US History Final Exam Review

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A french phrase meaning "let people do as they choose." SIG: Supporters if this believed that the government should not interfere in the economy other than to protect private property rights and maintain peace

Rail Roads

Allows nation to expand westward, allows agriculture to expand into the Great Plains. Allows cities and towns to expand. Provides easy ways to get raw materials to factory then finished goods to market. First big business

Bessemer Process

New process of steel manufacturing that eliminates impurities, stronger products, with good efficiency = better product Andrew Carnegie

Vertical Integration

Management control – All companies in the supply train are united through a common owner = better financial growth and efficiency Andrew Carnegie

Horizontal Integration

Combining of factories/businesses into the same business/ one large corporation J.D. Rockefeller

Manifest Destiny

Belief that the US was destined to spread across the Northern American Continent

Andrew Carnegie

Invented vertical integrated steel industry, which allowed companies to grow bigger

J.D. Rockefeller

Famous industrialist who built oil refineries, Company- Standard Oil


Economic and political domination of a strong nation over weaker ones

Queen Liliuokalani

Monark of Hawaii, "Hawaii is for Hawaiians’", 1900 Hawaii became part of the US

William Randolph Hearst

Owned the New York Journal, reported outrageous stories about how the Spanish treated the Cubans

Joseph Pulitzer

Owned The World newspaper, described Cuba as "hell"

Yellow Journalism

Exaggeration or making up stories to attract readers


Agressive nationalism

Emilio Aguinaldo

A Filipino revolutionary leader who had staged an unsuccessful uprising against the Spanish

President McKinley

President during Spanish-American War, wanted Spanish to restore order in Cuba/expected it in a diplomatic way, peaceful

Valariano Weiler

"The Butcher" – Spanish general sent to Cuba, very violent

Admiral George Dewey

US Admiral who fought in Philippines

Pre-President Roosevelt

In charge of "Rough Riders" calvary

The Treaty of Paris

Cuba was freed from Spanish rule US gained: Puerto Rico, Guam, and Philippines

"Remember the Main"

Slogan for excuse for Spanish-American War

Four Main Reasons for Entering WW1

Nationalism, Militarism, Imperialism, Entangling Alliances


Environment glorifying military spirit and need of constant preparation of war


Acquiring empire-contril of one people without the consent of the governed


Devotion to a nation state

Entangling Alliances

A defensive alliance when each member pledges to come to the assistance of the other if attacked

Sussex Pledge

Solved problems of Germany sinking merchant ships, kept US out of war tiny bit more

Zimmerman Telegram

Telegram from German official to ambassador asking to offer Mexico allieship, intercepted by British


Boat that was sunk by German submarines, changed Americans attitudes, made them want to enter the war

Trench Warfare

The use of tranches to protect soldiers and to fight from, horrific, gory, lost thousands

Treaty of Versailles

The treaty that ended WW1

League of Nations

A group of people that helped preserve peace – Fourteenth point of Wilson’s 14 Points

President Wilson

The president of the US during WW1

Declaration of London

A document all about rules at sea during the war

"Big Four"

President Wilson, David Lloyd George, Georges Clemenceau, Vittorio Orlando

Fourteen Points

President Wilsons peace plan, believing that they would establish the conditions for lasting peace in Europe

National Self-Determination

The idea that the borders of countries should be based on ethnicity and national identity


Monetary compensation for all the war damage a country had caused

General Pershing

US General who lead the army during WW1

"Palmer Raids"

Raids on Russian and other various radical organizations in which 6,000 people were arrested -Lead to Russians being deported

Harding Administration

President Harding staffed his administration with political friends from Ohio; presidency marred by many scandals


Outlaw of transporting, selling, and manufacturing alcohol

Al Capone

Murderer, prisoner, all things bad tied to him


1920 underground nightclubs where alcohol was served

Stock Market

Ordinary people becoming very wealthy through buying stocks, involved speculation

Buying on margin

Customers would pay for 10% of what stock was worth. The rest was borrowed from broker and then repaid after stock was sold

Stock speculation

People would buy and sell stocks quickly to make quick money

Black Tuesday

October 29th, 1929 – Stock market crashed


Temporary camps of homeless and unemployed people

"Bonus Army"

Veterans were promised $1,000 bonus, but when they didn’t receive it, they got angry


Actions people take to try to relieve feelings of depression and sadness, helps to create a mental diversion

Radios + Movies + Literature in 1920

Gave people a way to escape from the depression

"Fireside Chats"

Direct talks in which the president lets Americans know what he is trying to accomplish


People who moved west

Herbert Hoover

"Do nothing" president, blamed for the Depression, Laizze-fare

Franklin D. Roosevelt

Man of action, restored confidence and promises a new plan for America

Three R’s

Relief, Recovery, Reform

First New Deal

Focused on reform and temporary economic recovery

Second New Deal

Focused on permanent reform

Senator Huey Long

Said New Deal Relief measures were mere crumbs and advocated a "share the wealth" plan

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