The Presidency (Ch 10)

1. The office of the presidency was established by Article ________ of the Constitution.
a. I
b. II
c. III
d. IV
e. V

ANS: B - II

2. What did the framers mean to accomplish by indirect election of the president?
a. to make a more independent and powerful chief executive
b. to bind the president to the will of the people
c. to make the president responsible to state and national legislatures
d. to create an imperial presidency to counter the power of Congress
e. to increase the strength and influence of political parties

ANS: C - to make the president responsible to state and national legislatures

*3. ________ powers are specifically established by the language of the Constitution.
a. Expressed
b. Delegated
c. Implied
d. Suspected
e. Inherent

ANS: A - Expressed

*4. When the president infers powers from the "rights, duties, and obligations" of the presidency, these are called ________ powers.
a. delegated
b. necessary and proper
c. inherent
d. war
e. expressed

ANS: C - inherent

*5. The president's delegated powers come from ________.
a. the Constitution
b. Congress
c. the states
d. the president's party
e. the Supreme Court

ANS: B - Congress

6. ________ used presidential emergency power in 1957 to send troops to Little Rock, Arkansas, to help desegregate Central High School.
a. Harry Truman
b. Dwight Eisenhower
c. John Kennedy
d. Lyndon Johnson
e. Richard Nixon

ANS: B - Dwight Eisenhower

*7. The president's expressed powers include all of the following categories EXCEPT ________.
a. military
b. partisan
c. judicial
d. diplomatic
e. executive

ANS: B - partisan

*8. In order to get around the need for Senate approval of treaties, many contemporary presidents have made use of ________ in foreign affairs.
a. diplomacy
b. international protocols
c. executive immunity
d. executive agreements
e. bypass agreements

ANS: D - executive agreements

*9. Executive agreements differ from formal treaties in that they
a. have been ruled unconstitutional by the U.S. Supreme Court.
b. must be approved by the U.S. Supreme Court but not by Congress.
c. do not have to be approved by the Senate.
d. do not have to be approved by the House.
e. are generally formulated at meetings of the United Nations.

ANS: C - do not have to be approved by the Senate

*10. What is required for Congress to override a presidential veto?
a. a majority of both houses of Congress
b. two-thirds of both houses of Congress
c. three-fourths of both houses of Congress
d. a unanimous vote of both houses of Congress
e. cannot be overridden unless it concerns the budget, in which case it requires a three-fourths vote of both houses

ANS: B - two-thirds of both houses of Congress

11. The State of the Union address is
a. required by a law passed by Congress in 1802 and renewed ever since.
b. requested by the president, and comity demands that his or her request is always accepted.
c. based on tradition but was discontinued during the Great Depression and World War II.
d. mandated by the Constitution.
e. requested by the media and nearly always agreed to by the president and Congress.

ANS: D - mandated by the Constitution

*12. An executive order is
a. a rule or regulation issued unilaterally by the president that has the status of a law.
b. an emergency decree that is law only for the duration of a crisis or pending congressional approval.
c. a demand to Congress that it vote on a particular piece of legislation.
d. any act of the executive branch that does not have to be made public.
e. a decree issued by the president that requires the federal courts to hear a particular case regarding the Constitution.

ANS: A - a rule or regulation issued unilaterally by the president that has the status of a law

*13. The Environmental Protection Agency was created in 1970 directly by ________.
a. an executive order
b. congressional legislation
c. a treaty with Canada and Mexico
d. executive privilege
e. a Supreme Court decision

ANS: A - an executive order

14. Which of the following has caused an increase in the president's delegated powers?
a. recent constitutional amendments broadening the president's powers
b. the increasing scope and complexity of legislation
c. the War Powers Resolution
d. the shift toward a more bipartisan political environment in Congress
e. a series of Supreme Court decisions that have reinterpreted Article II of the Constitution

ANS: B - the increasing scope and complexity of legislation

15. The ________ asserted that the president could send American troops into action abroad only in the event of a declaration of war or other statutory authorization by Congress, or if American troops were attacked or directly endangered.
a. War Powers Resolution of 1973
b. National Security Act of 1947
c. Neutrality Act of 1937
d. Boland Amendment of 1982
e. Arms Control Export Act of 1976

ANS: A - War Powers Resolution of 1973

16. When North Korea invaded South Korea in 1950,
a. Congress declared war before President Truman could formally request it.
b. President Truman asked for a declaration of war from Congress and received one.
c. President Truman asked for a declaration of war and was rebuffed by Congress.
d. President Truman sent American troops to Korea without asking for a declaration of war.
e. President Truman did not immediately send American troops to Korea because the Supreme Court justices ruled that it would be an unconstitutional use of presidential power.

ANS: D - President Truman sent American troops to Korea without asking for a declaration of war

17. The president's power to set the debate concerning public policy in Congress is called a(n) ________.
a. executive mandate
b. executive privilege
c. legislative initiative
d. executive order
e. presidential prerogative

ANS: C - legislative initiative

*18. Why was George Washington's reception of Edmond Genêt as ambassador of France during the French Revolution so significant?
a. It demonstrated that the United States could use diplomacy to stay out of European conflicts.
b. It reflected the authority of the president to officially recognize specific regimes as the sovereign power of a nation when there is doubt as to who rules.
c. It was the first time any nation had recognized the United States as independent.
d. It prevented the economic embargo of American goods by the king of France.
e. It ensured that France would be America's ally in any foreign conflict.

ANS: B - It reflected the authority of the president to officially recognize specific regimes as the sovereign power of a nation when there is doubt as to who rules

19. Why is the president's State of the Union address important?
a. It is often the only time that members of Congress get to question the president directly.
b. It is an opportunity for the president to set the legislative agenda by initiating proposals and directing public attention to the president's goals.
c. It is an opportunity for the president to highlight the positive actions of the previous year.
d. It is the only time the president is constitutionally allowed to address Congress.
e. It determines the exact budget for the upcoming year.

ANS: B - It is an opportunity for the president to set the legislative agenda by initiating proposals and directing public attention to the president's goals

20. Congress's tendency in recent years to give executive agencies fewer clear guidelines for implementing laws is the result of
a. the greater scope and complexity of the tasks that American government has undertaken.
b. the reduced scope and complexity of the tasks that American government has undertaken.
c. frequent requests made by state governments to transfer more power to the executive branch.
d. numerous initiatives passed by voters that require less legislative specificity.
e. a series of Supreme Court decisions that ruled executive mandates were unconstitutional.

ANS: A - the greater scope and complexity of the tasks that American government has undertaken

21. Which of the following statements is true?
a. Public administrators have a great deal of discretion in the modern world.
b. In the modern era, political power has shifted away from the presidency and to Congress.
c. In the modern era, political power has shifted away from Congress and to the presidency.
d. both a and c
e. The Supreme Court is more powerful than Congress and the presidency.

ANS: D - both a and c

*22. The power to receive ambassadors is an example of ________.
a. an expressed power
b. a delegated power
c. executive privilege
d. an executive agreement
e. an executive order

ANS: A - an expressed power

23. When members of Congress delegate power to the executive branch, it
a. substantially reduces the power of the federal government compared to state governments.
b. has no impact on the importance of the presidency at all.
c. violates the Constitution by violating the separation of powers.
d. substantially reduces the importance of the presidency.
e. substantially enhances the importance of the presidency.

ANS: E - substantially enhances the importance of the presidency

*24. Which of the following is NOT an expressed power of the president under Article II of the U.S. Constitution?
a. to serve as commander in chief of the armed forces
b. to declare war
c. to grant pardons for federal crimes
d. to faithfully execute the laws
e. the power to veto legislation

ANS: B - to declare war

25. When Dwight Eisenhower sent federal troops into Little Rock High School in 1957, it demonstrated that the
a. president may make unilateral use of the emergency powers to protect states against domestic disorder.
b. president requires the federal court's approval before using troops in domestic disturbances.
c. use of the president's emergency powers against domestic disorder necessitates a request by the governor of the state in question.
d. president needs congressional authorization to use troops in both domestic and international situations.
e. president can only use troops in domestic situations when the health and safety of children under the age of 18 are threatened.

ANS: A - the President may make unilateral use of the emergency powers to protect states against domestic disorder

26. Which of the following statements about presidential pardons is FALSE?
a. George Washington declared amnesty to all Americans who fought for the British during the War for Independence.
b. Andrew Johnson declared amnesty to all Confederate soldiers.
c. Gerald Ford pardoned Richard Nixon for crimes he may have committed.
d. Jimmy Carter declared amnesty for all draft evaders during the Vietnam War.
e. The presidential power to grant pardons involves power over all individuals who may be threats to the security of the United States.

ANS: A - George Washington declared amnesty to all Americans who fought for the British during the War for Independence

*27. Which of the following statements about the presidential veto is most accurate?
a. Presidents have used the veto only twice in American history.
b. Use of the veto has remained constant across presidential administrations, and vetoes are frequently overridden.
c. Use of the veto varies considerably across presidential administrations, and vetoes are seldom overridden.
d. The line item veto and pocket vetoes are theoretical and never used.
e. Use of the veto has remained constant across presidential administrations, and vetoes are seldom overridden.

ANS: C - Use of the veto varies considerably across presidential administrations, and vetoes are seldom overridden

28. Which of the following statements is most accurate?
a. The War Powers Act has been fully observed by every president who has deployed the military overseas since Gerald Ford.
b. Recent presidents have refrained from asking Congress to declare war and have instead frequently deployed the military without congressional authorization.
c. Recent presidents have asked Congress to declare war many times and have never deployed the military without congressional authorization.
d. Congress passed the War Powers Resolution in order to give the president more control over the military.
e. As a result of the War Powers Resolution, Congress now has more control over the military than the president does.

ANS: B - Recent presidents have refrained from asking Congress to declare war and have instead frequently deployed the military without congressional authorization

*29. The goal of the War Powers Resolution was to
a. compel a congressional declaration of war for every large-scale military operation.
b. limit the ability of Congress to cut off funding for troops when the president sends them overseas without congressional approval.
c. limit the power of the president to commit American troops to military action without authorization from Congress.
d. end the Vietnam War.
e. give the president more freedom in determining when and where to deploy American military forces.

ANS: C - limit the power of the president to commit American troop to military action without authorization from Congress

30. An informal group of advisers to the president is often called the ________.
a. kitchen cabinet
b. plumbers
c. round table
d. colloquium
e. good ole boys (despite the fact that many women have entered these ranks)

ANS: A - kitchen cabinet

31. The ________ is the informal designation for the heads of the major federal government departments.
a. White House staff
b. committee of staff
c. Presidential Advisory Committee
d. Cabinet
e. Executive Office of the President

ANS: D - Cabinet

32. The president has the power to appoint which of the following positions?
a. state governors who resign before their terms have expired
b. all state Supreme Court justices
c. cabinet secretaries
d. members of the House of Representatives who resign before their terms have expired
e. the Speaker of the House

ANS: C - cabinet secretaries

33. The president's group of advisers and analysts is collectively called the ________.
a. Cabinet
b. kitchen cabinet
c. White House staff
d. Executive Council of Advisers
e. Department of State

ANS: C - White House staff

34. The Office of Management and Budget and the Council of Economic Advisers are both parts of the ________.
a. Cabinet
b. White House staff
c. Office of the Vice President
d. Executive Office of the President
e. Department of the Interior

ANS: D - Executive Office of the President

35. Presidential spouses are an important resource for the president in order to carry out the duty of ________.
a. head of government
b. head of state
c. commander in chief
d. legislative initiator
e. chief diplomat

ANS: B - head of state

36. ________ was the first first lady to seek public office on her own.
a. Dolley Madison
b. Eleanor Roosevelt
c. Betty Ford
d. Hillary Clinton
e. Laura Bush

ANS: D - Hillary Clinton

37. The Office of Management and Budget is important because
a. it has the power to veto any legislation passed by Congress that negatively impacts the federal budget.
b. the Constitution requires that the president receive its approval for every administrative rule change he or she proposes and for every tax increase he or she suggests.
c. it is granted the authority under the Constitution to pass the federal budget.
d. its personnel are an integral part of virtually every conceivable presidential responsibility, such as overseeing regulatory proposals, reporting on agency activities, and preparing the national budget.
e. its staff constantly analyzes the economy and economic trends in order to give the president the ability to anticipate events rather than react to them.

ANS: D - its personnel are an integral part of virtually every conceivable presidential responsibility, such as overseeing regulatory proposals, reporting on agency activities, and preparing the national budget

38. The main political value of the vice president is to
a. bring the president votes in the election from a group or region that would not otherwise be a likely source of support.
b. draw negative attention away from the president during times of crisis.
c. give the president an institutional link to Congress.
d. act as the political party's chief fund-raiser.
e. promote bipartisanship with members of the opposing political party.

ANS: A - bring the president votes in the election from a group or region that would not otherwise be a likely source of support

39. Which statement about the Cabinet is INCORRECT?
a. The Cabinet has no legal status under the Constitution.
b. The Cabinet does not make decisions collectively.
c. The Cabinet does not meet as a group, except during the State of the Union address.
d. The Senate must approve the president's choice of cabinet secretaries.
e. Cabinet members are not responsible to the Senate or Congress at large.

ANS: C - the Cabinet does not meet as a group, except during the State of the Union address

40. What is the primary constitutional task of the vice president, besides succeeding the president in case of death, resignation, or incapacitation?
a. to serve as Speaker of the House of Representatives
b. to cast tie-breaking votes in the Senate
c. to act as a chief admiral of the U.S. Navy
d. to represent the president overseas
e. to run the day-to-day operations of the Executive Office of the President

ANS: B - to cast tie-breaking votes in the Senate

41. As a means of managing the gigantic executive branch, presidents have increasingly come to rely upon the ________.
a. Cabinet
b. Executive Office of the President
c. kitchen cabinet
d. White House staff
e. Speaker of the House

ANS: D - White House staff

42. During the nineteenth century, ________ was America's dominant institution of government.
a. the presidency
b. the Supreme Court
c. the executive bureaucracy
d. Congress
e. the kitchen cabinet

ANS: D - Congress

43. After the Civil War, why was it considered inappropriate for President Andrew Johnson to make a series of speeches seeking public support for his policies?
a. President Johnson traveled with his own press secretary, the first time a president had used public-relations officials.
b. During the nineteenth century, it was perceived to be undignified for a president to campaign on his own behalf.
c. President Johnson did not speak to the general public but instead spoke only to handpicked audiences where he knew he would be favorably received.
d. President Johnson's speeches were delivered only in the former Confederate states and ignored the North, where he most needed support.
e. President Johnson's speeches were the first to encourage women and African Americans to become active in politics.

ANS: B - During the nineteenth century, it was perceived to be undignified for a president to campaign on his own behalf

44. The technique of popular mobilization dates back to ________ presidency.
a. Thomas Jefferson's
b. Ulysses Grant's
c. Theodore Roosevelt's
d. Franklin Roosevelt's
e. Ronald Reagan's

ANS: C - Theodore Roosevelt's

*45. ________ occurs when the president directs administrative agencies to promulgate specific rules and regulations.
a. Regulatory review
b. Administrative oversight
c. Delegation
d. An executive agreement
e. A mandate

ANS: A - Regulatory review

*46. Which of the following actions was NOT the result of an executive order?
a. the Louisiana Purchase
b. the internment of Japanese Americans during World War II
c. U.S. entrance into the United Nations
d. the annexation of Texas
e. the desegregation of the military

ANS: C - U.S entrance into the United Nations

*47. A signing statement is a(n)
a. announcement the president makes about his or her interpretation of a congressional enactment he or she is signing into law.
b. announcement made by a presidential candidate when formally accepting his or her party's nomination.
c. announcement made by the president and the leader of a foreign country immediately following an executive agreement.
d. announcement the president is required to make any time he or she issues an executive order.
e. decree issued by Congress that demands the president sign a congressional enactment into law immediately.

ANS: A - announcement the president makes about his or her interpretation of a congressional enactment he or she is signing into law

*48. The expansion of the Executive Office of the President, the development of regulatory review, and the use of executive orders have been important because they
a. are deeply unpopular with the public and have led to the declining trust in American government.
b. make it very difficult for challengers to defeat incumbent presidents in elections.
c. have given presidents substantial capacity to achieve significant policy results despite congressional opposition to their legislative agendas.
d. have dramatically limited the power of the president and made it easier for Congress to dominate the American political system.
e. have rendered the judiciary essentially irrelevant in the American political system.

ANS: C - have given presidents substantial capacity to achieve significant policy results despite congressional opposition to their legislative agendas

*49. Which of the following statements about signing statements is most accurate?
a. The Constitution requires that the president explain his or her interpretation of every law he or she signs by issuing a signing statement.
b. Although signing statements were commonly used prior to 1900, no modern president has issued them when signing a piece of legislation into law.
c. Signing statements never instruct executive agencies whether to implement sections of a new law and never interpret ambiguous provisions of the law.
d. While presidents have made signing statements throughout American history, they have only recently been recorded and made part of the official legislative record.
e. Signing statements were invented during the Reagan administration as a way for the president to circumvent the federal court system.

ANS: D - While presidents have made signing statements throughout American history, they have only recently been recorded and made part of the official legislative record

50. What is the general tendency of a president's popularity?
a. Presidents usually begin with moderate ratings that move drastically up or down, depending on their success.
b. Presidents usually start out popular and decline over the next four years.
c. Presidents usually maintain the public approval ratings they had when entering office, unless there is an economic recession or international crisis.
d. Presidents usually begin very unpopular and increase their popularity significantly as their terms in office continues.
e. No pattern has been discerned in presidential approval ratings.

ANS: B - Presidents usually start out popular and decline over the next four years

51. When are the president's partisan ties most important?
a. in winning support from public opinion
b. in raising campaign funds
c. in dealing with Congress on legislative matters
d. in making executive appointments
e. in negotiating treaties and executive agreements

ANS: C - in dealing with Congress on legislative matters

*52. Which of the following statements about signing statements is FALSE?
a. Presidents have made signing statements throughout American history.
b. Ronald Reagan's attorney general, Edwin Meese, is credited with transforming the signing statement into a routine tool of presidential direct action.
c. George W. Bush issued more than 150 signing statements during his time in office.
d. Ever since Thomas Jefferson's presidency, all presidential signing statements have been recorded and added to the official legislative record.
e. Recent presidents have used signing statements in an attempt to negate congressional actions to which they objected.

ANS: D - Ever since Thomas Jefferson's presidency, all presidential signing statements have been recorded and added to the official legislative record

53. According to separation of powers expert Louis Fisher, the powers of Congress have declined dramatically in which of the following areas?
a. national defense and the federal budget
b. the federal budget and intelligence management
c. law enforcement and oversight
d. national defense and environmental protection
e. health care and education

ANS: A - national defense and the federal budget

*54. The last time Congress exercised its constitutional power to declare war was during ________.
a. World War II
b. the Korean War
c. the Vietnam War
d. the Afghanistan War
e. the Iraq War

ANS: A - World War II

*55. Which of the following statements about Congress and the executive branch is most accurate?
a. The Constitution explicitly prohibits Congress from providing specific guidelines to executive agencies for implementing laws.
b. Starting around the time of the New Deal, Congress has tended to draft legislation that offers very specific guidelines for implementation by the executive.
c. Congress has never given executive agencies broad mandates and has always drafted legislation that offers very specific guidelines for implementation by the executive.
d. Starting around the time of the New Deal, Congress has tended to give executive agencies broad mandates and to draft legislation that offers few clear guidelines for implementation by the executive.
e. Throughout all of American history, Congress has tended to give executive agencies broad mandates and to draft legislation that offers few clear guidelines for implementation by the executive.

ANS: D - Starting around the time of the New Deal, Congress has tended to give executive agencies broad mandates and to draft legislation that offers few clear guidelines for implementation by the executive

The Presidency (Ch 10) - Subjecto.com

The Presidency (Ch 10)

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1. The office of the presidency was established by Article ________ of the Constitution.
a. I
b. II
c. III
d. IV
e. V

ANS: B – II

2. What did the framers mean to accomplish by indirect election of the president?
a. to make a more independent and powerful chief executive
b. to bind the president to the will of the people
c. to make the president responsible to state and national legislatures
d. to create an imperial presidency to counter the power of Congress
e. to increase the strength and influence of political parties

ANS: C – to make the president responsible to state and national legislatures

*3. ________ powers are specifically established by the language of the Constitution.
a. Expressed
b. Delegated
c. Implied
d. Suspected
e. Inherent

ANS: A – Expressed

*4. When the president infers powers from the "rights, duties, and obligations" of the presidency, these are called ________ powers.
a. delegated
b. necessary and proper
c. inherent
d. war
e. expressed

ANS: C – inherent

*5. The president’s delegated powers come from ________.
a. the Constitution
b. Congress
c. the states
d. the president’s party
e. the Supreme Court

ANS: B – Congress

6. ________ used presidential emergency power in 1957 to send troops to Little Rock, Arkansas, to help desegregate Central High School.
a. Harry Truman
b. Dwight Eisenhower
c. John Kennedy
d. Lyndon Johnson
e. Richard Nixon

ANS: B – Dwight Eisenhower

*7. The president’s expressed powers include all of the following categories EXCEPT ________.
a. military
b. partisan
c. judicial
d. diplomatic
e. executive

ANS: B – partisan

*8. In order to get around the need for Senate approval of treaties, many contemporary presidents have made use of ________ in foreign affairs.
a. diplomacy
b. international protocols
c. executive immunity
d. executive agreements
e. bypass agreements

ANS: D – executive agreements

*9. Executive agreements differ from formal treaties in that they
a. have been ruled unconstitutional by the U.S. Supreme Court.
b. must be approved by the U.S. Supreme Court but not by Congress.
c. do not have to be approved by the Senate.
d. do not have to be approved by the House.
e. are generally formulated at meetings of the United Nations.

ANS: C – do not have to be approved by the Senate

*10. What is required for Congress to override a presidential veto?
a. a majority of both houses of Congress
b. two-thirds of both houses of Congress
c. three-fourths of both houses of Congress
d. a unanimous vote of both houses of Congress
e. cannot be overridden unless it concerns the budget, in which case it requires a three-fourths vote of both houses

ANS: B – two-thirds of both houses of Congress

11. The State of the Union address is
a. required by a law passed by Congress in 1802 and renewed ever since.
b. requested by the president, and comity demands that his or her request is always accepted.
c. based on tradition but was discontinued during the Great Depression and World War II.
d. mandated by the Constitution.
e. requested by the media and nearly always agreed to by the president and Congress.

ANS: D – mandated by the Constitution

*12. An executive order is
a. a rule or regulation issued unilaterally by the president that has the status of a law.
b. an emergency decree that is law only for the duration of a crisis or pending congressional approval.
c. a demand to Congress that it vote on a particular piece of legislation.
d. any act of the executive branch that does not have to be made public.
e. a decree issued by the president that requires the federal courts to hear a particular case regarding the Constitution.

ANS: A – a rule or regulation issued unilaterally by the president that has the status of a law

*13. The Environmental Protection Agency was created in 1970 directly by ________.
a. an executive order
b. congressional legislation
c. a treaty with Canada and Mexico
d. executive privilege
e. a Supreme Court decision

ANS: A – an executive order

14. Which of the following has caused an increase in the president’s delegated powers?
a. recent constitutional amendments broadening the president’s powers
b. the increasing scope and complexity of legislation
c. the War Powers Resolution
d. the shift toward a more bipartisan political environment in Congress
e. a series of Supreme Court decisions that have reinterpreted Article II of the Constitution

ANS: B – the increasing scope and complexity of legislation

15. The ________ asserted that the president could send American troops into action abroad only in the event of a declaration of war or other statutory authorization by Congress, or if American troops were attacked or directly endangered.
a. War Powers Resolution of 1973
b. National Security Act of 1947
c. Neutrality Act of 1937
d. Boland Amendment of 1982
e. Arms Control Export Act of 1976

ANS: A – War Powers Resolution of 1973

16. When North Korea invaded South Korea in 1950,
a. Congress declared war before President Truman could formally request it.
b. President Truman asked for a declaration of war from Congress and received one.
c. President Truman asked for a declaration of war and was rebuffed by Congress.
d. President Truman sent American troops to Korea without asking for a declaration of war.
e. President Truman did not immediately send American troops to Korea because the Supreme Court justices ruled that it would be an unconstitutional use of presidential power.

ANS: D – President Truman sent American troops to Korea without asking for a declaration of war

17. The president’s power to set the debate concerning public policy in Congress is called a(n) ________.
a. executive mandate
b. executive privilege
c. legislative initiative
d. executive order
e. presidential prerogative

ANS: C – legislative initiative

*18. Why was George Washington’s reception of Edmond Genêt as ambassador of France during the French Revolution so significant?
a. It demonstrated that the United States could use diplomacy to stay out of European conflicts.
b. It reflected the authority of the president to officially recognize specific regimes as the sovereign power of a nation when there is doubt as to who rules.
c. It was the first time any nation had recognized the United States as independent.
d. It prevented the economic embargo of American goods by the king of France.
e. It ensured that France would be America’s ally in any foreign conflict.

ANS: B – It reflected the authority of the president to officially recognize specific regimes as the sovereign power of a nation when there is doubt as to who rules

19. Why is the president’s State of the Union address important?
a. It is often the only time that members of Congress get to question the president directly.
b. It is an opportunity for the president to set the legislative agenda by initiating proposals and directing public attention to the president’s goals.
c. It is an opportunity for the president to highlight the positive actions of the previous year.
d. It is the only time the president is constitutionally allowed to address Congress.
e. It determines the exact budget for the upcoming year.

ANS: B – It is an opportunity for the president to set the legislative agenda by initiating proposals and directing public attention to the president’s goals

20. Congress’s tendency in recent years to give executive agencies fewer clear guidelines for implementing laws is the result of
a. the greater scope and complexity of the tasks that American government has undertaken.
b. the reduced scope and complexity of the tasks that American government has undertaken.
c. frequent requests made by state governments to transfer more power to the executive branch.
d. numerous initiatives passed by voters that require less legislative specificity.
e. a series of Supreme Court decisions that ruled executive mandates were unconstitutional.

ANS: A – the greater scope and complexity of the tasks that American government has undertaken

21. Which of the following statements is true?
a. Public administrators have a great deal of discretion in the modern world.
b. In the modern era, political power has shifted away from the presidency and to Congress.
c. In the modern era, political power has shifted away from Congress and to the presidency.
d. both a and c
e. The Supreme Court is more powerful than Congress and the presidency.

ANS: D – both a and c

*22. The power to receive ambassadors is an example of ________.
a. an expressed power
b. a delegated power
c. executive privilege
d. an executive agreement
e. an executive order

ANS: A – an expressed power

23. When members of Congress delegate power to the executive branch, it
a. substantially reduces the power of the federal government compared to state governments.
b. has no impact on the importance of the presidency at all.
c. violates the Constitution by violating the separation of powers.
d. substantially reduces the importance of the presidency.
e. substantially enhances the importance of the presidency.

ANS: E – substantially enhances the importance of the presidency

*24. Which of the following is NOT an expressed power of the president under Article II of the U.S. Constitution?
a. to serve as commander in chief of the armed forces
b. to declare war
c. to grant pardons for federal crimes
d. to faithfully execute the laws
e. the power to veto legislation

ANS: B – to declare war

25. When Dwight Eisenhower sent federal troops into Little Rock High School in 1957, it demonstrated that the
a. president may make unilateral use of the emergency powers to protect states against domestic disorder.
b. president requires the federal court’s approval before using troops in domestic disturbances.
c. use of the president’s emergency powers against domestic disorder necessitates a request by the governor of the state in question.
d. president needs congressional authorization to use troops in both domestic and international situations.
e. president can only use troops in domestic situations when the health and safety of children under the age of 18 are threatened.

ANS: A – the President may make unilateral use of the emergency powers to protect states against domestic disorder

26. Which of the following statements about presidential pardons is FALSE?
a. George Washington declared amnesty to all Americans who fought for the British during the War for Independence.
b. Andrew Johnson declared amnesty to all Confederate soldiers.
c. Gerald Ford pardoned Richard Nixon for crimes he may have committed.
d. Jimmy Carter declared amnesty for all draft evaders during the Vietnam War.
e. The presidential power to grant pardons involves power over all individuals who may be threats to the security of the United States.

ANS: A – George Washington declared amnesty to all Americans who fought for the British during the War for Independence

*27. Which of the following statements about the presidential veto is most accurate?
a. Presidents have used the veto only twice in American history.
b. Use of the veto has remained constant across presidential administrations, and vetoes are frequently overridden.
c. Use of the veto varies considerably across presidential administrations, and vetoes are seldom overridden.
d. The line item veto and pocket vetoes are theoretical and never used.
e. Use of the veto has remained constant across presidential administrations, and vetoes are seldom overridden.

ANS: C – Use of the veto varies considerably across presidential administrations, and vetoes are seldom overridden

28. Which of the following statements is most accurate?
a. The War Powers Act has been fully observed by every president who has deployed the military overseas since Gerald Ford.
b. Recent presidents have refrained from asking Congress to declare war and have instead frequently deployed the military without congressional authorization.
c. Recent presidents have asked Congress to declare war many times and have never deployed the military without congressional authorization.
d. Congress passed the War Powers Resolution in order to give the president more control over the military.
e. As a result of the War Powers Resolution, Congress now has more control over the military than the president does.

ANS: B – Recent presidents have refrained from asking Congress to declare war and have instead frequently deployed the military without congressional authorization

*29. The goal of the War Powers Resolution was to
a. compel a congressional declaration of war for every large-scale military operation.
b. limit the ability of Congress to cut off funding for troops when the president sends them overseas without congressional approval.
c. limit the power of the president to commit American troops to military action without authorization from Congress.
d. end the Vietnam War.
e. give the president more freedom in determining when and where to deploy American military forces.

ANS: C – limit the power of the president to commit American troop to military action without authorization from Congress

30. An informal group of advisers to the president is often called the ________.
a. kitchen cabinet
b. plumbers
c. round table
d. colloquium
e. good ole boys (despite the fact that many women have entered these ranks)

ANS: A – kitchen cabinet

31. The ________ is the informal designation for the heads of the major federal government departments.
a. White House staff
b. committee of staff
c. Presidential Advisory Committee
d. Cabinet
e. Executive Office of the President

ANS: D – Cabinet

32. The president has the power to appoint which of the following positions?
a. state governors who resign before their terms have expired
b. all state Supreme Court justices
c. cabinet secretaries
d. members of the House of Representatives who resign before their terms have expired
e. the Speaker of the House

ANS: C – cabinet secretaries

33. The president’s group of advisers and analysts is collectively called the ________.
a. Cabinet
b. kitchen cabinet
c. White House staff
d. Executive Council of Advisers
e. Department of State

ANS: C – White House staff

34. The Office of Management and Budget and the Council of Economic Advisers are both parts of the ________.
a. Cabinet
b. White House staff
c. Office of the Vice President
d. Executive Office of the President
e. Department of the Interior

ANS: D – Executive Office of the President

35. Presidential spouses are an important resource for the president in order to carry out the duty of ________.
a. head of government
b. head of state
c. commander in chief
d. legislative initiator
e. chief diplomat

ANS: B – head of state

36. ________ was the first first lady to seek public office on her own.
a. Dolley Madison
b. Eleanor Roosevelt
c. Betty Ford
d. Hillary Clinton
e. Laura Bush

ANS: D – Hillary Clinton

37. The Office of Management and Budget is important because
a. it has the power to veto any legislation passed by Congress that negatively impacts the federal budget.
b. the Constitution requires that the president receive its approval for every administrative rule change he or she proposes and for every tax increase he or she suggests.
c. it is granted the authority under the Constitution to pass the federal budget.
d. its personnel are an integral part of virtually every conceivable presidential responsibility, such as overseeing regulatory proposals, reporting on agency activities, and preparing the national budget.
e. its staff constantly analyzes the economy and economic trends in order to give the president the ability to anticipate events rather than react to them.

ANS: D – its personnel are an integral part of virtually every conceivable presidential responsibility, such as overseeing regulatory proposals, reporting on agency activities, and preparing the national budget

38. The main political value of the vice president is to
a. bring the president votes in the election from a group or region that would not otherwise be a likely source of support.
b. draw negative attention away from the president during times of crisis.
c. give the president an institutional link to Congress.
d. act as the political party’s chief fund-raiser.
e. promote bipartisanship with members of the opposing political party.

ANS: A – bring the president votes in the election from a group or region that would not otherwise be a likely source of support

39. Which statement about the Cabinet is INCORRECT?
a. The Cabinet has no legal status under the Constitution.
b. The Cabinet does not make decisions collectively.
c. The Cabinet does not meet as a group, except during the State of the Union address.
d. The Senate must approve the president’s choice of cabinet secretaries.
e. Cabinet members are not responsible to the Senate or Congress at large.

ANS: C – the Cabinet does not meet as a group, except during the State of the Union address

40. What is the primary constitutional task of the vice president, besides succeeding the president in case of death, resignation, or incapacitation?
a. to serve as Speaker of the House of Representatives
b. to cast tie-breaking votes in the Senate
c. to act as a chief admiral of the U.S. Navy
d. to represent the president overseas
e. to run the day-to-day operations of the Executive Office of the President

ANS: B – to cast tie-breaking votes in the Senate

41. As a means of managing the gigantic executive branch, presidents have increasingly come to rely upon the ________.
a. Cabinet
b. Executive Office of the President
c. kitchen cabinet
d. White House staff
e. Speaker of the House

ANS: D – White House staff

42. During the nineteenth century, ________ was America’s dominant institution of government.
a. the presidency
b. the Supreme Court
c. the executive bureaucracy
d. Congress
e. the kitchen cabinet

ANS: D – Congress

43. After the Civil War, why was it considered inappropriate for President Andrew Johnson to make a series of speeches seeking public support for his policies?
a. President Johnson traveled with his own press secretary, the first time a president had used public-relations officials.
b. During the nineteenth century, it was perceived to be undignified for a president to campaign on his own behalf.
c. President Johnson did not speak to the general public but instead spoke only to handpicked audiences where he knew he would be favorably received.
d. President Johnson’s speeches were delivered only in the former Confederate states and ignored the North, where he most needed support.
e. President Johnson’s speeches were the first to encourage women and African Americans to become active in politics.

ANS: B – During the nineteenth century, it was perceived to be undignified for a president to campaign on his own behalf

44. The technique of popular mobilization dates back to ________ presidency.
a. Thomas Jefferson’s
b. Ulysses Grant’s
c. Theodore Roosevelt’s
d. Franklin Roosevelt’s
e. Ronald Reagan’s

ANS: C – Theodore Roosevelt’s

*45. ________ occurs when the president directs administrative agencies to promulgate specific rules and regulations.
a. Regulatory review
b. Administrative oversight
c. Delegation
d. An executive agreement
e. A mandate

ANS: A – Regulatory review

*46. Which of the following actions was NOT the result of an executive order?
a. the Louisiana Purchase
b. the internment of Japanese Americans during World War II
c. U.S. entrance into the United Nations
d. the annexation of Texas
e. the desegregation of the military

ANS: C – U.S entrance into the United Nations

*47. A signing statement is a(n)
a. announcement the president makes about his or her interpretation of a congressional enactment he or she is signing into law.
b. announcement made by a presidential candidate when formally accepting his or her party’s nomination.
c. announcement made by the president and the leader of a foreign country immediately following an executive agreement.
d. announcement the president is required to make any time he or she issues an executive order.
e. decree issued by Congress that demands the president sign a congressional enactment into law immediately.

ANS: A – announcement the president makes about his or her interpretation of a congressional enactment he or she is signing into law

*48. The expansion of the Executive Office of the President, the development of regulatory review, and the use of executive orders have been important because they
a. are deeply unpopular with the public and have led to the declining trust in American government.
b. make it very difficult for challengers to defeat incumbent presidents in elections.
c. have given presidents substantial capacity to achieve significant policy results despite congressional opposition to their legislative agendas.
d. have dramatically limited the power of the president and made it easier for Congress to dominate the American political system.
e. have rendered the judiciary essentially irrelevant in the American political system.

ANS: C – have given presidents substantial capacity to achieve significant policy results despite congressional opposition to their legislative agendas

*49. Which of the following statements about signing statements is most accurate?
a. The Constitution requires that the president explain his or her interpretation of every law he or she signs by issuing a signing statement.
b. Although signing statements were commonly used prior to 1900, no modern president has issued them when signing a piece of legislation into law.
c. Signing statements never instruct executive agencies whether to implement sections of a new law and never interpret ambiguous provisions of the law.
d. While presidents have made signing statements throughout American history, they have only recently been recorded and made part of the official legislative record.
e. Signing statements were invented during the Reagan administration as a way for the president to circumvent the federal court system.

ANS: D – While presidents have made signing statements throughout American history, they have only recently been recorded and made part of the official legislative record

50. What is the general tendency of a president’s popularity?
a. Presidents usually begin with moderate ratings that move drastically up or down, depending on their success.
b. Presidents usually start out popular and decline over the next four years.
c. Presidents usually maintain the public approval ratings they had when entering office, unless there is an economic recession or international crisis.
d. Presidents usually begin very unpopular and increase their popularity significantly as their terms in office continues.
e. No pattern has been discerned in presidential approval ratings.

ANS: B – Presidents usually start out popular and decline over the next four years

51. When are the president’s partisan ties most important?
a. in winning support from public opinion
b. in raising campaign funds
c. in dealing with Congress on legislative matters
d. in making executive appointments
e. in negotiating treaties and executive agreements

ANS: C – in dealing with Congress on legislative matters

*52. Which of the following statements about signing statements is FALSE?
a. Presidents have made signing statements throughout American history.
b. Ronald Reagan’s attorney general, Edwin Meese, is credited with transforming the signing statement into a routine tool of presidential direct action.
c. George W. Bush issued more than 150 signing statements during his time in office.
d. Ever since Thomas Jefferson’s presidency, all presidential signing statements have been recorded and added to the official legislative record.
e. Recent presidents have used signing statements in an attempt to negate congressional actions to which they objected.

ANS: D – Ever since Thomas Jefferson’s presidency, all presidential signing statements have been recorded and added to the official legislative record

53. According to separation of powers expert Louis Fisher, the powers of Congress have declined dramatically in which of the following areas?
a. national defense and the federal budget
b. the federal budget and intelligence management
c. law enforcement and oversight
d. national defense and environmental protection
e. health care and education

ANS: A – national defense and the federal budget

*54. The last time Congress exercised its constitutional power to declare war was during ________.
a. World War II
b. the Korean War
c. the Vietnam War
d. the Afghanistan War
e. the Iraq War

ANS: A – World War II

*55. Which of the following statements about Congress and the executive branch is most accurate?
a. The Constitution explicitly prohibits Congress from providing specific guidelines to executive agencies for implementing laws.
b. Starting around the time of the New Deal, Congress has tended to draft legislation that offers very specific guidelines for implementation by the executive.
c. Congress has never given executive agencies broad mandates and has always drafted legislation that offers very specific guidelines for implementation by the executive.
d. Starting around the time of the New Deal, Congress has tended to give executive agencies broad mandates and to draft legislation that offers few clear guidelines for implementation by the executive.
e. Throughout all of American history, Congress has tended to give executive agencies broad mandates and to draft legislation that offers few clear guidelines for implementation by the executive.

ANS: D – Starting around the time of the New Deal, Congress has tended to give executive agencies broad mandates and to draft legislation that offers few clear guidelines for implementation by the executive

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