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Limited Descriptive Review of the Literature

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Kavradim, S., Özer, Z., & Bozcuk, H. (2012). Hope in people with cancer: A multivariate            analysis from Turkey. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 69(5), 1183-1196.        doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2648.2012.06110.x


Type of Study-The study is a quantitative study.

Purpose of Article-The purpose of the article is to describe the hope levels of people with cancer and the factors that affect it. It is also aimed at determining whether hope has a relationship with sociodemographic attributes, chemotherapy signs, and the disease processes.

Theoretical Framework-There is no theoretical framework in this study.

Research Question-What is the level of hope in Turkish people with cancer, and whether it is correlated with socio-demographic characteristics, disease process, and chemotherapy symptoms

Research Method-A systematic sampling of consecutively Chemotherapy patients between the months of December and January and collecting their personal information using Personal Information Form and Herth Hope Scale. It involved data collection and data analysis. Data collection commenced upon being granted permission by the Oncology Department of the University. The patients who had been given a brief summary of the study were presented with questionnaire forms by a dedicated researcher. The clarity of the forms had been tested by giving it to ten of the patients receiving chemotherapy on December 4th, 2009. Some of the patients required help where the researcher read the questions to them. All the forms were filled at the times when the patients were most comfortable, usually during chemotherapy, preparation of the drugs. The questions captured diagnosis, metasis condition as well as the existence of more diseases. The study used various instruments. The Personal Information Form was utilized in determining their sociodemographic characteristics. The Herth Hope Scale was then used to examine the hope levels in the patients. Data analysis was finally done using the Univariate and multivariate regression analyses were used to evaluate the determinants.

Sample number of people in the study- Two hundred and forty patients treated with chemotherapy consecutively at Day Chemotherapy Unit in a University Hospital in Turkey was sampled. The 240 patients were arrived at after 30 of the 270 sampled patients refused to take part in the study. The sample has a 95% confidence level, 10% sampling error and 90% strength. The inclusion criteria were the willingness to take part, above 18 years age, more than two chemotherapy treatment courses, ability to answer the questionnaires and literacy in Turkish.

Study Findings and Results-High levels of hope are depicted from the mean scores among the patients sampled in the survey. The determinants of hope include the net family income, the level of knowledge of the disease, improvement feeling, the perception of immense family support as a patient, mouth ulcers, and anxiety, worry, and fear feelings. The determinants are independent in their scores.

Limitations to the Study-The sample was non-precise. It involved many people with various kinds of cancer and at different stages. Additional studies are needed with a more homogeneous sample.

Recommendations from the paper or Clinical implications- Hope is important for all cancer patients who are under treatment plans. Clinicians need to continue practicing and implement hope fostering/hindering interventions among their patients.

Madan, S., & Pakenham, K. (2015). The stress-buffering effects of hope on changes in             adjustment to caregiving in multiple sclerosis. Journal of Health Psychology, 20(9),             1207-1221. doi.org/10.1177/1359105313509868     

Type of Study-The study is quantitative study.

Purpose of Article- The purpose of the study is to examine the direct and the stress-moderating effects of dispositional hope and the components of agency and pathways on the adjustment to MS.

Theoretical Framework-The study was not based on a theoretical framework.

Research Question– What are the direct and stress-moderating impacts of dispositional hope along its components (agency and pathways) on adjustment to multiple sclerosis?

Research Method- Data was collected and designed to examine the coping processes in adapting to MS over time. The utilizations included change, illness, and demographic information. Several measures were used. The demographic data such as age, employment status, and education levels were analyzed. The disease variables were then collected from the time of diagnosis and patients requested to describe their symptoms. They also measured disabilities in the MS patients. The second assessment tested the stress levels where patients were told to rate their stress scores on a scale of 1-7. The Trait Hope Scale is a 12 item the instrument used to measure hope in the MS patients. The PSOM scale was also used to assess the state of mind of the patients in the previous week. The Bradburn Affect Balance Scale supplement with three elements to make them eight was used measure positive affect comprehensively. Finally, depression and anxiety were examined using the Brief Symptom Inventory subscale. Data analysis involved examining the adjustments between T1 and T2. They used hierarchical regression analysis and covariates. The focal predictors included stress, agency, hope, and pathways whereas the change outcomes included anxiety, positivity, life satisfaction, mind states, and depression.

Sample number of people in the study- Two hundred and ninety-six people with MS filled the questionnaires at epochs of times one at twelve months and time two there on. The recruitment process involved mailing 1,570 patients the questionnaire package.  53 were excluded, and only 1,517 were valid to take part in the research. However, only 388 questionnaires were duly filled and provided usable data at time 1. Finally, only 296 patients were included since they completed the two assessment points.

Study Findings and Results-The regression analyses results showed that greater hope was linked to better adjustment following control of the effects of first time change along the relevant demographics and the illness variables. The hope effects were subsumed with the stress-buffering effects. Beneficial impacts of the agency on hope came out through a direct effects mechanism, while the effects of pathways emerged through a moderating mechanism.

Limitations to the Study-Non-random sampling and the trend aimed at attrition of the more vulnerable limiting the generalization of findings. There was no assessment to determine if participants got any psychological interventions in the twelve months study interval that could have influenced hope.

Recommendations from the paper or Clinical implications-The findings bring out hope as the important protective and coping resource to deal with MS accentuating the significance of both the agency and the pathways thinking together with their different ways of influence in the healing process.

Parashar, D. (2014). The trajectory of hope: pathways to find meaning and reconstructing the self            after a spinal cord injury. Spinal Cord, 53(7), 565-568.                 http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/sc.2014.228

Type of Study-The study is qualitative in nature.

Purpose of Article-The purpose of the study is to determine whether hope is important and the trajectory it takes in patients with spinal cord injuries (SCI). This importance is tracked from the patient’s point of view as well as that of the rehabilitation psychologist.

Theoretical Framework-The study lacks a theoretical framework.

Research Question-What is the meaning, the relevance and the significance of hope in an individual’s life in the event of a SCI?

Does the meaning as well as the subject of hope vary at different moments in time?

Research Method-Semi-structured interviews took place. The patients were asked about their rehabilitation journey following the SCI. The interviews were audio-taped for further analysis.

They then used the phenomenological–hermeneutic approach to derive the meaning of the patients’ experiences. The second step involved structural analyses to filter the scope down and identify the meaningful parts of the texts. Finally, a comprehensive interpretation of full text was made, while considering naïve reading. The credibility of the analysis was increased by letting a qualitative researcher refine the analysis.

Sample number of people in the study-The study sample consisted of twenty SCI patients. Initial recruitment ad thirty participants who were admitted at the Indian Spinal Injuries Center. However, it was not possible to follow up ten patients at half an year, one two years after their discharge from hospital and therefore a study sample of twenty people completed the study.

Study Findings and Results-Three critical themes markedly came out in line with the trajectory of hope including; hope for full recovery, hope for self-reliance in spite of the injury and hope for optimal quality of life.  The continuum of hope was justified by inevitable optimism, tempered optimism and inevitable realism. The recovery process was shown to spur optimism where patients were able to use their cognition, physical, emotional and personal resources to fuel hope. Tempered optimism was shown by the shifting of permanent injury implications to focus on hope. The goals of the patients changed to positive factors such as the ability to return to work and social integration. Improvements in the health status of the patients spurred a lot of hope. The final continuum of inevitable realism was shown by the way patients inevitably realigned their lives to face the challenges. With the ongoing rehabilitation, the patients recovered in the psychological point of view too. The study also highlighted the influencers of hope as family, friends and hope agencies. The agencies identified were motivation, strength to pursue goals and explore pathways as well as determination.

Limitations to the Study-The inclusion mechanism was open, excluding patients younger than fifteen years. Only individuals willing to share personal experiences of their hope and appraisal were involved.

Recommendations from the paper or Clinical implications-Each theme from the findings is significant and contributes to the recovery and rehabilitation. Hope is the force that cheers one into life after a life-threatening event. Psychologists and rehabilitation personnel should focus on cementing realistic hope, healing goal, sustainable motivation, adaptive appraisals and problem-solving skills. Develop and test measures against the situation of the continuum of hope.


Hamilton, R., & Thomas, R. (2016). Renegotiating hope while living with lymphoedema after cancer: a qualitative study. European Journal of Cancer Care, 25(1), 822–831.


Type of Study-The research is a qualitative study.

Purpose of Article- The purpose of the article is to document hope and coping in individuals suffering from SLC qualitatively and to negotiate cancer survivorship with associated/hoped to be normal again despite a chronic condition.

Theoretical Framework- This study was not based on any theoretical framework.

Research Question- What are the relationships, the associations, the patterns, and descriptions that practically impact SLC patients?

Research Method-The study follows a detailed design approach with the aim of revealing relationships, patterns, connections, and reports. The descriptions would highlight the definition of hope and its implications for nursing, rehabilitation, and social sciences. The participants were given a brief demographics questionnaire to fill at the beginning of the study. They were required to fill a series of open-ended questions. The questions were broad and required the patients to discuss the impact of SLC on various aspects of their lives.  The hope questions required them to explain specific things that make them feel hopeful.

Data analysis involved numerous discussions to define thematic coding. They examined the data for the various themes, differences and similarities. They prepared a report with quotations from the participants which were discussed among the teams. The second step of analysis involved analysis of the data summary by lymphedema experts who are internationally recognized.

Sample number of people in the study-A sample of patients with experiences and living with SLC including the under-represented groups like men. They were recruited from two sites namely the Ottawa and Fredericton. The sample consisted of thirteen patients who were recruited by word of mouth, online search as well as through posters distributed at various locations. The inclusion criteria were genders but aged above eighteen years, prior diagnosis of lower or upper limb SLC, management of the condition during the recruitment phase, willingness to be auto-recorded and finally literacy in the English language. All the thirteen participants were aged between thirty-one and seventy-seven years old.

Study Findings and Results-Participants struggled with articulating what hope meant despite their familiarity with the term. They had varying definitions of hope. Just a few of them communicated a positive point of view on hope, while others termed the concept foreign and useless. It is evident from the study that all patients renegotiated hope definition as they progressed to SLC from chronic cancer. Most participants also had specific objects of hope such as the knowledge that the condition would not change for the worse. The study also showed that hope as an outcome was linked to symptom severity, medical circumstances as well as their coping efficacy.

Limitations to the Study- Non-random sampling and the trend aimed at attrition of the more vulnerable limiting the generalization of findings.

The sample is not specific to the cancer types interviewed for in the research process.

Recommendations from the paper or Clinical implications-Coping with SLC varied from coping with cancer and the hopes embraced during the acute cancer care is renegotiated when faced with SLC.

Salander, P., Bergknut, M., & Henriksson, R. (2014). The creation of hope in patients with lung cancer. Acta Oncologica, 53(9), 1205-1211.

Type of Study-The study is a qualitative research.


Purpose of Article-The purpose of this study is to demonstrate how patients reconstruct their views of reality and hope as they adapt to their new life situation which is living with lung cancer.


Theoretical Framework-The study does not have a theoretical framework.


Research Question-How do the patients more or less pre-consciously elaborate mentally with their vulnerable situation they hope?


Research Method-Twenty-nine interviews were carried out in the thematically structured narrative form which facilitated the dialogue between the patient and interviewer. Individual were interviewed up to three times depending on their medical status. The first set of interviews was conducted face to face while undergoing radiotherapy. The second interviews were conducted via telephones four months later and the final set also by telephone was conducted a year after the first interview. The interviews focused on experiences at health care, their living, and everyday life, and their thoughts on the future. The interviews were then transcribed to enable the researchers to carry out independent comparative analysis. The authors finally discussed the categorizations and made minor revisions until they reached a consensus.


Sample number of people in the study-The study consisted of fifteen participants who were interviewed twenty-nine times. The patients included had been diagnosed with non-small cell lung cancer. The other inclusion criteria involved   WHO performance status between zero and one, more than three months expected survival time and literacy in English and Swedish.


Study Findings and Results-Different mental maneuvers were detected and used as a means of creating hope.

The patients alienated themselves from their disease. They relied on the feeling of a sound body idealizing treatment possibilities and heavily relying on healthy behavior. The patients focused on a concrete project and established they were better than others taking solace in the knowledge of patients who successfully managed the disease.


Limitations to the Study-Categorization is quite a complicated process with the conformability in the patients’ statements probably being facilitated by stressing that the context was crucial for the categorization.


Recommendations from the paper or Clinical implications- Healthcare staff should communicate to lung cancer patients having in mind the patients’ views of their situation avoiding unnecessary strain on the patients’ shoulders.

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