Unit 2 Study Guide HEED 300

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Which of the following is NOT a macronutrient?

vitamins

All of the following are functions of water, EXCEPT

providing energy for the nervous system

Mary burns 2,000 calories a day; she requires approximately ________ cups of water daily.

8 to 12

The main provider of energy for the brain and nervous system is

glucose

Which of the following statements is true about fiber?

Increases in daily fiber intake should be gradual

The main purpose of proteins is to

build and maintain body tissue

When Kristi, a vegetarian, combines foods such as beans and rice to consume the right amino acids, she is practicing

mutual supplementation

The acceptable macronutrient distribution range (AMDR) for protein is ________ percent of daily energy intake.

10-35

Of the following individuals, who needs the least protein?

Christian, a 60-pound seven-year-old

Which of the following statements is true about fats in food?

Fats are the principal form of stored energy in the body

Which of the following food products is highest in unsaturated fats?

vegetable oils

The fatty acids now considered most hazardous to health are the

trans fatty acids

Most adults need only ________ percent of their daily calorie intake in the form of fat.

15

Your body needs ________ essential minerals.

20

Which of the following statements about vitamins and minerals is FALSE?

Minerals are organic substances; vitamins are inorganic

Your body needs at least ________ specific vitamins.

11

Oxygen in the body is metabolized to produce unstable molecules called ________, which can damage cell structures and DNA.

free radicals

Which of the following is true of phytochemicals?

Research suggests they have many health benefits

Which of the following can neutralize the effects of free radicals before they cause much damage?

antioxidants

MyPlate replaced the food pyramid previously promoted by the USDA because the food pyramid

was overly complicated and sometimes implied misleading information

The FDA permits the use of the term light on food packaging if the product has

one-third fewer calories or half the fat of the regular product

Which of the following is NOT included in the Institute of Medicine’s recommended standard for front-of-package labels?

the Institute of Medicine approval stamp

Which of the following statements about sodium intake is true?

Most Americans consume approximately seven times the recommended sodium intake

Which of the following statements is true regarding food allergies?

Food allergies cause life-threatening reactions in many people

Which of the following is NOT one of the eight foods most responsible for food allergies?

chocolate

An immune reaction to the protein gluten is the cause of

celiac disease

Which of the following statements is true of energy drinks?

They could be harmful if consumed in excess or at the wrong time

Which of the following statements is TRUE of organic foods?

They pose a somewhat higher risk of causing food-borne illness

Which of the following is a fruit or vegetable that carries little pesticide residue?

bananas

Approximately how many Americans die every year from foodborne illness?

3,000

Which of the following statements about E. coli is true?

Some infections can be fatal to humans

The most common symptoms of food poisoning are

nausea, vomiting, and mild fever

Which of the following common practices creates the greatest risk of transmitting foodborne illnesses?

defrosting meat and poultry at room temperature

The ability to perform daily living activities with vigor is known as

health-related fitness

Which of the following components of fitness is most associated with speed?

skill-related fitness

All of the following are associated with physical activity EXCEPT

decreasing output of hormones

Which of the following statements about physical activity is FALSE?

Short-term exercise has been shown to significantly improve cognitive functioning

Which of the following is an example of a vigorous-intensity exercise?

jogging

The American College of Sports Medicine’s recommendations for physical activity include a minimum of

75 minutes of vigorous-intensity exercise a week

Holly is preparing a workout plan and wants to include her target heart rate. Holly is 30 years old and wants to work out at 70 percent intensity. What is her target heart rate according to the maximum heart rate formula

133

The four components of cardiorespiratory training do NOT include

weight

Which of the following statements about the frequency of cardiorespiratory training is FALSE?

In general, it is necessary to exercise at least five times a week to obtain adaptation changes in the cardiorespiratory system

The American College of Sports Medicine recommends that people exercise at a THR between ________ percent and ________ percent of their maximum heart rate.

55; 80

Mandy, age 25, wants to lose some weight she gained over the holiday season. Mandy’s resting heart rate is 75 and her target heart rate objective is 75 percent. Using the maximum heart rate formula, what is Mandy’s target heart rate for exercise?

146

Emma, a 27-year-old female, begins a cardiovascular training program. To achieve the maximum benefits from exercise, how often will she need increase the intensity and duration of her workout?

once every two weeks

Resistance training lends itself to all of the following health benefits EXCEPT

preventing cancer

Pilates, one of the most popular training exercises taught in health clubs today, is most strongly associated with which type of exercise training?

core-strength

Which of the following statements about flexibility and flexibility training is FALSE?

Flexibility declines steadily once a person reaches adulthood

Individuals with a(n) ________ body type gain muscle more easily than individuals with other body types.

mesomorphic

Stretching is very important in preventing injuries, reducing muscle tension, and promoting flexibility. Which of the following is NOT one of the popular stretching techniques for exercise?

duration

What type of stretching is most recommended for general fitness purposes?

static

Olympic and elite athletes often practice ________ stretching, which is not recommended for most people because it makes an individual vulnerable to muscle pulls and tears.

ballistic

Which of the following statements regarding flexibility programs is FALSE?

You will experience the greatest improvement in flexibility if you do your stretching exercises before aerobic exercise

You can turn light activity into moderate activity by increasing the

intensity

The expenditure of energy in activities other than exercise is known as non-exercise activity

thermogenesis

Which of the following statements regarding warm-ups and cool-downs is FALSE?

Taking a hot shower immediately after a main exercise program effectively aids in cool-down and blood flow return to the heart

Which of the following is NOT a common sign that someone has overexerted himself during an exercise session?

symptoms of a "runner’s high"

Krista is a softball catcher in Texas. Which of the following is NOT one of the key strategies Krista would use to prevent excessive increases in body temperature and heat disorders?

dressing in several thin layers of clothes

When does the most significant drop in physical activity typically occur in people’s lives?

later high school years and freshman year of college

Common barriers to an active lifestyle cited by adults include all of the following EXCEPT

social pressures

Which of the following statements about changing one’s lifestyle to be more active is FALSE?

The termination stage comes when an individual becomes unable to do the activity

Obesity is defined as having a body mass index of ________ or higher.

30

Overweight, a condition that is less serious than obesity, is defined as having an adult BMI between ________ and ________.

25; 29.9

John weighs 242 pounds and has a body mass index of 26; John is considered

overweight

All of the following indicate a healthy body weight EXCEPT

a weight within the common range for one’s age group

The body mass index (BMI) is used mainly to determine

how your body weight may affect your health

Of the following, who has a body fat percentage outside the range generally considered healthy?

Richard, a dentist, with 26 percent body fat

Which of the following statements about body fat percentages is true?

Some hormones cannot be produced when body fat falls below a certain threshold

All of the following are associated with low body fat levels EXCEPT

increased appetite

Which of the following statements about body fat distribution is true?

Women, after menopause, experience a shift in body fat from the hips and thighs to the abdomen

Abdominal fat is considered a greater threat to health than hip-and-thigh fat because abdominal fat

more easily enters the bloodstream

Barbara is beginning to experience menopause; her fat distribution will most likely

shift from her hips and thighs to abdomen

Obese people are ________ times as likely as healthy-weight people to die before reaching their expected life span

four

Which of the following is true regarding the genetics of obesity?

Twin studies support a genetic tendency toward obesity

After puberty, a boy of healthy weight typically levels off at ________ percent body fat.

15

Which of the following statements about weight in the different phases of life is true?

Girls experience an increase in body fat during puberty

At what age does weight typically begin to decline for males and females due to causes such as less muscle tissue, less body mass, and a decreased caloric need?

60

Of the following, the greatest influence on the growth of weight problems in America is

the growing availability and convenience of unhealthy foods

Surveys show that 25 percent of all trips in the United States are less than 1 mile, and yet ________ percent of these trips are taken by car.

75

The thermic effect of food—the energy required to process the food one eats—is estimated at ________ percent of energy intake.

10

To estimate one’s daily energy requirements, consider all of the following EXCEPT

energy spent during sleep

Which of the following is true about BMR?

BMR is influenced by age, gender, and weight

For a person who is trying to lose weight, a weight loss of ________ pounds per week is a healthy goal.

1 to 2

To find a weight loss plan that offers the best chance of success, you should avoid plans that

will drastically change your eating patterns

A very-low-calorie diet (800 calories or less daily) is

only recommended under a doctor’s supervision

How do the diet drugs lorcaserin and phentermine-topiramate help people lose weight?

They reduce food intake

Sheriz has started taking an over-the-counter diet drug but has experienced dizziness, shakiness, and sleep difficulties. What drug is Sheriz most likely reacting to?

caffeine, a stimulant

________ works in the intestines to block the absorption of fat.

Orlistat

A major premise of the size acceptance movement is that

there is no ideal body shape

For individuals, achieving a healthy body weight for life depends mainly on

lifestyle

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