US history

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The state militia units that made up the initial American military force and later came to augment the Continental army:

often seemed to appear at crucial moments and then evaporate.

The Patriot militia:

frustrated Washington with their lack of discipline

Which of the following provided most of the money raised by the Continental Congress for the Revolution?

new issues of paper money

Which of the following was NOT true of the expedition against Canada in 1775-1776?

It resulted in an important American victory and set the tone for the coming campaign.

When the British attacked New York in late August 1776:

the American army was fortunate to escape.

In August 1776, General Washington had 28,000 men under his command. By December, he had:


Which city did the British capture early in the American Revolution and hold for the remainder of the war?

New York

Thomas Paine’s The American Crisis:

bolstered American morale.

On Christmas night 1776, Washington crossed the Delaware to defeat the:


In late December 1776, George Washington was able to reverse American fortunes by:

winning battles at Trenton and Princeton.

In 1777, Washington dealt with the threat of smallpox to his army by:

ordering a mass inoculation.

Benedict Arnold became notorious late in the war by:

defecting to the British.

During the war, Benjamin Franklin’s son, William

stayed loyal to Britain.

During the war, Tories:

came from all classes of society.

Which of the following statements is NOT true of the Battle at Brandywine Creek?

It resulted in American forces abandoning New York City.

Americans won a tremendous victory in October 1777 with the surrender of ________ at Saratoga.

Johnny Burgoyne

The American victory at Saratoga resulted in:

France’s entry on the American side.

In its winter camp at Valley Forge, Washington’s army was decimated by all of the following, EXCEPT:


The baron von Steuben’s contribution to the American cause was to:

drill American soldiers.

The Marquis de Lafayette served the American cause during the war as:

Washington’s most trusted aide.

The great exploit of George Rogers Clark was the:

conquest of the western frontier.

American settlers who defended Kentucky were led by:

Daniel Boone.

On the western frontier, Indian tribes such as the Mohawks, Shawnees, and Cherokees:

attacked frontier settlements in Virginia and the Carolinas.

The British shifted their military effort to the South in order to:

utilize the strength of local Tories.

The war in the South was characterized by:

killing of prisoners by both sides.

An important American victory—"the turn of the tide of success"—was at:

Kings Mountain.

The most complete American victory of the Revolution took place at:


The battle that resulted in a hard-fought and costly stalemate that ultimately forced Cornwallis to retreat to the coastline was:

Guilford Courthouse

Which of the following statements about the English army’s condition at Yorktown is true?

Cornwallis’s combined force numbered only 7,200 men.

The American victory at Yorktown would have been impossible without:

French assistance

The news of Yorktown inspired the British to:

end the war.

Who did NOT participate in the negotiations that resulted in the Treaty of Paris?

George Washington

The peace treaty was signed in:


Which of the following was NOT one of the provisions of the treaty ending the American Revolution?

Congress would restore all property confiscated from Loyalists during the war.

The treaty with Britain that ended the Revolutionary War:

recognized American independence.

Most of the state constitutions adopted during the Revolution:

contained bills of rights.

The Articles of Confederation were fully ratified and became effective:

in 1781

Under the Articles of Confederation, Congress:

combined legislative and executive power.

Which of the following was NOT a power of the national government under the Articles of Confederation?

the right to levy taxes on trade and commerce

The Revolution did all of the following, EXCEPT:

limit opportunities to acquire land in the West.

Because of associations with the British, the Revolution was especially detrimental to the status of the:


The Virginia Statute of Religious Freedom was written by:

Thomas Jefferson.

The Virginia Statute of Religious Freedom marked the general trend away from:

state-supported churches.

Elite Virginians despised Lord Dunmore because of his:

offer of freedom to slaves who would join the British

During the period of the Revolution, a slave might gain his freedom:

joining the British army.

In the era of the Revolution, the northern states:

took steps to abolish slavery.

Which of the following statements was NOT true of women during the Revolutionary era?

On at least one occasion, they commanded an artillery company in Washington’s army.

Abigail Adams’s appeal to her husband, John, to "remember the Ladies":

was basically ignored.

Immediately after the end of the Revolution, the most popular public ritual in the United States became:

Independence Day.

With the end of the war, many Americans viewed the United States as a:

nation with a special destiny.

The phrase "critical period" refers to:

America under the Articles of Confederation.

Which of the following gave the Confederation government the most trouble?


Under the Articles of Confederation, western lands would be:

owned by the national government.

The 640-acre sections created by the Land Ordinance of 1785:

were part of six-square-mile townships.

Which of the following was NOT part of the Northwest Ordinance?

Religious freedom was guaranteed in a "bill of rights."

The Northwest Ordinance of 1787:

banned slavery in the Northwest.

After the Revolutionary War, American trade with Britain:

resumed, but without access to the West Indies.

One serious economic problem under the Articles of Confederation was:

a shortage of "hard money."

Shays’s Rebellion was led by:

indebted farmers.

hays’s Rebellion broke out in


Shays’s Rebellion:

was repressed by state militia.

After Shays’s Rebellion:

there were numerous calls promoting a stronger central government.

The Constitutional Convention, which assembled in May 1787, was supposed to:

revise the Articles of Confederation.**

The delegates who met at the Constitutional Convention:

included many participants in the Revolution.

The Constitutional Convention’s most gifted political philosopher and the man who emerged as its central figure was:

James Madison

Madison’s Virginia Plan:

would create a two-house Congress.

The Great Compromise:

settled the question of congressional representation

The Founding Fathers viewed the most "democratic" branch of the government as the:

House of Representatives.

According to the Constitution, the president has the authority to do all of the following, EXCEPT:

resign and choose his successor.

The Constitution addressed slavery by:

counting slaves as three-fifths of a person for the purposes of apportionment.

On the question of women’s rights, the proposed Constitution:

said nothing

The Constitution was to be considered ratified as soon as it had been approved by:

nine of the states

The Federalist essays were written by:

Hamilton, Madison, and Jay

Who among the following was an anti-Federalist?

George Mason

The Federalist Number 10 explains how a republic can:

be successful in a large, diverse society.

The Federalist argued that:

the size and diversity of the large new country would make it impossible for any one faction to control the government.

The first of these states to ratify the Constitution was:


In early 1789, the new Congress gathered in the national capital, which was:

New York City.

In his inaugural address, President Washington emphasized:

national unity.

The Bill of Rights did all of the following, EXCEPT:

settle all questions about federal versus state authority

In regard to religion, the Constitution:

prevents Congress from establishing an official religion.

Alexander Hamilton’s basic vision of America was to make it:

a vibrant capitalist power.

One key element of Hamilton’s program to encourage manufacturing was his proposal for:

high protective tariffs.

Madison decided to support Hamilton’s debt proposals in return for an agreement to:

relocate the nation capital southward.

The Bank of the United States:

would provide a stable national currency.

In his debate with Jefferson over the national bank’s constitutionality, Hamilton:

used the doctrine of implied powers.

The emergence of political parties:

reflected basic philosophical differences between Jefferson and Hamilton

When Britain and France went to war in 1793, the United States:

expressed neutrality, warning Americans not to aid either side.

Edmond Genet:

encouraged Americans to attack English and Spanish vessels.

Jay’s Treaty:

infuriated Republicans for its concessions to the British

Opposition to Hamilton’s excise tax on whiskey was strongest among:

frontier farmers.

Pinckney’s Treaty resulted in:

American trade access to Spanish New Orleans.

Daniel Boone’s route into Kentucky was the:

Wilderness Road

Washington’s farewell address:

opposed permanent alliances.

Under President Adams, a war between the United States and France:

was an undeclared naval conflict

The Sedition Act was aimed primarily at:

Republican newspaper editors

The Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions argued that:

states could nullify federal laws.

Jefferson’s election in 1800:

had to be settled by the House of Representatives.

The Judiciary Act of 1801:

created three new positions on the Supreme Court.

Just before he left office, Adams:

cemented Federalism within the judiciary.

Between 1800 and 1840, the nation’s most dramatic population expansion occurred:

west of the Appalachians

Jefferson’s inauguration was notable for:

being the first in Washington, D.C.

Thomas Jefferson’s inaugural address reflected:

a tone of simplicity and conciliation.

Who said, "We are all Republicans—we are all Federalists"?

Thomas Jefferson

Which of the following was true of the democracy that emerged at the turn of the century?

Common men were no longer content to be governed by an aristocracy.

Which of the following was NOT true of Jefferson’s contradictory nature?

He resisted British authority before the Revolution, but advocated for a military alliance as president.

President Jefferson’s cabinet:

included Madison as secretary of state

In the case of Marbury v. Madison, the Supreme Court:

declared a federal law unconstitutional.

In the case of Marbury v. Madison, the Supreme Court chief justice who established the principle of judicial review was:

John Marshall.

Jefferson showed his commitment to limited government by:

cutting military spending

Thomas Jefferson believed that a large federal debt would:

mean high taxes and public corruption.

Which of the following is NOT true of Jefferson’s ending of the international slave trade?

At the time of its enactment, most southern states permitted purchasing slaves internationally.

In the early 1800s, the United States engaged in a naval conflict with:

North African pirates

To President Jefferson, one major incentive to purchase Louisiana was to:

secure American access to the Mississippi River and New Orleans

The Louisiana Purchase was made possible by:

Napoléon’s disastrous setback in Haiti.

Which of the following statements about the Louisiana Purchase is FALSE?

It was clearly constitutional.

The Louisiana Purchase was a problem for Jefferson because:

he believed that the Constitution did not give authority to acquire new land

Jefferson sent Lewis and Clark to:

map and explore well beyond the Mississippi

Lewis and Clark’s expedition:

gave the United States a claim to Oregon.

In 1804, Alexander Hamilton was killed in a duel with sitting Vice President:

Aaron Burr.

The 1804 presidential election resulted in:

Jefferson’s landslide reelection.

To avoid the problems associated with political parties running multiple candidates for the presidency, Congress:

passed the Twelfth Amendment providing that electors use separate ballots to vote for a president and a vice president

The "Old Republicans," led by John Randolph:

supported an agrarian society.

As a result of England’s blockade of the European coastline:

hundreds of ships’ cargoes were confiscated by the British.

The Leopard’s attack upon the Chesapeake:

created war fever in the United States.

Jefferson’s Embargo Act:

sought to stop all American exports.

Western settlers and politicians believed that war with Britain might enable:

the conquest of Canada.

The greatest support for the declaration of war in 1812 came from the:

agricultural regions from Pennsylvania southward and westward.

President Madison’s attempts to deal with British and French interference with American trade:

led to war with the British.

The Shawnee leader, Tecumseh:

worked to unite Indians in a vast confederacy.

The United States felt that with only slight pressure:

Canada would separate from Great Britain.

Which war hawk loudly proclaimed that his state of Kentucky was ready to march on Canada and acquire its lucrative fur trade?

Henry Clay

As the War of 1812 started, one strength of the United States was:

a small but war-tested navy.

Which of the following was NOT true of the American invasion of Canada?

It proved to be the most successful American expedition of the War of 1812.

The naval battle on Lake Erie resulted in:

Commodore Perry’s glorious victory

At Horseshoe Bend, Andrew Jackson won a smashing victory over the:


The British invasion of the mid-Atlantic coast in 1814 resulted in:

the capture and burning of Washington, D.C

The most notable aspect of the British assault upon Baltimore was:

its inspiration for the eventual national anthem.

The British attack on Baltimore’s Fort McHenry:

did not force the fort’s surrender.

The Treaty of Ghent:

ended the war.

The British defeat at New Orleans is best explained by:

their attack upon a strong defensive position.

Which of the following was NOT true of the Battle of New Orleans?

It took place shortly before the Treaty of Ghent was signed.

The Hartford Convention illustrated deep opposition to the war in:

New england

At the Hartford Convention, delegates:

proposed a series of constitutional amendments to limit Republican influence in government

The War of 1812:

generated intense patriotic pride.

As a result of the War of 1812, President Madison:

learned the value of some Federalist policies.

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