WIS2552 Topics 1-8 (Part 3)

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First fungi evolved in

ordovician

conifers evolved in

permian

chloroplasts are found only in kingdom plantae

false

oparin did experiments in

chemical evolution

dna in the nuclei in eukaryotic cells is complexed with

proteins

pasteur bent necks of glass flasks to prevent from reaching water

bacteria

stanley milller combined methane and in water

ammonia

endosymbiosis theory argues a relationship between two cells

mutualistic

pasteur did an experiment to show there was no spontaneous generation

true

reids experiment involved denying access to meat

flies

some of pasteurs flasks are still on display today

true

pigment molecules are found in the

chloroplasts

first period of the cenozoic

tertiary

redi did an experiment to show that meat didnt produce maggots by process of

spontaneous generation

era broken into epochs

cenozoic

fist hominids appeared at end of

tertiary

bony fish evolved in the period if palezoic

ordovician

prokaryotic cells contain

rna

protenoid spheres could have evolved via

self assembly

stanley miller was able to produce synthetic

amino acids

first dinos appeared in the

triassic

period of first vascular plants

silurian

endosymbiosis theory argues small pro cells engulfed by

larger pro cells

multicellularity might have evolved by incomplete cell division

true

both mitochondria and chloroplasts have two membranes

true

site for aerobic respiration in eukaryotes

mitochondria

most scientists think the earth is

4.5 billion years old

oparin converted nitro, oxy, and hydro to

amino acids

multicellularity might have evolved from coloniality

true

pleistocene epoch ended roughly

8000 years ago

bacteria like dna found in eukaryotes

mitochondria

some ammonia is materialized as

nh4+

carbon is stored mostly as fossil fuels, co2 and in

vegetation

ecological niche of a species may be based on

any of these

some nitrogen is fixed by lightning

true

conversion of n2 to nh3 is exergonic

false

rabbit an example of

primary consumer

ecological pyramids illustrate amount of at various trophic levels

biomass

in a food web animals are never

primary producers

tropics may habor mire species with narrower niches than temperate plants

true

many ecologists argue that ecological efficiencies are about

10%

denitrification is conversion of to n2

no2

temperate species may tend to be more ecologically specialized than their tropical counterparts

false

highly specialized for diet of apple snails

everglades kite

ammonia is a gas and has chemical formula

nh3

in photosynthesis co2 is converted to h20 and

sugars

symbiotic relationship between plant and Rhizobium is

mutualistic

northern mockingbirds were introduced successfully to

hawaiian islands

most gaseous nitrogen in atmosphere exists in form of

n2

through evolutionary process, species may become increasingly adapted for narrower environmental conditions and this can make them more rare

true

another name for primary producers

autotroph

lower part of atmosphere

troposphere

ecological pyramids were brain child of

charles elton

top predator in food chain is

tertiary consumer

Rhizobium is found in nodules in association with

legumes

greenhouse gas most affected by human activities

co2

plants take up inorganic nitrates and convert them to organic compounds

assimilation

plants take up water from soil and move it to atmosphere

transpiration

example of habit specialized species

cape sable seaside sparrow

water moves through soil to groundwater by process of

percolation

conversion of amino acids back to is called ammonification

nh3

energy in biological systems mostly exists in form of

atp

Rhizobium is an example of a that plays a role in nitrogen fixation

bacteria

conversion of ammonium ions to nitrates

nitrification

photosynthesis is essentially

carbon fixation

denitrification occurs only

when 02 is not available

according to theory of natural selection

more individuals of a species are born than can survive

in the mis-19th century people mostly believed that species were

immutable

darwin published "origin of species" in

1859

erectile feathers on the head are a sexually selected trait in

prairie chickens

darwin based his theory partly on observations of farm animals

true

not a tetrapod

sea lamprey

darwins theory of natural selection assumes that

individuals vary

darwin found fossils of at high elevations, suggesting that the Earth had changed over time

marine invertebrates

according to theory of "inheritance of acquired characteristics" individuals transformed following

perceived environmental stress

there are embryonic tissue layers

3

it is now well known that places have fewer species

temperate zone

darwin argued that those individuals that were naturally selected

had more offspring

example of sexually selected trait in passerine birds

plumage dichromatism

mechanisms for sexual selection follow

2

species of deer in which both males and females have antlers

caribou

structures in different species such as the wings of insects and bats, are said to be analogous as they

have different embryological origins

theory of "inheritance of acquired characteristics" was advanced by

lamarck

according to darwin’s theory a bat’s wing is homologous with a

penguin flipper

darwin noted that there were no native in Australian grasslands

rabbits

male sage grouse have as a sexually selected trait

colored air sacs

darwins theory requires that the

earth was very old

darwin observed that there were no on oceanic islands

large herbivorous mammals

darwin used evidence from to imagine the concept of " Centers of Origin"

giant armadillo fossils

upper bone in the forearms of all tetrapods

humerus

in the forearm of tetrapods, the radius is always paired with the

ulna

in the deutrotosome line, the blastopore becomes the

anus

paclitaxel is used as an anti agent

cancer

there are embryonic tissue layers in evolutionarily more advanced animals

3

bacteria play an especially important role in the cycle

nitrogen

zygote has sets of chromosomes

2

the archenteron forms from the

blastocoel

dorsal hollow nerve cord is a characteristic of just the

chordates

cells in the morgula migrate and arrange themselves to form a hollow ball of cells

true

class has the greatest number of vertebrate species

osteichthyes

toxic modes of chemicals often affect the in cells

mitochondria

developmental stage during which embryonic genes turn on

gastrula

seeds evolved during the

paleozoic

plants invaded land during the

paleozoic

first vascular plants evolved in the

paleozoic

according to lewis wolpert is the most important event in a person’s life

gastrulation

pharyngeal gill slits are a characteristic of just the

chordates

intracellular digestion is characteristic of

sponges

rotifers are characterized by having a

pseudocoelom

bacteria chiefly play an important role in ecosystems

decomposition

tree apparently produces paclitaxel

pacific yew

fungi are characterized by having cells with a cell wall made of

chitin

the platyhelminthes are the

flatworms

a true coelom is not seen in

round worms

protosomes have cleavage

spiral

highly toxic form of mercury that is formed by action of bacteria

methyl

deadly poison produced by some mushrooms

amanitin

fungicide used widely in Florida in the 80s and 90s

benlate

deuterotosomes have cleavage

radial

kingdom of species with prokaryotic cells

monera

only species of vertebrates have

true bone

embryonic tissue layer that lines embryonic gut

endoderm

pseudocoelom is typical of the

nematodes

at fertilization a single cell is formed

zygote

tetrahymena is a genus in the kingdom often used in toxicology studies

protista

native birds in hawaii were infected with by mosquitoes

malaria

all chordate characteristics are seen through the lives of the individual

false

in the protosome line, the blastopore becomes the

mouth

types of secondary body cavity seen in animalia

2

echinodermata is a phylum of

deuterostomes

ratfishes belong to the same vertebrate class as

sharks

all members of the phylum chordata share characters

4

choanocytes are characteristic of

sponges

protists involved in forming red tides

dinoflagellates

organisms that formed the white cliffs of dover

foraminiferans

in the development of animals is the primary body cavity

archenteron

lampreys and hagfishes belong to the class

agnatha

hemichordates are

deuterostomes

digitalin is a compound produced by a certain

plant

african sleeping sickness is caused by a

protist

chagas disease is caused by a

protist

malaria is caused by a

protist

lizards with specifically adapted toe pads for clinging to vertical surfaces

geckos

terrestrial caecilians are mostly adapted for

burrowing

all turtles are egg layers

true

american crocodile is still found on various islands in the caribbean

true

spadefoot toads are native to

north america

cone nosed toads are adapted for burrowing

true

tree lizards inhabit

pinyon juniper woodland

eyelash viper has a between the eye and nostril

heat detecting pit

gecko is a common introduced lizard in Gainesville

mediterranean

endemic family of frogs existed on the islands

seychelles

example of herbivorous lizard

green iguana

mexican parrot snake is a type of forager

seize and swallow

garter snakes are type foragers

seize and swallow

giant salamander is

1.6 meters

in florida, gators hunted recreationally

true

species of chameleon has been introduced to florida

true

plastron refers to part of a turtles

shell

development of young from unfertilized eggs

parthenogenesis

an endemic family of frogs is found on a series of oceanic islands formed by

continental drift

very fast predators that feed by running down their prey

whiptails

largest species of sea turtles

leatherback

chameleons are able to change their body color because of specialized cells called

chromatophores

less evolutionarily advanced salamanders are mostly

acquatic

according to the florida museum of natural history, there are species of crocodilians worldwide

23

roughly species of caecilians

165

python introduced to the everglades and apparently is becoming established there

burmese

temperature dependent sex determination was discovered in a study of

red eared turtles

anole is a common species introduced to florida

cuban

mordern order squamata likely descended from the fossil reptile group

archosauria

no native species of chameleons in madagascar

false

american crocodiles are widespread and abundant in florida

false

according to a team of researchers, giant tortoises once occurred on all the continents except

australia

nile crocodile is the largest crocodile species in

africa

species of poison arrow frog has been successfully introduced to the baltimore area where it has implicated in the reduction of roaches

false

of the sea turtles only the is chiefly herbivorous

green sea turtle

smaller turtles are mostly adapted for feeding on

insects

salamanders reach their highest diversity in

northern hemisphere

pythons differ from boas in that boas are

live bearers

scavenger that may occasionally kill and eat mammals

komodo dragon

caecilians are not found in the tropics of

australia

parthenogenesis is seen in about 1/3 of the species in the lizard genus

cnemidophorus

dorsal part of a turtles shell is called the

carapace

introduced nile monitor in florida may possibly become a threat to native

burrowing owls

desert iguana is indigenous to

american southwest

roughly species of salamanders

310

among the amphibia several species are adapted for feeding on plants as adults

false

lizards feed on eggs, small mammals and birds

monitor

snake venom is made of

proteins

the largest salamander is native to

japan

the anhinga or snake bird is actually in the same order as the

pelicans

rheas have toes per foot

3

about species of birds in the world

9700

collecting bird nests and eggs was once a popular past time among the wealthy

true

about half the species of birds in the world belong to the order

passeriformes

ratite birds are characterized by having a

flat sternum

diving ducks mostly feed on

invertebrates

in various species of grouse, the males come to a common site called and attempt to attract mates by inflating air sacs and chasing other males

lek

example of a perching duck that is native to south america

muscovy

the hoatzin is a species native to

south america

example of dabbling duck

mallards

broad winged soaring species

buetos

in england another name for loons

divers

loons have suffered declines on their breeding grounds due to

acid rain

wrote fascinating book called island waterfowl

milton weller

grebes are loon-like birds with feet

lobed

whistling ducks were once called

tree ducks

of the ratites only has just two toes

ostrich

species in the pelican-cormorant group have feet

totipalmate

one species of bird with a keen sense of smell

turkey vulture

white pelicans differ from other members of the order in that they do not

dive from the air for food

diving and dabbling ducks plumage

dichromatic

swan and geese plumage

monochromatic

species of mergansers in north america

3

long tailed and short winged acrobatic fliers that mostly feed on birds

accipiters

elephant bird was native to new guinea

false

several captively bred california condors have been released in

arizona

pelagic bird like the tubenoses live

far out at sea

emus have toe per foot

3

birds descended from the subclass of fossil reptiles

archosauria

claws on its wings to help it climb through vegetation

hoatzin

dabbling ducks characteristically feed in

shallow water

example of a diving duck

scaup

species of kiwi

3

considered a sea duck although it lives mostly inland

common goldeneye

albatrosses are grouped with the

shearwaters

african ratites introduced to australia

ostriches

petrels are related to

shearwaters

once called the pigeon hawk

merlin

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