Unit 3 mastering Bio.

Which of the following sentences correctly makes use of terms from the introduction to biotechnology?

Genetic engineering can move genes from one species into another, creating a transgenic organism.

The pointer is indicating the virus's _____.

genome

Viral DNA makes mRNA by the process of _____.

transcription

How does the definition of "transformation" in Griffith's work with lethal and non-lethal strains of Streptococcus relate to the use of the term in this chapter?

This chapter expands the definition of transformation to include the specific mechanism, DNA transfer, by which bacteria can gain new traits.

Which of the following is a major difference between PCR and replication of DNA during the cell cycle?

PCR only copies a specific portion of DNA. Replication copies the entire genome.

Looking at the gel below, what can you conclude about the DNA in these samples?

The DNA in sample C is longer than the DNA in sample A.

Which of these DNA molecules is the shortest?

E

In gel electrophoresis DNA molecules migrate from _____ to _____ ends of the gel.

negative ... positive

Why is golden rice pale yellow in color?

It is rich in beta-carotene.

Which of these is a symptom of vitamin A deficiency?

blindness

Which of these is a vitamin A precursor?

beta-carotene

The transfer of antibiotic-resistant genes from genetically engineered bacteria to disease-causing bacteria _____.

seems unlikely

DNA fragment A consists of _____ base pairs.

1,268

Which of these genes are located on the q arm of chromosome 17?

gastrin and GH1

The RP13 gene of chromosome 17 codes for a protein _____.

involved in eye development

The gene that codes for gastrin is located on the _____ of chromosome 17.

q arm

The TP53 gene of chromosome 17 codes for a protein _____.

involved in the regulation of the cell cycle

Which of these genes codes for a protein that plays a role in growth?

GH1

Which of these genes codes for a protein that plays a role in white blood cell function?

MPO

You perform a restriction digest using Allele 2, run the sample on a gel, and probe using a piece of DNA that spans this extra restriction site. Which sample on the gel below belongs to Allele #2?

sample C

Why have Florida citrus farmers been using more pesticides?

In an effort to kill the organism that spreads citrus greening.

Which of the following techniques are scientists using to disrupt the DNA in crop species in the hope of speeding up evolution?

Bombarding the plants with radiation.

You are buying groceries at a typical American grocery store. Which of the following foods is most likely to be genetically modified or contain genetically modified ingredients?

corn meal

You are a member of Greenpeace and wish to organize a protest outside of the federal agency in charge of food labeling in the U.S. Where should you take your group of protestors?

Food and Drug Administration

Utilizing a gene from which of the following currently appears to offer the most hope of saving Florida's orange trees from citrus greening?

spinach

Imagine if proteins were constructed from 45 amino acids instead of 20. How many bases long would each codon in the DNA need to be in order to code for 45 unique amino acids?

three

In the diagram below, the gray unit represents _____.

RNA polymerase

In the diagram below, the green unit represents _____.

the promoter

In the diagram below, the two blue strands represent _____.

DNA

Which of these correctly illustrates the pairing of DNA and RNA nucleotides?

GTTACG CAAUGC

The direction of synthesis of an RNA transcript is _____.

5' —> 3'

The genetic code is often described as redundant. What feature of the genetic code does this reference?

Most amino acids have more than one codon.

How does RNA polymerase know where to start transcribing a gene?

RNA polymerase binds to the promoter of the gene.

Which of the following is a good reason for mRNA to be single-stranded, instead of double-stranded like DNA?

because a complementary strand of RNA would prevent the binding of tRNA anticodons to the codon

What type of mutation is caused by adding one nucleotide into the middle of a sequence?

insertion

The operon model of the regulation of gene expression in bacteria was proposed by _____.

Jacob and Monod

Which of these is NOT a component of the lac operon?

regulatory gene only

Regulatory proteins bind to _____.

the operator

In the presence of a regulatory protein the lac operon is _____.

not transcribed

In this animation the blue sphere represents _____.

lactose

Click on the diagram to start the animation. In this animation the orange object represents _____.

RNA polymerase

Which of these is a regulatory gene?

D

The protein pepsin is produced in the cells lining the stomach, but not in cheek cells. Why is this?

There are no transcription factors for pepsin in cheek cells.

What would you expect to see inside the cells of a woman with Turner's syndrome (XO)?

no Barr bodies

Which of the following would have to be collected to provide a sample for a DNA profile from a home testing kit?

saliva or blood

You wish to write a letter of concern to the federal agency in charge of regulating home DNA testing kits. Who should you contact?

Food and Drug Administration

You buy a home DNA test kit and you send in a sample. What is being read to analyze your results?

SNPs

You are a geneticist and discover a gene that increases the chance of an individual getting colon cancer. Can you patent this gene?

No

Which of the following is a big concern regarding home DNA test kits?

The lack of standards.

If there is a gene in humans that works the same as MRAP2 in mice, what will happen if it is switched off?

The individual will gain weight.

Your friend was adopted. Her weight is most likely to be similar to who?

her biological mother

Following the old concept of weight loss and caloric intake and assuming you do not begin an exercise program, how many Calories a day would you have to give up every day in order to lose one pound in a week?

500

Which of the following is true regarding mice lacking MRAP2?

Their appetites increased as they got older.

What do current studies indicate?

Humans have similar genetic responses to weight gain as mice lacking MRAP2.

According to the findings in this study, which of the following is true?

The environment plays a role in the cause of certain diseases.

Rheumatoid arthritis, celiac disease, and multiple sclerosis are all autoimmune diseases. Which of the following is true?

Gene switches likely play a role in these diseases.

Rather than "junk" DNA, such material is now referred to as what?

Dark matter

Your identical twin is diagnosed with Crohn's disease. Which of the following is true?

You may or may not get Crohn's disease.

According to this study, which of the following is true?

In humans, less DNA is used for genes than gene switches.

The lytic cycle of bacteriophage infection ends with the _____.

rupture of the bacterium

The pointer is indicating the _____.

viral protein coat

As a result of the lytic cycle, _____.

the host cell's DNA is destroyed

What did Wilkins and Franklin discover?

DNA is a helix with repeating subunits.

How can we best summarize the role of Watson and Crick in discovering the structure of DNA?

They created a key hypothesis for the structure of DNA.

In a DNA double helix an adenine of one strand always pairs with a(n) _____ of the complementary strand, and a guanine of one strand always pairs with a(n) _____ of the complementary strand.

thymine ... cytosine

After DNA replication is completed, _____.

each new DNA double helix consists of one old DNA strand and one new DNA strand

The first step in the replication of DNA is catalyzed by _____.

helicase

The action of helicase creates _____.

replication forks and replication bubbles

Why is the new DNA strand complementary to the 3' to 5' strands assembled in short segments?

DNA polymerase can assemble DNA only in the 5' to 3' direction

The synthesis of a new strand begins with the synthesis of a(n) _____.

RNA primer complementary to a preexisting DNA strand

An old DNA strand is used as a _____ for the assembly of a new DNA strand.

template

Short segments of newly synthesized DNA are joined into a continuous strand by _____.

ligase

After DNA replication is completed, _____.

each new DNA double helix consists of one old DNA strand and one new DNA strand

The first step in the replication of DNA is catalyzed by _____.

helicase

The action of helicase creates _____.

replication forks and replication bubbles

Why is the new DNA strand complementary to the 3' to 5' strands assembled in short segments?

DNA polymerase can assemble DNA only in the 5' to 3' direction

The synthesis of a new strand begins with the synthesis of a(n) _____.

RNA primer complementary to a preexisting DNA strand

Which of these is responsible for catalyzing the formation of an RNA primer?

D (the green square)

An old DNA strand is used as a _____ for the assembly of a new DNA strand.

template

Which of the following build(s) new strands of DNA?

DNA polymerases

Which statement about DNA replication is CORRECT?

The leading strand is built continuously, and the lagging strand is built in pieces.

During DNA replication, which nucleotide will bind to an A nucleotide in the parental DNA?

T

The molecule that seals the gaps between the pieces of DNA in the lagging strand is

DNA ligase.

Which statement about DNA replication is FALSE?

DNA ligase adds nucleotides to the lagging strand.

Which of the following is most responsible for DNA forming a double helix instead of a single helix?

hydrogen bonding between bases

How is DNA replication most affected by the two strands of DNA running in antiparallel directions?

Replication of one strand must be discontinuous.

You wish to prove that DNA replication is semi-conservative. You choose to work with bacteria because they only have a single chromosome. You have a very special device that can measure radiation in individual cells. Which radioactive element or compound should you add to the cells prior to division and what do you expect to see?

Add radioactive phosphate and expect each cell to contain a radioactive chromosome.

How do mutations affect an organism?

all of the above

DNA replication occurs at an unbelievably fast rate. Once replication is complete, we can expect to find a _____ number of mistakes.

small

A female that is planning to become pregnant is concerned about her exposure to environmental mutagens which may have caused DNA mutations. In order for these mutations to become heritable, they must affect the:

her egg cells

Which of the following would indicate a base pairing mutation in DNA?

a G paired with a T

In replicating a DNA strand, polymerase makes a mistake and puts adenine across from guanine. How might a proofreading enzyme detect this mistake?

The two nucleotides are too large to fit across from each other. The enzyme will notice the bulge.

A thymine base is replaced by a cytosine in a DNA molecule. What type of mutation is this?

substitution

UV rays can strike two thymine bases sitting beside each other on the same strand, causing them to become linked tightly to one another. This pulls the thymines closer together, altering the spacing of the nucleotides. What kind of error during replication is this likely to cause?

deletion

Assuming other things to be equal, which of the following individuals is most likely to suffer from heart disease?

A person with high LDL levels.

Your uncle suffers from heart disease and controls it with a common form of medicine. What does he take?

statin

What is currently believed to be the biggest hurdle to overcome with the new heart disease drugs being tested?

They are expensive.

You are a scientist for the federal agency in charge of deciding if a new heart disease drug can be used. Who do you work for?

Food and Drug Administration

Your family is known to have a mutation in PCSK9. Which of the following is true?

Members of your family are more likely to have a heart attack or stroke.

You are a molecular biologist and wish to change the proteins that cells make. Which of the following should you do?

Change the sequence of the nucleotides.

Which of the following is in the correct order from simplest to most complex?

nucleotide, amino acid, protein

You work for Synthorx, creating synthetic DNA. You create a sequence on one strand of CTXAGGC. What is its complimentary strand?

GAYTCCG

Your cousin is a xenobiologist working to insert synthetic DNA into a virus with the goal of creating a vaccine for H.I.V. If she follows similar methods to those already used, which of the following will she need to aid her in this process?

algae gene

Which of the following has yet to be shown?

Cells with synthetic nucleotides make new proteins.

Which of the following is most likely to be passed on to the next generation?

a mutation in the DNA in cells in the ovaries

In the 1800s, it was commonly believed that the traits of both parents for any feature blended to create the offspring and that the blended trait was passed on. Which of the following observations was most important to Mendel's understanding of genes as unchanged units of information?

Recessive traits can reappear in later generations.

Considering pea flowers, where purple is dominant to white, describe the genotype of a plant with the alleles Pp.

heterozygous

Mendel worked _____.

in a monastery

Which of the following represents an EXCEPTION to the law of independent assortment?

linkage

Which of these facts, if he had known them, might have led Mendel to formulate different rules for inheritance?

There are many genes on each chromosome.

What error is responsible for creating Jacob syndrome?

nondisjunction of chromosomes

Considering all the genetic diseases covered in this chapter, what general conclusion can you draw about genetic diseases?

Most genetic diseases are pleiotropic.

Which of the following tools is NEVER necessary when evaluating a gene with incomplete dominant inheritance?

test cross

Doing which of the following increases your risk of developing heart disease?

Smoking.

Your brother died of a heart attack at age 47. Assuming no other risk factors, what does this do to your chance of developing heart disease?

Doubles it.

Which of the following is true?

If a person has early heart disease, their children may or may not have it.

Your aunt is 63 and has a non-fatal heart attack. Which of the following is true?

She is younger than average for having a first heart attack. (found this answer to be shocking)

You are a cardiovascular surgeon. Where do you insert stents?

blocked arteries

Your 28 year old friend is pregnant. Which of the following screenings is she most likely to initially have to test for Down syndrome?

blood test

How is the fetal DNA used in this new screening tool unique?

It is not from a cell, but is floating freely in the mother's blood.

Which of the following is true?

The chance of having a child with a chromosomal abnormality increases with the age of the mother.

Which of the following is true regarding this new fetal DNA test?

A decreased number of false positive tests for both Down syndrome and Trisomy 18.

Which of the following best summarizes current research on this new fetal DNA test?

It works well for finding errors in chromosome number.

What defines a short sleeper?

They can function well on 6 hours of sleep or less.

While it is estimated that less than 5% of the population are short sleepers,

an estimated 30% of the population sleep only 6 hours per night or less.

The risks of sleep deprivation include which of the following?

all of the above

The discovery of a gene associated with short sleepers means that

there is potential to manipulate sleep pathways with medication.

Since there is a genetic explanation for short sleepers, you would expect

that this trait appears more frequently among family members.

Current best estimates suggest that life has been on Earth for how long?

3.5 billion years

If life exists or originated on another planet, most scientists today believe that it is which of the following planets?

Mars

Which of the following is true regarding current scientific thought?

RNA originated before DNA.

You discover a new means of energy transfer by organisms living in hydrothermal vents in the ocean. Who is most likely to be interested in funding your research?

Everett Shock

Which of the following scientists is closest to creating life?

J. Craig Venter

dys- difficult
trop- change
ad- to
poly- many
neutr- neither gender
de- from, out of
non- not
anti-against
-phil- to love
co- together

...

hem- blood
hetero- different
trans- across
semi- one half
-ase -enzyme
intra- within
tri- three
meta- change, after
lact- milk

...

How do cells fit long pieces of DNA into a compartment as small as the nucleus?

The DNA is wrapped around histones.

What is the function of the telomere?

Telomeres prevent the ends of chromosomes from being damaged.

True or false. Mitosis takes place during M phase of the cell cycle, which is longer than interphase.

false

A certain species of animal has six pairs of chromosomes. How many DNA molecules are present in the nuclei of these animals during G2 phase?

24

Which of the following checkpoints does not occur late in G1?

A check that chromosome replication has been successfully completed

Compare the cells of a woman's leg muscle to the cells of a baby growing inside her womb. What is the most important difference between them?

The chromosomes in the cells of the woman's leg muscle are genetically identical to the rest of her body. The baby's cells contain only half of the mother's chromosomes.

Nucleoli are present during _____.

interphase

Cytokinesis often, but not always, accompanies _____.

telophase

Chromosomes become visible during _____.

prophase

Centromeres divide and sister chromosomes become full-fledged chromosomes during _____.

anaphase

Spindle fibers attach to kinetochores during _____.

prometaphase

Click on the art to see an animation. This animation illustrates the events of _____.

anaphase

Click on the art to see an animation. This animation illustrates the events of _____.

cytokinesis as it occurs in animal cells

Click on the art to see an animation. This animation illustrates the events of _____.

prophase

Click on the art to see an animation. This animation illustrates the events of _____.

metaphase

Click on the art to see an animation. This animation illustrates the events of _____.

prometaphase

Click on the art to see an animation. This animation illustrates the events of _____.

cytokinesis as it occurs in plant cells

Click on the art to see an animation. This animation illustrates the events of _____.

telophase

During prophase a homologous pair of chromosomes consists of _____.

two chromosomes and four chromatids

Stages of the cell cycle activity

interphase->prophase->metaphase->anaphase-> telophase

Centrioles duplicate during the cell cycle. Given your knowledge of the cell cycle, when would you guess that the duplication of centrioles occurs?

S phase

Which phase of mitosis comes last during cell division?

telophase

Which of these is NOT a carcinogen?

all of the above are carcinogens

_____ is a carcinogen that promotes colon cancer.

fat

Meiosis concept map

a. diploid organisms b. haploid gametes c. meiosis d. maternal chromosomes e. crossing over occurs f. sister chromatids separate

Meiosis starts with a single diploid cell and produces

four haploid cells.

A cell preparing to undergo meiosis duplicates its chromosomes during

interphase.

During prophase I of meiosis,

homologous chromosomes stick together in pairs.

The correct order of events during meiosis is

prophase I, metaphase I, anaphase I, telophase I, cytokinesis, meiosis II.

During meiosis, segments of nonsister chromatids can trade places. This recombination of maternal and paternal genetic material is a key feature of meiosis. During what phase of meiosis does recombination occur?

prophase I.

Which of the following is a correct description of meiosis?

Meiosis is one round of DNA replication followed by two rounds of cell division.

Which of these phases is the most different between mitosis and meiosis?

anaphase and anaphase I

Asexual and sexual life cycles
What name is given to this process?

asexual reproduction

Gametes are produced by _____.

meiosis

Normal human gametes carry _____ chromosomes.

23

Which of these cells is (are) haploid?

C and D

A diploid organism whose somatic (nonsex) cells each contain 32 chromosomes produces gametes containing _____ chromosomes.

16

In the laboratory fruit fly, n is 4. How many different chromosome sets can be produced by one fly, excluding crossing over?

24 variations

Which of the following is necessary for cancer to begin in a person?

a mutation in the person's DNA

Which of the following is true?

A specific gene can be involved with the development of more than one type of cancer.

Which of the following is most likely to happen if a developing embryo lacks integrin?

The embryo will be unable to stay attached to the uterine wall.

You are an oncologist trying to invent a drug that prevents tumors from creating their own blood supply. What are you looking to stop?

angiogenesis

A person would be born with webbed hands and/or feet if which of the following failed to happen?

apoptosis

Which of the following currently appears most beneficial in preventing cancer?

Not smoking

Based on current findings, which of the following individuals is most likely to get cancer?

An obese male who eats a lot of fruits and vegetables.

You are an oncologist and agree with the 1997 findings published by the World Cancer Research Fund and the American Institute for Cancer Research. What do you believe?

Eating judicious amounts of fruits and vegetables will decrease a person's risk of developing cancer.

For many years, it was believed that heavy consumption of which of the following increased a person's chance of getting colon cancer?

red meat

You are an epidemiologist studying the effects of years of vigorous exercise on health. You ask participants to recall how much they have exercised per week every week for the last three years. What type of study are you conducting?

retrospective

Research indicates that the best estimate of your age is from ______.

markers in your cells

The cells examined from the 2,400 people in this study were from ______.

blood

Which of the following damages cells and causes cell aging?

inflammation

The researchers used strands of DNA located at the ends of chromosomes (called telomeres) to classify the cells they studied. What assumption did they make about telomeres?

Longer telomeres indicate younger cells.

The researchers found that telomeres were ______.

longer in individuals who exercised regularly

The research showed that individuals who _______ had younger looking cells based on telomere measurements.

exercised for an average of 30 minutes per day

Which of the following is true?

Once it is established in a population, a new mutation may increase or decrease in frequency depending on the environment.

You are infected with an antibiotic-resistant strain of Klebsiella pneumoniae. Where did you most likely contract it?

hospital

Which of the following is true?

Current research indicates that medians are not similar to islands when comparing the diversity of animals or plants.

Natural selection ultimately depends on favorable what?

mutations

You discover that a company illegaly dumped old vats of PCBs into a nearby river. What do you expect to see?

Fish with deformities.

The overall process of nuclear division is known as....

Mitosis

___ is the first phase of mitosis

Prophase

___ is the second phase of mitosis

metaphase

__ is the final stage of mitosis

Telophase

___is the stage of the cell cycle between cell division

Interphase

___ is the stage of the cell cycle when the cytoplasm and organelles divide into two daughter cells

Cytokinesis

A(n) ___ consist of a very long DNA molecule associated with many proteins

Chromosomes

In the process known as ____, a bacterium divides in half

Binary fission

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Which of the following sentences correctly makes use of terms from the introduction to biotechnology?

Genetic engineering can move genes from one species into another, creating a transgenic organism.

The pointer is indicating the virus’s _____.

genome

Viral DNA makes mRNA by the process of _____.

transcription

How does the definition of "transformation" in Griffith’s work with lethal and non-lethal strains of Streptococcus relate to the use of the term in this chapter?

This chapter expands the definition of transformation to include the specific mechanism, DNA transfer, by which bacteria can gain new traits.

Which of the following is a major difference between PCR and replication of DNA during the cell cycle?

PCR only copies a specific portion of DNA. Replication copies the entire genome.

Looking at the gel below, what can you conclude about the DNA in these samples?

The DNA in sample C is longer than the DNA in sample A.

Which of these DNA molecules is the shortest?

E

In gel electrophoresis DNA molecules migrate from _____ to _____ ends of the gel.

negative … positive

Why is golden rice pale yellow in color?

It is rich in beta-carotene.

Which of these is a symptom of vitamin A deficiency?

blindness

Which of these is a vitamin A precursor?

beta-carotene

The transfer of antibiotic-resistant genes from genetically engineered bacteria to disease-causing bacteria _____.

seems unlikely

DNA fragment A consists of _____ base pairs.

1,268

Which of these genes are located on the q arm of chromosome 17?

gastrin and GH1

The RP13 gene of chromosome 17 codes for a protein _____.

involved in eye development

The gene that codes for gastrin is located on the _____ of chromosome 17.

q arm

The TP53 gene of chromosome 17 codes for a protein _____.

involved in the regulation of the cell cycle

Which of these genes codes for a protein that plays a role in growth?

GH1

Which of these genes codes for a protein that plays a role in white blood cell function?

MPO

You perform a restriction digest using Allele 2, run the sample on a gel, and probe using a piece of DNA that spans this extra restriction site. Which sample on the gel below belongs to Allele #2?

sample C

Why have Florida citrus farmers been using more pesticides?

In an effort to kill the organism that spreads citrus greening.

Which of the following techniques are scientists using to disrupt the DNA in crop species in the hope of speeding up evolution?

Bombarding the plants with radiation.

You are buying groceries at a typical American grocery store. Which of the following foods is most likely to be genetically modified or contain genetically modified ingredients?

corn meal

You are a member of Greenpeace and wish to organize a protest outside of the federal agency in charge of food labeling in the U.S. Where should you take your group of protestors?

Food and Drug Administration

Utilizing a gene from which of the following currently appears to offer the most hope of saving Florida’s orange trees from citrus greening?

spinach

Imagine if proteins were constructed from 45 amino acids instead of 20. How many bases long would each codon in the DNA need to be in order to code for 45 unique amino acids?

three

In the diagram below, the gray unit represents _____.

RNA polymerase

In the diagram below, the green unit represents _____.

the promoter

In the diagram below, the two blue strands represent _____.

DNA

Which of these correctly illustrates the pairing of DNA and RNA nucleotides?

GTTACG CAAUGC

The direction of synthesis of an RNA transcript is _____.

5′ —> 3′

The genetic code is often described as redundant. What feature of the genetic code does this reference?

Most amino acids have more than one codon.

How does RNA polymerase know where to start transcribing a gene?

RNA polymerase binds to the promoter of the gene.

Which of the following is a good reason for mRNA to be single-stranded, instead of double-stranded like DNA?

because a complementary strand of RNA would prevent the binding of tRNA anticodons to the codon

What type of mutation is caused by adding one nucleotide into the middle of a sequence?

insertion

The operon model of the regulation of gene expression in bacteria was proposed by _____.

Jacob and Monod

Which of these is NOT a component of the lac operon?

regulatory gene only

Regulatory proteins bind to _____.

the operator

In the presence of a regulatory protein the lac operon is _____.

not transcribed

In this animation the blue sphere represents _____.

lactose

Click on the diagram to start the animation. In this animation the orange object represents _____.

RNA polymerase

Which of these is a regulatory gene?

D

The protein pepsin is produced in the cells lining the stomach, but not in cheek cells. Why is this?

There are no transcription factors for pepsin in cheek cells.

What would you expect to see inside the cells of a woman with Turner’s syndrome (XO)?

no Barr bodies

Which of the following would have to be collected to provide a sample for a DNA profile from a home testing kit?

saliva or blood

You wish to write a letter of concern to the federal agency in charge of regulating home DNA testing kits. Who should you contact?

Food and Drug Administration

You buy a home DNA test kit and you send in a sample. What is being read to analyze your results?

SNPs

You are a geneticist and discover a gene that increases the chance of an individual getting colon cancer. Can you patent this gene?

No

Which of the following is a big concern regarding home DNA test kits?

The lack of standards.

If there is a gene in humans that works the same as MRAP2 in mice, what will happen if it is switched off?

The individual will gain weight.

Your friend was adopted. Her weight is most likely to be similar to who?

her biological mother

Following the old concept of weight loss and caloric intake and assuming you do not begin an exercise program, how many Calories a day would you have to give up every day in order to lose one pound in a week?

500

Which of the following is true regarding mice lacking MRAP2?

Their appetites increased as they got older.

What do current studies indicate?

Humans have similar genetic responses to weight gain as mice lacking MRAP2.

According to the findings in this study, which of the following is true?

The environment plays a role in the cause of certain diseases.

Rheumatoid arthritis, celiac disease, and multiple sclerosis are all autoimmune diseases. Which of the following is true?

Gene switches likely play a role in these diseases.

Rather than "junk" DNA, such material is now referred to as what?

Dark matter

Your identical twin is diagnosed with Crohn’s disease. Which of the following is true?

You may or may not get Crohn’s disease.

According to this study, which of the following is true?

In humans, less DNA is used for genes than gene switches.

The lytic cycle of bacteriophage infection ends with the _____.

rupture of the bacterium

The pointer is indicating the _____.

viral protein coat

As a result of the lytic cycle, _____.

the host cell’s DNA is destroyed

What did Wilkins and Franklin discover?

DNA is a helix with repeating subunits.

How can we best summarize the role of Watson and Crick in discovering the structure of DNA?

They created a key hypothesis for the structure of DNA.

In a DNA double helix an adenine of one strand always pairs with a(n) _____ of the complementary strand, and a guanine of one strand always pairs with a(n) _____ of the complementary strand.

thymine … cytosine

After DNA replication is completed, _____.

each new DNA double helix consists of one old DNA strand and one new DNA strand

The first step in the replication of DNA is catalyzed by _____.

helicase

The action of helicase creates _____.

replication forks and replication bubbles

Why is the new DNA strand complementary to the 3′ to 5′ strands assembled in short segments?

DNA polymerase can assemble DNA only in the 5′ to 3′ direction

The synthesis of a new strand begins with the synthesis of a(n) _____.

RNA primer complementary to a preexisting DNA strand

An old DNA strand is used as a _____ for the assembly of a new DNA strand.

template

Short segments of newly synthesized DNA are joined into a continuous strand by _____.

ligase

After DNA replication is completed, _____.

each new DNA double helix consists of one old DNA strand and one new DNA strand

The first step in the replication of DNA is catalyzed by _____.

helicase

The action of helicase creates _____.

replication forks and replication bubbles

Why is the new DNA strand complementary to the 3′ to 5′ strands assembled in short segments?

DNA polymerase can assemble DNA only in the 5′ to 3′ direction

The synthesis of a new strand begins with the synthesis of a(n) _____.

RNA primer complementary to a preexisting DNA strand

Which of these is responsible for catalyzing the formation of an RNA primer?

D (the green square)

An old DNA strand is used as a _____ for the assembly of a new DNA strand.

template

Which of the following build(s) new strands of DNA?

DNA polymerases

Which statement about DNA replication is CORRECT?

The leading strand is built continuously, and the lagging strand is built in pieces.

During DNA replication, which nucleotide will bind to an A nucleotide in the parental DNA?

T

The molecule that seals the gaps between the pieces of DNA in the lagging strand is

DNA ligase.

Which statement about DNA replication is FALSE?

DNA ligase adds nucleotides to the lagging strand.

Which of the following is most responsible for DNA forming a double helix instead of a single helix?

hydrogen bonding between bases

How is DNA replication most affected by the two strands of DNA running in antiparallel directions?

Replication of one strand must be discontinuous.

You wish to prove that DNA replication is semi-conservative. You choose to work with bacteria because they only have a single chromosome. You have a very special device that can measure radiation in individual cells. Which radioactive element or compound should you add to the cells prior to division and what do you expect to see?

Add radioactive phosphate and expect each cell to contain a radioactive chromosome.

How do mutations affect an organism?

all of the above

DNA replication occurs at an unbelievably fast rate. Once replication is complete, we can expect to find a _____ number of mistakes.

small

A female that is planning to become pregnant is concerned about her exposure to environmental mutagens which may have caused DNA mutations. In order for these mutations to become heritable, they must affect the:

her egg cells

Which of the following would indicate a base pairing mutation in DNA?

a G paired with a T

In replicating a DNA strand, polymerase makes a mistake and puts adenine across from guanine. How might a proofreading enzyme detect this mistake?

The two nucleotides are too large to fit across from each other. The enzyme will notice the bulge.

A thymine base is replaced by a cytosine in a DNA molecule. What type of mutation is this?

substitution

UV rays can strike two thymine bases sitting beside each other on the same strand, causing them to become linked tightly to one another. This pulls the thymines closer together, altering the spacing of the nucleotides. What kind of error during replication is this likely to cause?

deletion

Assuming other things to be equal, which of the following individuals is most likely to suffer from heart disease?

A person with high LDL levels.

Your uncle suffers from heart disease and controls it with a common form of medicine. What does he take?

statin

What is currently believed to be the biggest hurdle to overcome with the new heart disease drugs being tested?

They are expensive.

You are a scientist for the federal agency in charge of deciding if a new heart disease drug can be used. Who do you work for?

Food and Drug Administration

Your family is known to have a mutation in PCSK9. Which of the following is true?

Members of your family are more likely to have a heart attack or stroke.

You are a molecular biologist and wish to change the proteins that cells make. Which of the following should you do?

Change the sequence of the nucleotides.

Which of the following is in the correct order from simplest to most complex?

nucleotide, amino acid, protein

You work for Synthorx, creating synthetic DNA. You create a sequence on one strand of CTXAGGC. What is its complimentary strand?

GAYTCCG

Your cousin is a xenobiologist working to insert synthetic DNA into a virus with the goal of creating a vaccine for H.I.V. If she follows similar methods to those already used, which of the following will she need to aid her in this process?

algae gene

Which of the following has yet to be shown?

Cells with synthetic nucleotides make new proteins.

Which of the following is most likely to be passed on to the next generation?

a mutation in the DNA in cells in the ovaries

In the 1800s, it was commonly believed that the traits of both parents for any feature blended to create the offspring and that the blended trait was passed on. Which of the following observations was most important to Mendel’s understanding of genes as unchanged units of information?

Recessive traits can reappear in later generations.

Considering pea flowers, where purple is dominant to white, describe the genotype of a plant with the alleles Pp.

heterozygous

Mendel worked _____.

in a monastery

Which of the following represents an EXCEPTION to the law of independent assortment?

linkage

Which of these facts, if he had known them, might have led Mendel to formulate different rules for inheritance?

There are many genes on each chromosome.

What error is responsible for creating Jacob syndrome?

nondisjunction of chromosomes

Considering all the genetic diseases covered in this chapter, what general conclusion can you draw about genetic diseases?

Most genetic diseases are pleiotropic.

Which of the following tools is NEVER necessary when evaluating a gene with incomplete dominant inheritance?

test cross

Doing which of the following increases your risk of developing heart disease?

Smoking.

Your brother died of a heart attack at age 47. Assuming no other risk factors, what does this do to your chance of developing heart disease?

Doubles it.

Which of the following is true?

If a person has early heart disease, their children may or may not have it.

Your aunt is 63 and has a non-fatal heart attack. Which of the following is true?

She is younger than average for having a first heart attack. (found this answer to be shocking)

You are a cardiovascular surgeon. Where do you insert stents?

blocked arteries

Your 28 year old friend is pregnant. Which of the following screenings is she most likely to initially have to test for Down syndrome?

blood test

How is the fetal DNA used in this new screening tool unique?

It is not from a cell, but is floating freely in the mother’s blood.

Which of the following is true?

The chance of having a child with a chromosomal abnormality increases with the age of the mother.

Which of the following is true regarding this new fetal DNA test?

A decreased number of false positive tests for both Down syndrome and Trisomy 18.

Which of the following best summarizes current research on this new fetal DNA test?

It works well for finding errors in chromosome number.

What defines a short sleeper?

They can function well on 6 hours of sleep or less.

While it is estimated that less than 5% of the population are short sleepers,

an estimated 30% of the population sleep only 6 hours per night or less.

The risks of sleep deprivation include which of the following?

all of the above

The discovery of a gene associated with short sleepers means that

there is potential to manipulate sleep pathways with medication.

Since there is a genetic explanation for short sleepers, you would expect

that this trait appears more frequently among family members.

Current best estimates suggest that life has been on Earth for how long?

3.5 billion years

If life exists or originated on another planet, most scientists today believe that it is which of the following planets?

Mars

Which of the following is true regarding current scientific thought?

RNA originated before DNA.

You discover a new means of energy transfer by organisms living in hydrothermal vents in the ocean. Who is most likely to be interested in funding your research?

Everett Shock

Which of the following scientists is closest to creating life?

J. Craig Venter

dys- difficult
trop- change
ad- to
poly- many
neutr- neither gender
de- from, out of
non- not
anti-against
-phil- to love
co- together

hem- blood
hetero- different
trans- across
semi- one half
-ase -enzyme
intra- within
tri- three
meta- change, after
lact- milk

How do cells fit long pieces of DNA into a compartment as small as the nucleus?

The DNA is wrapped around histones.

What is the function of the telomere?

Telomeres prevent the ends of chromosomes from being damaged.

True or false. Mitosis takes place during M phase of the cell cycle, which is longer than interphase.

false

A certain species of animal has six pairs of chromosomes. How many DNA molecules are present in the nuclei of these animals during G2 phase?

24

Which of the following checkpoints does not occur late in G1?

A check that chromosome replication has been successfully completed

Compare the cells of a woman’s leg muscle to the cells of a baby growing inside her womb. What is the most important difference between them?

The chromosomes in the cells of the woman’s leg muscle are genetically identical to the rest of her body. The baby’s cells contain only half of the mother’s chromosomes.

Nucleoli are present during _____.

interphase

Cytokinesis often, but not always, accompanies _____.

telophase

Chromosomes become visible during _____.

prophase

Centromeres divide and sister chromosomes become full-fledged chromosomes during _____.

anaphase

Spindle fibers attach to kinetochores during _____.

prometaphase

Click on the art to see an animation. This animation illustrates the events of _____.

anaphase

Click on the art to see an animation. This animation illustrates the events of _____.

cytokinesis as it occurs in animal cells

Click on the art to see an animation. This animation illustrates the events of _____.

prophase

Click on the art to see an animation. This animation illustrates the events of _____.

metaphase

Click on the art to see an animation. This animation illustrates the events of _____.

prometaphase

Click on the art to see an animation. This animation illustrates the events of _____.

cytokinesis as it occurs in plant cells

Click on the art to see an animation. This animation illustrates the events of _____.

telophase

During prophase a homologous pair of chromosomes consists of _____.

two chromosomes and four chromatids

Stages of the cell cycle activity

interphase->prophase->metaphase->anaphase-> telophase

Centrioles duplicate during the cell cycle. Given your knowledge of the cell cycle, when would you guess that the duplication of centrioles occurs?

S phase

Which phase of mitosis comes last during cell division?

telophase

Which of these is NOT a carcinogen?

all of the above are carcinogens

_____ is a carcinogen that promotes colon cancer.

fat

Meiosis concept map

a. diploid organisms b. haploid gametes c. meiosis d. maternal chromosomes e. crossing over occurs f. sister chromatids separate

Meiosis starts with a single diploid cell and produces

four haploid cells.

A cell preparing to undergo meiosis duplicates its chromosomes during

interphase.

During prophase I of meiosis,

homologous chromosomes stick together in pairs.

The correct order of events during meiosis is

prophase I, metaphase I, anaphase I, telophase I, cytokinesis, meiosis II.

During meiosis, segments of nonsister chromatids can trade places. This recombination of maternal and paternal genetic material is a key feature of meiosis. During what phase of meiosis does recombination occur?

prophase I.

Which of the following is a correct description of meiosis?

Meiosis is one round of DNA replication followed by two rounds of cell division.

Which of these phases is the most different between mitosis and meiosis?

anaphase and anaphase I

Asexual and sexual life cycles
What name is given to this process?

asexual reproduction

Gametes are produced by _____.

meiosis

Normal human gametes carry _____ chromosomes.

23

Which of these cells is (are) haploid?

C and D

A diploid organism whose somatic (nonsex) cells each contain 32 chromosomes produces gametes containing _____ chromosomes.

16

In the laboratory fruit fly, n is 4. How many different chromosome sets can be produced by one fly, excluding crossing over?

24 variations

Which of the following is necessary for cancer to begin in a person?

a mutation in the person’s DNA

Which of the following is true?

A specific gene can be involved with the development of more than one type of cancer.

Which of the following is most likely to happen if a developing embryo lacks integrin?

The embryo will be unable to stay attached to the uterine wall.

You are an oncologist trying to invent a drug that prevents tumors from creating their own blood supply. What are you looking to stop?

angiogenesis

A person would be born with webbed hands and/or feet if which of the following failed to happen?

apoptosis

Which of the following currently appears most beneficial in preventing cancer?

Not smoking

Based on current findings, which of the following individuals is most likely to get cancer?

An obese male who eats a lot of fruits and vegetables.

You are an oncologist and agree with the 1997 findings published by the World Cancer Research Fund and the American Institute for Cancer Research. What do you believe?

Eating judicious amounts of fruits and vegetables will decrease a person’s risk of developing cancer.

For many years, it was believed that heavy consumption of which of the following increased a person’s chance of getting colon cancer?

red meat

You are an epidemiologist studying the effects of years of vigorous exercise on health. You ask participants to recall how much they have exercised per week every week for the last three years. What type of study are you conducting?

retrospective

Research indicates that the best estimate of your age is from ______.

markers in your cells

The cells examined from the 2,400 people in this study were from ______.

blood

Which of the following damages cells and causes cell aging?

inflammation

The researchers used strands of DNA located at the ends of chromosomes (called telomeres) to classify the cells they studied. What assumption did they make about telomeres?

Longer telomeres indicate younger cells.

The researchers found that telomeres were ______.

longer in individuals who exercised regularly

The research showed that individuals who _______ had younger looking cells based on telomere measurements.

exercised for an average of 30 minutes per day

Which of the following is true?

Once it is established in a population, a new mutation may increase or decrease in frequency depending on the environment.

You are infected with an antibiotic-resistant strain of Klebsiella pneumoniae. Where did you most likely contract it?

hospital

Which of the following is true?

Current research indicates that medians are not similar to islands when comparing the diversity of animals or plants.

Natural selection ultimately depends on favorable what?

mutations

You discover that a company illegaly dumped old vats of PCBs into a nearby river. What do you expect to see?

Fish with deformities.

The overall process of nuclear division is known as….

Mitosis

___ is the first phase of mitosis

Prophase

___ is the second phase of mitosis

metaphase

__ is the final stage of mitosis

Telophase

___is the stage of the cell cycle between cell division

Interphase

___ is the stage of the cell cycle when the cytoplasm and organelles divide into two daughter cells

Cytokinesis

A(n) ___ consist of a very long DNA molecule associated with many proteins

Chromosomes

In the process known as ____, a bacterium divides in half

Binary fission

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