The Respiratory System

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The nasal cavity is indicated by ________.

label a

The right main (primary) bronchus is indicated by ________.

label h

The trachea is indicated by ________.

label i

The diaphragm muscle is indicated by ________.

label g

The oral cavity is indicated by ________.

label c

The inferior lobe of the right lung is indicated by ________.

label f

The nostrils, or nares, are indicated by ________.

label b

The apex of the right lung is indicated by ________.

label e

The larynx is indicated by ________.

label d

The pharynx is indicated by ________.

label j

The three mucosa-covered projections into the nasal cavity that greatly increase surface area of mucosa exposed to air are called ________.

conchae

The posterior portion of the palate that is not supported by bone is called the ________.

soft palate

From superior to inferior, the three regions of the pharynx are the ________.

nasopharynx, oropharynx, laryngopharynx

The ________ tonsil, or adenoid, is located high in the nasopharynx region.

pharyngeal

The ________ routes air and food into their proper channels and plays a role in speech.

larynx

The mucosa-lined windpipe that extends from the larynx to the level of the fifth thoracic vertebra is called the ________.

trachea

________ lining the mucosa of the trachea beat continuously to propel contaminated mucus to the throat.

cilia

When breathing in, air enters the trachea through the ________.

glottis

The C-shaped rings that reinforce the trachea are constructed of ________.

hyaline cartilage

The flap of ________ cartilage that protects the opening of the larynx is called the epiglottis.

elastic

Folds of mucous membrane called ________ vibrate to provide speech.

vocal folds (true vocal cords)

The serous membrane that surrounds each lung is created by a parietal and visceral ________.

pleura

The division of the trachea produces two tubes called the right and left main (primary) ________.

bronchi

The smallest conducting passageways of the lungs are known as ________.

bronchioles

The ________ zone includes the respiratory bronchioles, alveolar ducts, alveolar sacs, and alveoli and is where gas exchange occurs.

respiratory

The process of moving air into and out of the lungs is commonly called breathing or ________.

pulmonary ventilation

Gas exchange between the pulmonary blood and alveoli is called ________.

external respiration

The inspiratory muscles that contract so we can inspire air are the ________ and ________.

diaphragm; external intercostals

Air flowing out of the lungs is known as ________.

expiration

Lung collapse, or ________, can occur if the intrapleural pressure equals atmospheric pressure when air enters the pleural space.

atelectasis

________ volume is the air moved into and out of the lungs during normal quiet breathing and is approximately 500 mL of air.

tidal

The total amount of exchangeable air is known as ________.

vital capacity (VC)

Respiratory capacities are measured with a ________.

spirometer

During ________, oxygen binds to hemoglobin to form oxyhemoglobin.

external respiration

________ is an odorless, colorless gas which binds preferentially with the same binding site on hemoglobin as oxygen.

Carbon monoxide

When carbon dioxide dissolves in water, it forms ________.

carbonic acid

The normal respiratory rate of 12-15 breaths per minute is known as ________.

eupnea

The portions of the brain that contain respiratory centers and set the breathing rate are the ________.

medulla and pons

The regulation of the activity of the breathing muscles, the diaphragm and external intercostals, is controlled by nerve impulses transmitted from the brain via the ________ and ________ nerves.

phrenic; intercostal

The most important stimulus for breathing in a healthy person is the body’s need to rid itself of the blood gas called ________.

carbon dioxide

In order to return acidic blood pH to normal, breathing becomes deeper and more rapid, a phenomenon known as ________.

hyperventilation

________ is a fatty molecule made by alveolar cells to reduce surface tension and prevent alveolar collapse between breaths.

Surfactant

Gas exchange occurs in the ________.

alveoli

The respiratory conducting passageways perform all of the following functions EXCEPT ________.
A) allow air to reach the lungs
B) purify air
C) humidify air
D) exchange gases
E) warm incoming air

exchange gases

What sweeps contaminated mucus from the nasal cavity to the throat?

cilia

What is the role of mucus in the nasal cavity?

trap incoming bacteria and other foreign debris

The nasal cavity is separated from the oral cavity by ________.

both the hard and soft palate

Which one of the following bones does NOT contain paranasal sinuses?
A) frontal
B) sphenoid
C) mandible
D) ethmoid
E) maxilla

mandible

Which tonsil(s) is/are located in the oropharynx at the end of the soft palate?

palatine tonsils

Air from the nasal cavity enters the superior portion of the pharynx called the ________.

nasopharynx

The pharynogotympanic tubes, which drain the middle ear, open into the ________.

nasopharynx

The correct pathway air flows through the respiratory system is ________.

nose, pharynx, larynx, trachea, main (primary) bronchi

Following the removal of the larynx, a person would be unable to ________.

speak

The opening between the vocal cords is called the ________.

glottis

The flap of elastic cartilage that protects food from entering the larynx when swallowing is the ________.

epiglottis

Vibration due to exhaled air that results in speech is a function of the ________.

true vocal cords

The superior portion of each lung is the ________.

apex

The serous membrane covering the surface of the lungs is called the ________.

visceral pleura

Which one of the following is NOT true of the lungs?
A) the narrower portion of each lung is called the apex
B) the bases rest on the diaphragm
C) the left lung has two lobes
D) the right lung has three lobes
E) both lungs have two lobes

both lungs have two lobes

What is the function of an alveolar macrophage?

engulf bacteria, carbon particles, and debris

Which one of the following structures is NOT part of the respiratory zone?
A) respiratory bronchioles
B) alveolar ducts
C) alveolar sacs
D) alveoli
E) primary bronchi

primary bronchi

Which of the following is NOT one of the four main events of respiration?
A) pulmonary ventilation
B) respiratory gas transport
C) residual volume
D) external respiration
E) internal respiration

residual volume

Exchange of both oxygen and carbon dioxide through the respiratory membrane occurs by ________.

simple diffusion

The lipid molecule critical to lung function that coats the gas-exposed alveolar surfaces is called ________.

surfactant

Air moving in and out of the lungs during normal quiet breathing is called ________.

pulmonary ventilation

Which one of the following is NOT true of inspiration?
A) contraction of the diaphragm muscle helps increase the size of the thoracic cavity
B) relaxation of the external intercostal muscles helps increase the size of the thoracic cavity
C) increased intrapulmonary volume causes inhaled gases to spread out
D) the decreased gas pressure produces a partial vacuum that forcibly sucks air in
E) air continues to move into the lungs until intrapulmonary pressure equals atmospheric pressure

relaxation of the external intercostal muscles helps increase the size of the thoracic cavity

The gas exchange that occurs between blood and tissue cells at systemic capillaries is called ________.

internal respiration

Expiration (exhalation) occurs when ________.

the diaphragm and intercostal muscles relax

Which nonrespiratory air movement clears the upper respiratory passageways?

sneezing

Laura’s lung collapsed during a skiing accident when a rib punctured her lung. The condition of a collapsed lung is known as ________.

atelectasis

The respiratory movement representing the total amount of exchangeable air is the ________.

vital capacity

Even after a forceful expiration, air still remains in the lungs for gas exchange to continue. This volume is about ________.

1200 mL

The amount of air exchanged during normal quiet breathing is about ________.

500 mL

Most carbon dioxide dissolves in blood plasma for transport as ________.

bicarbonate ion

Oxygen is unloaded from the blood stream and diffuses into surrounding cells and tissues during ________.

internal respiration

Oxygen is transported in the blood as ________.

oxyhemoglobin

Which of the following breathing rates represents eupnea?
A) 5 breaths per minute
B) 10 breaths per minute
C) 14 breaths per minute
D) 18 breaths per minute
E) 24 breaths per minute

14 breaths per minute

Hyperventilation is the body’s response to ________.

increased carbon dioxide levels in the blood

Hypoventilation dramatically increases carbonic acid concentration and involves ________.

extremely slow breathing

Hyperventilation leads to all of the following except ________.
A) brief periods of apnea
B) cyanosis
C) dizziness
D) fainting
E) buildup of carbon dioxide in the blood

buildup of carbon dioxide in the blood

The most important chemical stimulus leading to increased rate and depth of breathing is ________.

increased carbon dioxide in the blood

Which one of the following is NOT a feature of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)?
A) most patients have a genetic predisposition to COPD
B) dyspnea becomes progressively more severe
C) frequent pulmonary infections are common
D) most COPD victims are hypoxic
E) most patients have a history of smoking

most patients have a genetic predisposition to COPD

Which respiratory disease in which sufferers are often called "pink puffers," is characterized by enlarged alveoli, lung inflammation, and fibrosis of the lungs?

emphysema

What accounts for the majority of cases of lung cancer?

adenocarcinoma

Surfactant is usually present in fetal lungs in adequate quantities by ________.

28-30 weeks of pregnancy

The abbreviation IRDS stands for ________.

infant respiratory distress syndrome

What is the most common cause for lung cancer?

smoking

The respiratory rate in infants is ________.

over 40 respirations per minute

The homeostatic imbalance associated with the death of many full-term newborn infants is called ________.

SIDS

Chronically inflamed, hypersensitive bronchial passages that respond to many irritants are characteristic of ________.

asthma

Which of these age-related disorders is related to loss of elasticity of the lungs?
A) asthma
B) sleep apnea
C) tuberculosis
D) pneumonia
E) sudden infant death syndrome

sleep apnea

Which one of the following is NOT true of lung cancer?
A) it is the leading cause of cancer deaths in the U.S.
B) it slows down the movement of cilia
C) it is generally more prevalent in males than females
D) most types of lung cancer are very aggressive
E) lung cancers often metastasize rapidly and widely

it is generally more prevalent in males than females

Passageway for both food and air; known as the "throat"

pharynx

Rigid, patent airway reinforced with C-rings of hyaline cartilage

trachea

Routes air and food into their proper channels

larynx

Protects the superior opening of the larynx during swallowing

epiglottis

Opening to the trachea situated between the vocal cords

glottis

First tube to branch off of the trachea

main (primary) bronchus

Smallest conducting passageways in the lungs

bronchioles

Part of the respiratory zone, these air sacs perform gas exchange

alveoli

Breathing in and out while at rest

pulmonary ventilation

Gas exchange occurring between the pulmonary blood and alveoli

external respiration

Gas exchange occurring between systemic capillaries and surrounding cells and tissues

internal respiration

Inspiration and expiration

pulmonary ventilation

Oxygen loading and carbon dioxide unloading

external respiration

Movement of carbon dioxide and oxygen through the blood

respiratory gas transport

Amount of air that can be forcibly exhaled after a normal tidal expiration

expiratory reserve volume

Normal, quiet breathing which moves approximately 500 mL of air per breath

tidal volume

Air that enters the respiratory tract and remains within the conducting zone passageways

dead space volume

Amount of air that can be inhaled forcibly over the tidal volume

inspiratory reserve volume

Total amount of exchangeable air

vital capacity

Air that remains in the lungs even after the most strenuous expiration

residual volume

Sum total of tidal volume, inspiratory reserve volume, and expiratory reserve volume

vital capacity

By which of these are tiny dust particles removed from alveolar surfaces?

macrophages

What part of the respiratory passageway primarily functions to warm, humidify, and filter inhaled air?

nasal cavity

Where are the alveoli found?

in the lungs

Which of the following is NOT a physical factor that influences the respiratory rate?

amount of O2 and CO2 in the blood

By what process does oxygen move from the alveoli into the blood of the pulmonary capillaries?

simple diffusion

How is most carbon dioxide transported from body cells to the lungs?

as bicarbonate ion

What is the main stimulus for increasing pulmonary ventilation during aerobic exercise?

increased concentration of carbon dioxide in blood

What part of the brain stimulates the phrenic and intercostal nerves causing the diaphragm and external intercostal muscles to contract?

medulla oblongata

What is the pressure in the lungs during inspiration?

lower than atmospheric air pressure

Which disorder involves inflammation and excess mucus secretion in the lower respiratory passages?

chronic bronchitis

Which of the following statements describe the normal changes that occur in respiratory system functioning from infancy to old age?

-Premature infants have problems keeping their lungs inflated because of lack of surfactant in their alveoli. -Many old people tend to become hypoxic during sleep and exhibit sleep apnea.

Under what circumstances might a person have a cleft palate?

if there is a family history of cleft palate

What term is used for the movement of oxygen into the blood of pulmonary capillaries and carbon dioxide into the alveolar air?

external respiration

Why does vital capacity decrease in old age?

The chest wall becomes more rigid and the lungs lose their elasticity.

Which of these will cause the buildup of CO2 that decreases blood pH?

apnea

Which of the following is a practice that has led to a sharp decline in sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS)?

placing infants on their backs to sleep

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