseas

C) acquiring foreign supplies

2) The term protectionism, when applied to international trade, refers to ________.
A) governmental restrictions and competitive support actions to affect trade flows
B) payments to dock workers to prevent pilferage of imported shipments
C) border checks to prevent entry of illegal aliens
D) methods used to prevent intellectual property theft

A) governmental restrictions and competitive support actions to affect trade flows

3) Why should managers have an understanding of trade protectionism?
A) Trade protectionism targets factor endowments, thus affecting the best country to locate production.
B) Trade protectionism affects a company’s ability to sell abroad and ability to compete at home.
C) Trade protectionism affects the number of people permitted to practice a specific profession.
D) Trade protectionism prevents companies’ enactment of merger and acquisition agreements.

B) Trade protectionism affects a company’s ability to sell abroad and ability to compete at home.

4) Managers should understand the effect of trade protectionism because ________.
A) trade protectionism may limit the number of people permitted to practice a specific profession
B) trade protectionism requires the payment of high insurance rates to transport goods internationally
C) trade protectionism may prevent companies’ enactment of merger and acquisition agreements
D) trade protectionism may make it difficult for a company to buy what it needs from foreign suppliers

D) trade protectionism may make it difficult for a company to buy what it needs from foreign suppliers

5) The government of Country X imposes import restrictions on steel to help the domestic steel industry in depressed areas. What is the most likely result of such restrictions?
A) damaging other industries in Country X
B) devaluing the currency of Country X
C) lowering steel prices in Country X
D) triggering boycotts in Country X

A) damaging other industries in Country X

6) Assume a government places restrictions on a specific product from a specific foreign country. What would be the government’s most likely concern about the foreign country’s response?
A) the foreign producers raising the prices of their exports
B) the foreign country restricting its own imports
C) the foreign country restricting its exports in that industry
D) the foreign producers seeking other markets

B) the foreign country restricting its own imports

7) Assume a government is considering import restrictions on sugar because sugar imports are hurting the domestic industry. Which of the following groups is LEAST likely to speak out on the subject?
A) politicians in areas that grow sugar
B) employees of sugar companies
C) sugar company owners
D) sugar consumers

D) sugar consumers

8) What is the most likely reason that consumers rarely protest import restrictions that raise the prices they pay for a specific product?
A) They reason that if the import restrictions are removed, the foreign producers will raise their prices to those of the domestic producers anyway.
B) Many countries prohibit consumers to band together to influence political actions.
C) Typically, although the added costs to consumers for a given product are high in aggregate, they are fairly trivial for most individual consumers.
D) They reason that if they do something to hurt domestic employment for one product, the displaced workers will then do something that will hurt their own employment.

C) Typically, although the added costs to consumers for a given product are high in aggregate, they are fairly trivial for most individual consumers.

9) Unemployed workers are most apt to form a pressure group to support ________.
A) export restrictions
B) import restrictions
C) price limitations
D) import subsidies

B) import restrictions

10) Successful trade retaliation is most likely achieved ________.
A) on agricultural products
B) on manufactured products
C) by a large trading country
D) by a small trading country

C) by a large trading country

11) Imports can stimulate exports by ________.
A) redistributing the work force
B) curtailing domestic competition
C) generating more tax revenue
D) increasing foreign income

D) increasing foreign income

12) All of the following are generally true about trade-displaced workers EXCEPT which one?
A) They move abroad to take new jobs.
B) They earn less in their new jobs than they earned in their old ones.
C) They spend their unemployment benefits on living rather than retraining.
D) They have difficulty finding new work because of educational deficiencies.

A) They move abroad to take new jobs.

13) The rationale for the infant-industry argument for trade protection is that ________.
A) incubator centers in which business, government, and academia cooperate will develop entrepreneurial companies
B) a country should give one firm in an industry a monopoly status so that it will grow large enough to be competitive internationally
C) it takes time for an industry to become competitive in world markets, so protection is needed to help this industry pass through the critical period
D) lower restrictions should be placed on products coming from countries where a government has a large sphere of political influence

C) it takes time for an industry to become competitive in world markets, so protection is needed to help this industry pass through the critical period

14) Which of the following statements most likely undermines the infant-industry argument?
A) Total unit costs decrease through economies of scale.
B) High tariffs to prevent foreign competition increase government revenues in the protected country.
C) Domestic entrepreneurs need assistance to compete in industries with high entry barriers.
D) Experience of operating over time triggers higher productivity and global competitiveness.

B) High tariffs to prevent foreign competition increase government revenues in the protected country.

15) A problem that can arise in using trade protectionism to develop international competitiveness for a domestic industry is that ________.
A) it is difficult to identify industries that have a high probability of reaching competitiveness
B) assistance should be given only if entry barriers to new firms are very low
C) the protecting countries lose too much revenue from import duties
D) a short product life cycle makes the industry quickly noncompetitive

A) it is difficult to identify industries that have a high probability of reaching competitiveness

16) Which of the following is a problem with the infant-industry argument for protection?
A) Most developed countries increasingly have a larger portion of retirees than youth.
B) Consumer groups become very active in protesting the higher prices that result during infancy.
C) Other countries retaliate by limiting exports of technology needed by the infant industry producers.
D) If the industry does not lower costs sufficiently to be competitive, it becomes a formidable pressure group for continued protection.

D) If the industry does not lower costs sufficiently to be competitive, it becomes a formidable pressure group for continued protection.

17) The industrialization argument for trade protection in developing countries is based on the assumption that ________.
A) the protected industry will become competitive over time with economies of scale
B) unemployment and underemployment exist in rural areas, so little agricultural output is lost as people move into industrial jobs
C) subsidizing production is a better means of protection than limiting imports
D) it is better to depend on buying agricultural surpluses from developed countries than to produce these agricultural goods

B) unemployment and underemployment exist in rural areas, so little agricultural output is lost as people move into industrial jobs

18) Unlike the infant-industry argument, the industrialization argument for trade protection ________.
A) requires independence from other countries
B) stresses labor-intensive production methods despite high costs
C) emphasizes use of locally available raw materials for manufacturing inputs
D) presumes that economic growth will occur even if domestic manufactured prices are not globally competitive

D) presumes that economic growth will occur even if domestic manufactured prices are not globally competitive

19) Developing countries have sometimes adopted policies to shift people out of agriculture and into industry by protecting manufactured production. One of the problems they have encountered is that ________.
A) people have been too reluctant to leave rural areas to go to the cities
B) food shortages have increased in rural areas because of worker shortages
C) demand for social and political services has increased excessively in the cities
D) developed countries have retaliated with protection of products from the developing countries

C) demand for social and political services has increased excessively in the cities

20) Terms of trade refers to ________.
A) the quantity of imports that a given quantity of a country’s exports can buy
B) specific requirements placed on imports and exports at the port of entry or exit
C) requirements agreed upon by two countries to regulate bilateral trade
D) an account statement showing a country’s annual imports and exports

A) the quantity of imports that a given quantity of a country’s exports can buy

21) Which term refers to restricting imports in order to boost domestic production and consumption of goods that would otherwise be imported?
A) import substitution
B) terms-of-trade
C) most-favored nation
D) in-sourcing

A) import substitution

22) Export-led development refers to ________.
A) a country’s efforts to promote its exports in order to reduce its trade deficits
B) a policy to promote domestic production of goods that would otherwise be imported
C) a program to promote industries with export potential
D) decreases in infrastructure development due to the loss of revenue from export tariffs

C) a program to promote industries with export potential

23) Which of the following best explains why the experience of countries such as Taiwan and South Korea are used to support export-led development policies?
A) their low inflation
B) their increased FDI
C) their industry diversity
D) their rapid economic growth

D) their rapid economic growth

24) The relationship between import substitution policies and export-led development policies is best characterized by which of the following?
A) Import-substitution policies are more likely to lead to production of mature products, whereas export-led development policies result in production of growth products.
B) The two are hard to distinguish because production under import substitution may eventually be exported.
C) Production under import substitution policies, as opposed to export-led development policies, is more likely to be located in urban areas.
D) Production under import substitution policies, as opposed to export-led development policies, is likely to be more labor-intensive.

B) The two are hard to distinguish because production under import substitution may eventually be exported.

25) Advocates of the comparable access argument for trade protection primarily assert that domestic industries ________.
A) will deteriorate in countries that have lower import restrictions than their trading partners
B) should be required to implement export-led development policies on foreign competitors
C) are entitled to the same access to foreign markets as foreign industries have to their markets
D) are forced to lower prices for domestic consumers because of foreign import restrictions

C) are entitled to the same access to foreign markets as foreign industries have to their markets

26) It is sometimes contended that by imposing import controls a country might be able to increase its exports. This contention is premised on ________.
A) the country’s simultaneous currency depreciation, which decreases the price of its exports
B) using the import taxes to institute efficiency measures in potential export industries
C) raising domestic prices in one industry so that the excess domestic profits in that industry can compensate for the cost of dumping products from another industry into foreign markets
D) getting other countries to maintain or relax their current import restrictions instead of escalating restrictions in a trade war

D) getting other countries to maintain or relax their current import restrictions instead of escalating restrictions in a trade war

27) Country X wants to eliminate its balance of trade deficit while simultaneously keeping prices low for imported essentials. Which of the following methods would most likely achieve these dual objectives?
A) devaluing its currency
B) enacting selective import restrictions
C) using tight monetary policies to deflate price levels
D) spurring productivity increases through general tax breaks for industry

B) enacting selective import restrictions

28) All of the following are reasons a country might institute import restrictions to improve its balance of trade position with other countries EXCEPT to ________.
A) maintain essential industries
B) reduce imports and encourage exports
C) get comparable access for its companies
D) bargain away restrictions by other countries

A) maintain essential industries

29) Country X is withholding goods from international markets in an attempt to raise prices abroad. Such actions will be most effective for Country X if the nation ________.
A) supports the development of substitutions
B) provides domestic industries with tax breaks
C) receives low-interest loans from foreign banks
D) holds a monopoly on the product or resource

D) holds a monopoly on the product or resource

30) Countries most likely establish export restrictions to ________.
A) ensure their population obtain the goods first
B) raise prices in foreign markets
C) encourage substitute products
D) reduce domestic production

B) raise prices in foreign markets

31) Export restrictions have a tendency to ________.
A) favor domestic consumers
B) protect employment in the export-restricted industries
C) lower prices in foreign markets
D) encourage the development of substitutes in the restricting country

A) favor domestic consumers

32) All of the following are potential problems of using export controls EXCEPT which one?
A) There is an incentive for other countries to develop production of their own.
B) Domestic producers may have less incentive to increase output.
C) Prices go up in the country imposing the controls.
D) There is more incentive for smuggling.

C) Prices go up in the country imposing the controls.

33) Exporting below cost or below the home country price is called ________.
A) countertrade
B) an export-led development policy
C) a strategic trade policy
D) dumping

D) dumping

34) There are several reasons for a company to sell products abroad at either below cost or below the price in the home country. Which of the following is one of these reasons?
A) encouraging foreign consumers to try new products
B) improving the exporting country’s terms of trade
C) gaining imports that are sold below cost
D) following import substitution objectives

A) encouraging foreign consumers to try new products

35) Countries sometimes fear that foreign producers are pricing their exports artificially low. This fear is most likely based on the assumption that ________.
A) foreign companies will lack the earnings to repay their foreign debt
B) insufficient earnings will be available to improve product technology
C) foreign producers will charge exorbitant prices after putting competitors out of business
D) developing countries will be unable to maintain critical industries needed in times of war

C) foreign producers will charge exorbitant prices after putting competitors out of business

36) According to the optimum tariff theory, a foreign producer will most likely ________.
A) ship highly taxed goods internationally on a per-unit basis
B) lower its export prices if the importing country imposes an import tax on its products
C) assess a tax on goods shipped internationally based on a percentage of the goods’ value
D) seek import tariffs by using the comparable access argument

B) lower its export prices if the importing country imposes an import tax on its products

37) An argument against limiting exports to unfriendly countries is that ________.
A) the costs of the sanctions are borne by innocent people rather than by leaders
B) markets cannot be regained after the countries become friendly
C) one country’s essential product is superfluous to another
D) the exporting nation’s cultural identity is harmed

A) the costs of the sanctions are borne by innocent people rather than by leaders

38) A possible drawback to the essential industry argument for import protectionism is ________.
A) that such protection hurts the protecting country’s balance of payments
B) in times of military emergency, almost any product could be considered essential
C) other countries find supplies elsewhere
D) unemployment increases in the protecting country

B) in times of military emergency, almost any product could be considered essential

39) Defense arguments are sometimes used to prevent exports to unfriendly countries. This runs the risk of the targeted country ________.
A) becoming politically destabilized
B) removing import restrictions
C) finding alternative sources of supply
D) banding with other countries to form a cartel

C) finding alternative sources of supply

40) What is the main motive for countries’ protection of their film/cinema industries?
A) to keep prices low for their citizens
B) to improve their balance of payments
C) to diversify their economies
D) to maintain their cultural sovereignty

D) to maintain their cultural sovereignty

41) The most common type of tariff is the ________ tariff.
A) export
B) import
C) transit
D) ad valorem

B) import

42) An import tariff may be protective ________.
A) only if it is on imports the country produces domestically
B) if it serves primarily to restrict entry of hazardous materials
C) if it does not generate significant tax revenue for essential industries
D) even though the importing country does not produce the product

D) even though the importing country does not produce the product

43) In addition to protection, tariffs serve to ________.
A) generate revenue
B) subsidize exports
C) subsidize imports
D) increase consumption

A) generate revenue

44) Which term refers to a tariff or duty assessed as a percentage of an item’s value?
A) specific duty
B) effective tariff
C) ad valorem duty
D) compound tariff

C) ad valorem duty

45) What is the primary difficulty associated with dismantling developed countries’ agricultural subsidies?
A) Rural areas in the United States, the European Union, and Japan are disproportionately represented in their governments.
B) Developing countries put pressure on developed countries to maintain the subsidies so that they receive food products at a lower price.
C) The subsidies are used to counter the commodity agreements set up mainly by developing countries.
D) The subsidies are at the consumer, rather than producer, level, and everyone benefits from the lower prices.

A) Rural areas in the United States, the European Union, and Japan are disproportionately represented in their governments.

46) In most cases, which type of government protection assistance is most controversial?
A) business development services
B) foreign business contacts
C) trade expositions
D) tariffs

D) tariffs

47) Tied aid requires a recipient to ________.
A) donate a portion of the funds to the donor country’s infrastructure needs
B) use the capital in any way as long as donor country approval is granted
C) employ local workers in management positions
D) spend the funds in the donor country

D) spend the funds in the donor country

48) Most countries have agreed on how to assess values when their customs agents levy tariffs. Which of the following best expresses this agreement?
A) They should use the value of similar goods arriving at about the same time.
B) They should use the declared invoice price unless they doubt its authenticity.
C) They should assess a value based on local costs to produce a similar product.
D) They should assess a value based on the expected final consumer sales price.

B) They should use the declared invoice price unless they doubt its authenticity.

49) In international trade, what is a quota?
A) a guarantee by one country to buy some minimum amount from another
B) a quantitative limit on the amount of a product that can be imported or exported
C) a countertrade arrangement that establishes the value of imports and exports
D) a bilateral agreement calling for mutual access to markets

B) a quantitative limit on the amount of a product that can be imported or exported

50) A voluntary export restriction (VER) refers to ________.
A) an agreement between two countries to reciprocally restrict exports to one another
B) requests by governments for companies to limit exports of militarily useful technology
C) limiting companies’ exports to increase domestic supplies
D) limits placed on exports by a government of an exporting country at the request of the government of an importing country

D) limits placed on exports by a government of an exporting country at the request of the government of an importing country

51) An import license is ________.
A) an agreement whereby one country gives another country permission to use a patent that a company has registered there
B) a requirement that exporters take merchandise in lieu of money as payment for their sales
C) a requirement that permission be secured from governmental authorities before importation can be undertaken
D) a government prohibition of imports from a specific country

C) a requirement that permission be secured from governmental authorities before importation can be undertaken

52) Why are offsets considered protectionist measures?
A) Exporters must often find markets for goods outside their lines of expertise.
B) Exports must be sold at a certain percentage price below the price of domestic producers.
C) Companies must submit samples to government authorities before receiving export permission.
D) Trading companies must incur additional inventory carrying charges and pay significantly higher tariffs.

A) Exporters must often find markets for goods outside their lines of expertise.

53) Which of the following hypothetical examples would be a restriction on the import of services?
A) The U.S. restricts foreign companies from carrying cargo between two U.S. cities.
B) Japan restricts North Koreans from visiting Tokyo Disneyland.
C) China does not allow the importation of rice from Thailand.
D) Canada does not allow Air Canada to buy Brazilian aircraft.

A) The U.S. restricts foreign companies from carrying cargo between two U.S. cities.

54) The fact that there are few reciprocal agreements among countries on the licensing of professionals most likely means that ________.
A) universities’ study abroad programs do not enable students to obtain dual degrees and licenses from more than one country
B) more service functions are being handled as not-for-profit
C) people immigrate to those countries with the highest standards so as to more easily become licensed anywhere else
D) there is an effective limitation on trade in services

D) there is an effective limitation on trade in services

55) A physician, who is a citizen of and licensed in Country A, meets the professional licensing requirements of Country B. The physician will most likely ________.
A) have to pass a language proficiency exam before being allowed to work in Country B
B) not be allowed to work in the not-for-profit sector in Country A or Country B for a set period
C) have to get a work permit from Country B’s immigration authorities to work in Country B
D) have to work in the not-for-profit sector in Country B for a period of time before being permitted to work for a profit-seeking organization

C) have to get a work permit from Country B’s immigration authorities to work in Country B

56) The U.S. automobile industry has attempted to counter import competition in all the following ways EXCEPT ________.
A) concentrating on market niches that initially had less import competition
B) lobbying for customs deposits so that importers’ costs would be raised
C) moving some production to lower-cost countries and exporting to the United States
D) effecting internal adjustments, such as cost efficiencies and improved quality

B) lobbying for customs deposits so that importers’ costs would be raised

57) Companies with ________ would most likely oppose global protectionist measures.
A) internationally integrated supply chains
B) domestically focused supply chains
C) multidomestic production facilities
D) product differentiation

A) internationally integrated supply chains

58) In nearly half the cases in which U.S. firms have requested protection from imports, one or more U.S. companies in the industry opposed the protection. What was the reason for opposing protection?
A) They did not want consumers to have to pay higher prices that would result from protection.
B) These were foreign-owned companies that saw the opportunity to serve the U.S. market.
C) They feared that they would lose foreign export markets because of retaliation.
D) They believed that they could compete against global and domestic rivals.

D) They believed that they could compete against global and domestic rivals.

59) Which of the following is NOT causing greater complexity in the regulation of trade?
A) growth in export tariffs
B) services available over the Internet
C) heightened concern about product safety
D) development of new products that must be classified

A) growth in export tariffs

60) The U.S. catfish industry petitioned the U.S. government for increased taxes on imported Vietnamese fish, claiming that the fish were being sold below the cost of production. The U.S. catfish industry was accusing the Vietnamese fish industry of ________.
A) dumping
B) using an embargo
C) subsidizing
D) using offsets

A) dumping

61) The U.S. catfish industry successfully petitioned the U.S. government to require that catfish varieties imported from Vietnam be labeled as tra, basa, or pangasius. This is an example of which of the following?
A) an embargo
B) a tariff
C) a nontariff barrier
D) a direct price influence

C) a nontariff barrier

62) People who argue for lifting the U.S. trade embargo with Cuba claim all of the following EXCEPT which one?
A) The embargo has not achieved its purpose of changing Cuba’s economic and political system.
B) U.S. companies lose Cuban sales to competitors from other countries.
C) Increased exposure to the United States would be a more effective force of change.
D) Cuba has largely become a market economy already.

D) Cuba has largely become a market economy already.

63) People who argue for keeping the U.S. trade embargo with Cuba claim all of the following EXCEPT which one?
A) There is not much economic potential from trade given Cuba’s small population and low per capita income.
B) Removal of the embargo will cause much more Cuban immigration to the United States.
C) If the Cuban economy is weakened just a bit more, the Cuban political-economic system cannot be sustained.
D) There will be a backlash among countries supplying such commodities as sugar to the United States if the U.S. buys them from Cuba instead.

B) Removal of the embargo will cause much more Cuban immigration to the United States.

64) The term protectionism, when applied to international trade, refers to governmental restrictions and incentives to affect trade flows.

Answer: TRUE

65) In most cases, trade protectionism makes it easier for a company to buy what it needs and to sell products in global markets.

Answer: FALSE

66) The group most likely to become involved in disputes concerning trade protectionism is consumers.

Answer: FALSE

67) Helping a struggling domestic company through import restrictions frequently causes other countries to retaliate.

Answer: TRUE

68) The countries most likely to be successful at using trade retaliation are large trading countries.

Answer: TRUE

69) On average, workers displaced by imports earn higher wages in the new jobs they accept.

Answer: FALSE

70) The infant-industry argument for trade protection holds that an industry needs government protection from imports until it becomes competitive enough in world markets.

Answer: TRUE

71) Infant-industry protection requires some segment of the economy to incur the higher costs when local production is inefficient.

Answer: TRUE

72) The argument for using protectionism to bring about industrialization in developing countries presumes that gains will occur because the industry will become internationally competitive.

Answer: FALSE

73) Export prices of primary products fluctuate less than export prices of manufactured products.

Answer: FALSE

74) Import substitution is a program promoting local production of products that would otherwise be imported.

Answer: TRUE

75) Export-led development refers to the off-shoring of production.

Answer: FALSE

76) The argument for using import controls to promote exports is partially premised on the assumption that other countries will remove their import restrictions as a result.

Answer: TRUE

77) The comparable access argument for import restrictions is a more valid economic argument for products using small-scale technology than for products requiring substantial economies of scale to be competitive.

Answer: FALSE

78) Countries typically establish export restrictions to encourage the development of substitute products.

Answer: FALSE

79) Export controls are highly effective for digital products, such as computers, TVs, and cameras.

Answer: FALSE

80) The lowering of a foreign producer’s price as a result of an imposed import tax is known as an optimum tariff.

Answer: TRUE

81) Home country consumers are typically active in preventing their domestic companies from dumping products into foreign markets.

Answer: FALSE

82) The essential-industry argument holds that industries with potential export capabilities should be protected.

Answer: FALSE

83) Import trade controls, but not export trade controls, can be used as a weapon of foreign policy.

Answer: FALSE

84) The most common type of tariff is the export tariff.

Answer: FALSE

85) An effective tariff is the sum of the ad valorem tariff plus the specific duty.

Answer: FALSE

86) Agricultural subsidies by developed countries impede the competitiveness of agricultural exports by developing countries.

Answer: TRUE

87) When customs officials set a value on which to place an import tariff, they ordinarily use the declared invoice price unless they doubt its authenticity.

Answer: TRUE

88) A quota is a quantitative limit on the amount of a product that can be traded.

Answer: TRUE

89) The purpose of "Made in" labels on imported products is to enable countries to keep records of the origin of imports.

Answer: FALSE

90) Governments sometimes prohibit operations of private companies, foreign or domestic, in some sectors because they feel these services should not be sold at a profit.

Answer: TRUE

91) At present there is little reciprocal recognition of professional licensing among countries.

Answer: TRUE

92) Companies that have integrated their supply chains internationally tend to lobby their home governments for increased protectionist measures.

Answer: FALSE

93) When a company is seeking protection from imports, it can usually improve its chances of getting that protection if it allies with most of the companies in the industry.

Answer: TRUE

94) The international regulatory situation for trade is becoming more, rather than less, complex.

Answer: TRUE

95) Every time countries enter a new trading agreement, service trade tends to grow more rapidly than merchandise trade.

Answer: FALSE

96) What are the disadvantages of import restrictions in regards to creating domestic employment opportunities?

Answer: One problem with restricting imports in order to create jobs is that other countries might retaliate with their own restrictions. New import restrictions by a major country have usually brought quick retaliation, sometimes causing more job losses than gains in industries protected by the new restrictions. Even if no country retaliates, the restricting country will gain jobs one place and lose them somewhere else, such as in import-handling jobs. Imports may also help create jobs in other industries, and these industries may form pressure groups against protectionism.

97) Explain the rationale for and problems with making the infant-industry argument work as intended.

Answer: The infant-industry argument holds that a government should guarantee an emerging industry a large share of the domestic market until it becomes efficient enough to compete against imports. Developing countries still use this argument to support their protectionist policies. The infant-industry argument is based on the logic that although the initial output costs for an industry in a given country may be so high as to make it noncompetitive in world markets; over time the costs will decrease to a level sufficient to achieve efficient production. The cost reductions may occur for two reasons: As companies gain economies of scale and employees become more efficient through experience, total unit costs drop to competitive levels. Although it is reasonable to expect costs to decrease over time, they may not go down enough, which poses two problems for protecting an industry. First, governments have difficulty identifying those industries that have a high probability of success. If infant-industry protection goes to an industry that does not reduce costs enough to make it competitive against imports, chances are its owners, workers, and suppliers will constitute a formidable pressure group that may prevent the importation of a cheaper competitive product. Second, even if policymakers can ascertain which industries are likely to succeed, it does not necessarily mean that companies in those industries should receive governmental assistance. Entrepreneurs may incur the costs and reap the benefits instead. For the infant-industry argument to be fully viable, future benefits should exceed early costs.

98) Why do developing countries sometimes impose import restrictions to increase their levels of industrialization?

Answer: Countries with a large manufacturing base generally have higher per capita incomes than do countries without such a base. Moreover, a number of countries, such as the United States and Japan, developed an industrial base while largely preventing competition from foreign-based production. Many developing countries use protection to increase their level of industrialization because of industrial countries’ economic success and experience. Specifically, they believe: a. Surplus workers can more easily increase manufacturing output than they can increase agricultural output. b. Inflows of foreign investment in the industrial area will promote growth. c. Prices and sales of traditional agricultural products and raw materials fluctuate too much, harming economies that depend on too few of them. d. Markets and prices for industrial products will grow faster than those for agricultural products.

99) What is the difference between import substitution policies and export-led development policies? What are the potential effects of each?

Answer: Developing countries promote industrialization by restricting imports in order to encourage local production for local consumption goods which they formerly imported. This is known as import substitution. If the protected industries do not become efficient, consumers may have to support them by paying higher prices or higher taxes. In contrast to import substitution, some countries have achieved rapid economic growth by promoting export industries, an approach known as export-led development. These countries try to develop industries for which export markets should logically exist. Industrialization may result initially in import substitution, yet export-led development of the same products may be feasible later.

100) Many companies and industries argue that they should have the same access to foreign markets as foreign industries and companies have to their markets. In a short essay, discuss this issue of "comparable access," or "fairness."

Answer: From an economic standpoint, comparable access argues that in industries in which increased production will greatly decrease cost, either from scale economies or learning effects, producers that lack equal access to a competitor’s market will have a disadvantage in gaining enough sales to be cost-competitive. The argument for equal access also is presented as one of fairness. There are at least two arguments against this fairness doctrine. First, there are advantages of freer trade, even if imposed unilaterally. Restrictions may deny one’s own consumers lower prices. Second, governments would find it cumbersome and expensive to negotiate separate agreements for each of the many thousands of different products and services that might be traded.

101) What are common reasons that governments enact export restrictions? What are the possible negative consequences of such restrictions?

Answer: A country may limit exports of a product that is in short supply worldwide in order to favor domestic consumers. Typically, greater supply drops local prices beneath those in the intentionally undersupplied world markets. However, this discourages domestic producers from increasing output and encourages them to smuggle output to sell abroad. It also encourages foreign producers to develop substitutes or production of their own. Countries also fear that foreign producers will price their exports so artificially low that they drive domestic producers out of business, after which they charge monopoly prices. However, competition among foreign producers limits their ability to charge exorbitant prices. The ability to price low abroad may result from high domestic prices due to a lack of competition at home or from home country governmental subsidies.

102) What is dumping? What are the possible effects of dumping on a country’s economy?

Answer: When companies export below cost or below their home country price, this is called dumping. Most countries prohibit imports of dumped products, but enforcement usually occurs only if the imported product disrupts domestic production. If there is no domestic production, then the only host country effect is a low price to its consumers. Companies may dump because they cannot otherwise build a market abroad. They can afford to dump if the competitive landscape allows them to charge high domestic prices or if their home country government subsidizes them. They may also incur short-term losses abroad if they believe they can recoup those losses after eliminating competitors in the market. Home country consumers or taxpayers seldom realize that they are, in effect, paying so that foreign consumers have low prices. A company believing it is competing against dumped products may ask its government to restrict the imports.

103) Briefly discuss the four noneconomic rationales for governmental intervention in the free movement of trade: maintaining essential industries, preventing shipments to unfriendly countries, maintaining or extending spheres of influence, and preserving national identity.

Answer: a. Maintenance of essential industries (especially defense): A major consideration behind governmental action on trade is the protection of essential domestic industries during peacetime so that a country is not dependent on foreign sources of supply during war. This is called the essential-industry argument. This argument for protection has much appeal in rallying support for import barriers. However, in times of real crisis or military emergency, almost any product could be essential. Because of the high cost of protecting an inefficient industry or a higher-cost domestic substitute, the essential-industry argument should not be accepted without a careful evaluation of costs, real needs, and alternatives. Once an industry becomes protected, that protection is difficult to terminate because protected companies and their employees support politicians who will support their protection from imports. b. Prevention of shipments to unfriendly countries: Groups concerned about security often use defense arguments to prevent exports, even to friendly countries, of strategic goods that might fall into the hands of potential enemies or that might be in short supply domestically. Export constraints may be valid if the exporting country assumes there will be no retaliation that prevents it from securing even more essential goods from the potential importing country. Trade controls on nondefense goods also may be used as a weapon of foreign policy to try to prevent another country from easily meeting its economic and political objectives. c. Maintenance or extension of spheres of influence: Governments frequently give aid and credits to, and encourage imports from, countries that join a political alliance or vote a certain way within international bodies. A country’s trade restrictions may also coerce governments to follow certain political actions or punish companies whose governments do not follow the actions. d. Conservation of activities that help preserve a national identity: Countries are held together partially through a common sense of identity that sets their citizens apart from other nationalities. To protect this "separateness," countries limit foreign products and services in certain sectors, particularly the media.

104) Describe and compare the different types of tariffs (duties).

Answer: A tariff, or duty, the most common type of trade control, is a tax that a government levies on a good shipped internationally. If collected by the exporting country, it is known as an export tariff; if collected by a country through which the goods have passed, it is a transit tariff; if collected by the importing country, it is an import tariff. The import tariff is by far the most common. Import tariffs primarily serve as a means of raising the price of imported goods so that domestically produced goods will gain a relative price advantage. A tariff may be protective even though there is no domestic production in direct competition. Tariffs also serve as a source of governmental revenue. Import tariffs are of little importance to large industrial countries, but are a major source of revenue in many developing countries. Transit tariffs were once a major source of revenue for countries, but they have been nearly abolished through governmental treaties. A government may assess a tariff on a per-unit basis, in which case it is a specific duty. It may assess a tariff as a percentage of the value of the item, in which case it is an ad valorem duty. If it assesses both specific and an ad valorem duty on the same product, the combination is a compound duty. A specific duty is easy for customs officials who collect duties to assess because they do not need to determine a good’s value on which to calculate a percentage tax. Because an ad valorem tariff is based on the total value of the product, meaning the raw materials and the processing combined, developing countries argue that the effective tariff on the manufactured portion turns out to be higher than the published tariff rate.

105) In a short essay, list and discuss the nontariff barriers that relate to direct price influences: subsidies, aid and loans, customs valuations, and other direct price influences.

Answer: a. Subsidies: Countries sometimes make direct payments (called subsidies) to domestic companies to reduce their costs or compensate them for losses incurred from selling abroad. b. Aid and loans: Governments also give aid and loans to other countries. If the recipient is required to spend the funds in the donor country, some products can compete abroad that might otherwise be noncompetitive. c. Customs valuation: Most countries have agreed on a procedure for assessing values when their customs agents levy tariffs, but customs must ascertain whether the invoice correctly identifies the product, its price, and its origin. d. Other direct price influences: Countries frequently use other means to affect prices, including special fees, requirements that customs deposits be placed in advance of shipment, and minimum price levels at which goods can be sold after they have customs clearance.

106) List and define the types of nontariff barriers that limit the quantity of goods traded: quotas, embargoes, buy local legislation, standards and labels, specific permission requirements, administrative delays, and reciprocal requirements.

Answer: a. Quotas: The most common type of import or export restriction based on quantity is the quota. From the standpoint of imports, a quota most frequently limits the quantity of a product allowed to be imported in a given year. The amount frequently reflects a guarantee that domestic producers will have access to a certain percentage of the domestic market in that year. b. Embargoes: An embargo is a specific type of quota that prohibits all trade on a whole category of products or on all products from a given country. Governments use embargoes in an attempt to use economic means to achieve political goals. c. "Buy Local" legislation: Another form of quantitative trade control is "buy local" legislation. If government purchases are a large part of total expenditures within a country, they comprise an important part of the market. Most governments favor domestic producers in their purchases of goods. Sometimes they specify a content restriction—in which a certain percentage of the product is of local origin. d. Standards and labels: Countries commonly have set classification, labeling, and testing standards in a manner that allows the sales of domestic products but inhibits that of foreign-made ones. The purpose of testing standards is to protect the safety or health of the domestic population. However, there have been situations where exporters have argued that such restrictions protect domestic producers instead. e. Specific permission requirements: Some countries require that potential importers or exporters secure permission from governmental authorities before conducting trade transactions, a requirement known as an import license. f. Administrative delays: Closely related to specific permission requirements are intentional administrative delays, which create uncertainty and raise the cost of carrying inventory. g. Reciprocal requirements: Governments sometimes require that exporters take merchandise in lieu of money or that they promise to buy merchandise or services in the country to which they export. This requirement is common in the aerospace and defense industries—sometimes because the importer is short of foreign currency to purchase what it wants, and sometimes because the sales are so large the buyer has strong negotiating power.

107) What are the main arguments for limiting trade in services? What is your opinion on limiting trade in services?

Answer: Countries restrict trade in services for three reasons: a. Essentiality: Countries judge certain service industries to be essential because they serve strategic purposes or because they provide social assistance to their citizens. They sometimes prohibit private companies, foreign or domestic, in some sectors because they feel the services should not be sold for profit. b. Standards: Governments limit foreign entry into many service professions to ensure practice by qualified personnel. The licensing standards of these personnel vary by country. At present, there is little reciprocal recognition in licensing from one country to another because occupational standards and requirements differ substantially. c. Immigration: Satisfying the standards of a particular country does not guarantee that a foreigner can then work there. Governmental regulations often require that an organization—domestic or foreign—search extensively for qualified personnel locally before it can even apply for work permits for personnel it would like to bring in from abroad.

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