WW1 Causes and Effects

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Causes of WW1

– According to "Pity of War" it was a war between monarchism vs. republicanism ( some conservatives thought that the war would help kill all monarchies all together) – Growth of German power in Central Europe challenged Great Powers (France, Great Britain, Russia) – imperialist and economic rivalries among all the European powers caused alot of the tension as each country tried to rise above the rest. This tension between the countries kept tightening until it was dangerous. – international competition among European powers for colones and economic markets -Naval Rivalry between the Great Britain and Germany . Increase in size of European armies -Nationalism ( loyalty and devotion to a nation; a sense of national consciousness exalting one nation above all others and placing primary emphasis on promotion of its culture and interests as opposed to those of other nations)

Events leading to WW1

June 1914 Assasination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria in Sarajevo -July 1914 Austrians send ultimatum to Serbia with German support. ( a list of demands made upon the Serbian government, it took as its basis the assumption that the Serbian government was implicated in the events) – The Serbs rejected the ultimatum – July 1914 Austria declares war on Serbia August 1914 WW1 begins

Austria Hungary Ultimatum

– round up all those responsible -We Austria-Hungary take part of the justice process -other countries go along with it -but Serbia says it would not be a sovereign country if it lets another country intervene in its criminal justice system – accept all the demands except allowing the Austria-Hungarian empire to intervene – Germany (Kaisser) the Serbian response was enough to ignore war but Austria-Hungary declares war

The Allies

Central Powers -Germany -Austria-Hungary -Turkey -Bosnia Allied Forces -England -France -Russia -Italy -Serbia

Russia and Serbia

Russia considered itself "Protector of the Slavic People," and the Serbs were Slavic. Thus, Russia felt an obligation to help. Of course, this reason was probably simply the propaganda reason The other reason is that Russia wanted warm water ports on the Adriatic Sea. If Serbia were able to annex Bosnia and Herzegovina, Russia would have access to these ports

The Schlieffen Plan

Germany faced war on two fronts Russia and Germany The imperial Army had a plan for this contingency Considering that Russia would need time to get ready to attack Germany (since they were going to need a longer time to mobilize its troops based on thier size) the plan was to knock France out of the war, remaining in defensive position in the East. After the Fall of France, all Germas strength would be directed against Russia. the plan involved invading neutral Belgium to use its plains as an entrance to Paris

What was the outcome of World War 1?

The allied troops created a peace treaty with Germany, hoping that the hatred between these countries would die down. The Allied troops created the Treaty of Versailles.

Effects of WW1

(Pity of War) -Belgium and northern France were cleared of German troops, so were Romania, Poland, the Ukraine, and the Baltic states -Germany, Russia, and Turkey were diminished the Austrian altogether destroyed -New states were formed; Austria and Hungary went there separate ways the Serbs achieved their goal of south slave states "Yugoslavia" -President Wilson’s vision of a "new world order" Poland was "free" after WW1 – Post war had to worry about restoring fiscal and monetary stability

President Wilson WW1

(Pity of War) Had argued that any peace settlement "should be for the advantage of the Europe nations regarded as people and not for any nation imposing its governmental will upon alien people"

The league of Nations

(Pity of War) The league of nation was not simply to guarantee territorial integrity of its members states but could accommodate future territorial integrity of its own member states

Treaty of Versailles (How it came to be)

The big three met in Paris – France, Great Britain, the U.S Many held Germany responsible for the war, calling for the country to be crushed economically and militarily, rendered incapable of future aggression. France wanted to bring Germany to its knees. He called for Germany to pay huge sums of money, known as reparations. Great Britain appetite for vengeance and publicly promised to make "Germany pay" Anxiety produced by the Russian Revolution convinced him that Germany needed to be a defensive wall against Bolshevism ( violent overthrow of capitalism). If Germany was left destitute, extreme left wing politics would find support among the population. Germany should not be treated leniently but neither should she be destroyed Wilson- Believed that Germany should be punished in a way that would lead to European reconciliation rather than revenge. Wilson called for the creation of an international peacekeeping organization. Wilsons 14 points as a blueprint for the ost-war world, CALLED FOR SELF-DETERMINATION FOR ALL EUROPEAN PEOPLES AND END TO SECRET TREATIES AND EUROPEAN DISARMAMENT Germany was stripped of 13 %of her territory and 10% of German population Germany lost all the colonies 75% of iron ore deposits and 26% of coal and potash The Germans also had to officially accept "war guilt" and pay reperations to the tune of 6,000 million pounds For the Allies the treaty had created a just peace which weakened Germany secured the French border against attack and created an organization to ensure future world peace, to be called the League of Nations.

Germans reactions to Versailles

The backlash in Germany against the Versailles. Territorial losses to the new Polish state on the Eastern front outraged Germans Perhaps the greatest resentment, however was caused by the "War Guilt Clause" which forced Germany to accept Full responsibility of war. In a nation that had lost 2 million men and was quickly developing a myth that it had not been militarily defeated in the war, but stabbed in the back by its own politicians this was difficult to bear As Germany sought to revision the treaty the US Senate rejected the Versailles, The US rejected the Versailles settlement and vetoed US membership of the League of Nations. This was to contribute to its failure as an international peacekeeping organization in the unstable and dangerous years leading up to the World War 2. It was instability that the Versailles treaty had done so much to avoid and the end created.

Treaty of Versailles (part 2)

Germany Full responsibility -Ex- Kaiser Wilhelm to be judged for war crimes in the Netherlands -Germany army not to excess 100.00 men -German navy = heavy limitations -No German air force No weaponry could be imported or exported -Germany could not be united with Austria -Treaty finally not signed by the US

Flaws of Treaty Versailles

– Huge war reparations were demanded from Germany which led to Germany to print new money which led to rapid inflation, which led to the entire collapse of German economy and contributed to the Great Depression -the U.S never joined the League of Nations -the provisions of the treaty left a bitter legacy in the hearts of Germans -The peoples of Asia and Africa were angry at the way the treat ignored their desires for independence -Japan and Italy felt that they had been cheated at the peace table

Wilson’s Plan for Peace

The 14 points Jan 1918 -Points 1-5: causes of the War 1) no secret treaties 2) Freedom of the seas 3) reduced armaments 4) Free Trade 5) colonial claims 6-13: changing borders and creation of the new nations Point 14: Creation of international Peacekeeping organization; The League of Nations

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