The Enlightenment in England (Modern Humanities)

Read the excerpt from Thoughts and Sentiments.

The longer that men continue in the practice of evil and wickedness, they grow the more abandoned; for nothing in history can equal the barbarity and cruelty of the tortures and murders committed under various pretences in modern slavery, except the annals of the Inquisition and the bloody edicts of Popish massacres.

What belief does Cugoano explicitly express in this excerpt?

There have been worse things than slavery.
Slavery is an awful and vicious practice.
Slaveholders need spiritual guidance.
One cannot stop the practice of slavery.

Slavery is an awful and vicious practice.

Read the excerpt from Letters of the Late Ignatius Sancho, An African.

'Tis at the service of the afflicted,—and a much greater matter: for, in serious truth, it casts a sad shade upon the world, that so great a part of it are, and have been so long, bound in chains of darkness, and in chains of misery.

What is Sterne's purpose in this excerpt?

to describe slavery as just one of many different types of injustices in the world
to explain that slavery is deeply rooted in society and impossible to fight
to show that slavery is a terrible practice that has brought misery to too many people
to argue that sooner or later people will do the right thing and abolish slavery

to show that slavery is a terrible practice that has brought misery to too many people

An author's ____ is his or her reason for writing a text

purpose
idea
belief
assumption

purpose

Read the excerpt from Letters of the Late Ignatius Sancho, An African.

My chief pleasure has been books.—Philanthropy I adore.—How very much, good Sir, am I (amongst millions) indebted to you for the character of your amiable uncle Toby!—I declare, I would walk ten miles in the dog-days, to shake hands with the honest corporal.

What belief of Sancho's is implied in this excerpt?

Uncle Toby has freed millions of enslaved people.
Uncle Toby has taught him how to read.
Uncle Toby is a very talented writer.
Uncle Toby is a remarkable creation.

Uncle Toby is a remarkable creation.

Read the excerpt from Thoughts and Sentiments.

It is therefore manifest, that something else ought yet to be done; and what is required, is evidently the incumbent duty of all men of enlightened understanding, and of every man that has any claim or affinity to the name of Christian, that the base treatment which the African Slaves undergo, ought to be abolished; and it is moreover evident, that the whole, or any part of that iniquitous traffic of slavery, can no where, or in any degree, be admitted, but among those who must eventually resign their own claim to any degree of sensibility and humanity, for that of barbarians.

Read the excerpt from Letters of the Late Ignatius Sancho, An African.

I am sure you will applaud me for beseeching you to give one half hour's attention to slavery, as it is at this day practised in our West Indies.—That subject, handled in your striking manner, would ease the yoke (perhaps) of many—but if only of one—Gracious God!—what a feast to a benevolent heart!—and, sure I am, you are an epicurean in acts of charity.—You, who are universally read, and as universally admired—you could not fail

In these excerpts, how does Cugoano's purpose differ from Sancho's purpose?

Cugoano is hoping that a few enslaved people can be released, while Sancho is hoping that Sterne can abolish slavery altogether.
Cugoano makes references to his Christian faith, while Sancho stays away from the topic of religion altogether.
Sancho is humbly asking for someone's help, while Cugoano is asking for immediate and drastic changes in policies about slavery.
Sancho is informing the general public about the horrors of slavery, while Cugoano is writing a private letter.

Sancho is humbly asking for someone's help, while Cugoano is asking for immediate and drastic changes in policies about slavery.

Read the excerpt from Thoughts and Sentiments.

Thanks be to God, I was delivered from Grenada, and that horrid brutal slavery.—A gentleman coming to England, took me for his servant, and brought me away, where I soon found my situation become more agreeable. After coming to England, and seeing others write and read, I had a strong desire to learn, and getting what assistance I could, I applied myself to learn reading and writing, which soon became my recreation, pleasure, and delight; and when my master perceived that I could write some, he sent me to a proper school for that purpose to learn.

Read the excerpt from Letters of the Late Ignatius Sancho, An African.

The first part of my life was rather unlucky, as I was placed in a family who judged ignorance the best and only security for obedience.—A little reading and writing I got by unwearied application.—The latter part of my life has been—thro' God's blessing, truly fortunate, having spent it in the service of one of the best families in the kingdom.—My chief pleasure has been books.

In these excerpts, how is Cugoano's approach similar to Sancho's approach?

Like Sancho, Cugoano demonstrates that he had a difficult beginning as an enslaved person, but then prevailed through luck and perseverance.
Like Sancho, Cugoano does not emphasize the horrors of his experiences as an enslaved person, but focuses on his good fortune instead.
Like Sancho, Cugoano is thankful to find himself currently in the service of a noble and gracious English family.
Like Sancho, Cugoano presents himself as a humble man who is thankful for all of his good fortune and reluctant to make changes.

Like Sancho, Cugoano demonstrates that he had a difficult beginning as an enslaved person, but then prevailed through luck and perseverance.

Read the excerpt from Thoughts and Sentiments.

And if such men can boast of greater degrees of knowledge, than any African is entitled to, I shall let them enjoy all the advantages of it unenvied, as I fear it consists only in a greater share of infidelity, and that of a blacker kind than only skin deep. And if their complexion be not what I may suppose, it is at least the nearest in resemblance to an infernal hue.

What belief is implied but not explicitly stated in this excerpt?

All men are created equal in the eyes of the Christian God.
There are good men who understand the need for slavery.
Those who support slavery are evil, and their souls are doomed.
Africans are entitled to the same rights as Europeans and Americans.

Those who support slavery are evil, and their souls are doomed.

Read the excerpt from Thoughts and Sentiments.

After coming to England, and seeing others write and read, I had a strong desire to learn, and getting what assistance I could, I applied myself to learn reading and writing, which soon became my recreation, pleasure, and delight; and when my master perceived that I could write some, he sent me to a proper school for that purpose to learn. Since, I have endeavoured to improve my mind in reading, and have sought to get all the intelligence I could, in my situation of life, towards the state of my brethren and countrymen in complexion, and of the miserable situation of those who are barbarously sold into captivity, and unlawfully held in slavery.

Read the excerpt from Letters of the Late Ignatius Sancho, An African.

The first part of my life was rather unlucky, as I was placed in a family who judged ignorance the best and only security for obedience.—A little reading and writing I got by unwearied application.—The latter part of my life has been—thro' God's blessing, truly fortunate, having spent it in the service of one of the best families in the kingdom.—My chief pleasure has been books.

In these excerpts, how do both men use their personal histories to achieve their purpose?

Both men use their past experiences to show readers that they persevered and became accomplished readers and writers.
Both men use their personal histories to show readers the horrors and misery of being enslaved.
Both men share their past experiences to show readers that they are much smarter than the average person.
Both men share their personal stories to show readers that they are still having a very difficult time adjusting to European customs.

Both men use their past experiences to show readers that they persevered and became accomplished readers and writers.

Read the excerpt from Letters of the Late Ignatius Sancho, An African.

My chief pleasure has been books.—Philanthropy I adore.—How very much, good Sir, am I (amongst millions) indebted to you for the character of your amiable uncle Toby!—I declare, I would walk ten miles in the dog-days, to shake hands with the honest corporal.—Your Sermons have touch'd me to the heart, and I hope have amended it, which brings me to the point.

What is Sancho's attitude toward Sterne's writing in this excerpt?

suspicious and critical
respectful and humble
impolite and annoyed
playful and amused

respectful and humble

Read the excerpt from Thoughts and Sentiments.

It is therefore manifest, that something else ought yet to be done; and what is required, is evidently the incumbent duty of all men of enlightened understanding, and of every man that has any claim or affinity to the name of Christian, that the base treatment which the African Slaves undergo, ought to be abolished; and it is moreover evident, that the whole, or any part of that iniquitous traffic of slavery, can no where, or in any degree, be admitted, but among those who must eventually resign their own claim to any degree of sensibility and humanity, for that of barbarians.

Read the excerpt from Letters of the Late Ignatius Sancho, An African.

I am sure you will applaud me for beseeching you to give one half hour's attention to slavery, as it is at this day practised in our West Indies.—That subject, handled in your striking manner, would ease the yoke (perhaps) of many—but if only of one—Gracious God!—what a feast to a benevolent heart!—and, sure I am, you are an epicurean in acts of charity.—You, who are universally read, and as universally admired—you could not fail

In these excerpts, how is Cugoano's purpose similar to Sancho's purpose?

Like Sancho, Cugoano is asking for someone's help in passing on his message.
Like Sancho, Cugoano is hoping that some of the Africans held in captivity will be released.
Like Sancho, Cugoano is speaking out against the horrible practice of slavery.
Like Sancho, Cugoano is trying to become a widely read writer and respected philosopher.

Like Sancho, Cugoano is speaking out against the horrible practice of slavery.

Read the excerpt from Samuel Johnson's preface to A Dictionary of the English Language.

From the authours which rose in the time of Elizabeth, a speech might be formed adequate to all the purposes of use and elegance. If the language of theology were extracted from Hooker and the translation of the Bible; the terms of natural knowledge from Bacon; the phrases of policy, war, and navigation from Raleigh; the dialect of poetry and fiction from Spenser and Sidney; and the diction of common life from Shakespeare, few ideas would be lost to mankind, for want of English words, in which they might be expressed.

It is not sufficient that a word is found, unless it be so combined as that its meaning is apparently determined by the tract and tenour of the sentence; such passages I have therefore chosen.

How is Johnson's approach innovative?

He defines literary and poetic terms.
He studies the diction of everyday speech.
He relies on the credibility of established authors.
He refuses to include biblical terminology.

He relies on the credibility of established authors.

Read the excerpt from Samuel Johnson's preface to A Dictionary of the English Language.

The solution of all difficulties, and the supply of all defects, must be sought in the examples, subjoined to the various senses of each word, and ranged according to the time of their authours.
When first I collected these authorities, I was desirous that every quotation should be useful to some other end than the illustration of a word; I therefore extracted from philosophers principles of science; from historians remarkable facts; from chymists complete processes; from divines striking exhortations; and from poets beautiful descriptions.

The excerpt suggests that Johnson's work is significant because it

...

Read the excerpt from Samuel Johnson's preface to A Dictionary of the English Language.

But to COLLECT the WORDS of our language was a task of greater difficulty: the deficiency of dictionaries was immediately apparent; and when they were exhausted, what was yet wanting must be sought by fortuitous and unguided excursions into books, and gleaned as industry should find, or chance should offer it, in the boundless chaos of a living speech. My search, however, has been either skilful or lucky; for I have much augmented the vocabulary.

The excerpt claims that Johnson's work is significant because he

changed the format of dictionaries.
searched literature and found more words.
applied rules to make language less chaotic.
selected only the most difficult words to define.

searched literature and found more words.

Read the sentence from Samuel Johnson's preface to A Dictionary of the English Language.

Wherever I turned my view, there was perplexity to be disentangled, and confusion to be regulated; choice was to be made out of boundless variety.

Which word in the sentence helps readers determine the meaning of the word perplexity?

wherever
view
disentangled
variety

disentangled

Which words have positive connotations? Check all that apply.

luxurious
arrogant
elegant
pretentious
fashionable

luxurious elegant fashionable

Read the excerpts from Samuel Johnson's preface to A Dictionary of the English Language.

Thus have I laboured by settling the orthography, displaying the analogy, regulating the structures, and ascertaining the signification of English words, to perform all the parts of a faithful lexicographer: but I have not always executed my own scheme, or satisfied my own expectations.

The underlined word emerges as a key term in the preface because Johnson

hints at the economic importance of his dictionary.
hopes that his dictionary will enlighten the uneducated.
seeks literary recognition for his publication.
strives to emphasize the effort his dictionary required.

strives to emphasize the effort his dictionary required.

Read the excerpts from Samuel Johnson's preface to A Dictionary of the English Language.

In both excerpts, the word structure refers to the

ways a dictionary is assembled.
organization of alphabetical entries.
components, or parts, of words.
places, or institutions, that house books.

components, or parts, of words.

Read the excerpts from Samuel Johnson's preface to A Dictionary of the English Language.

Which statement best describes Johnson's treatment of the underlined word?

Johnson uses the word to criticize established publications.
Johnson uses the word to express indifference about written material.
Johnson uses the word to assert his admiration for published writing.
Johnson uses the word to suggest that his writing is worthy of high praise.

Johnson uses the word to assert his admiration for published writing.

Read the excerpt from Samuel Johnson's A Dictionary of the English Language.

Mádness. n.s.

Distraction; loss of understanding; perturbation of the faculties.

Why, woman, your husband is in his old tunes again: he so rails against all married mankind, so curses all Eve's daughters, and so buffets himself on the forehead, that any madness I ever yet beheld seemed but tameness and civility to this distemper. Shakesp. Merry Wives of Windsor.

There are degrees of madness as of folly, the disorderly jumbling ideas together, in some more, some less. Locke.

How does this dictionary entry differ from those of earlier dictionaries?

It provides more than one definition for the word.
It uses the word in a sentence.
It reveals the word's root or derivative.
It includes published examples of the word's use.

It includes published examples of the word's use.

Read the sentence from Samuel Johnson's preface to A Dictionary of the English Language.

I have studiously endeavoured to collect examples and authorities from the writers before the restoration, whose works I regard as the wells of English undefiled, as the pure sources of genuine diction.

Which words in the sentence help readers determine the meaning of the word undefiled?

studiously, endeavoured
examples, authorities
writers, restoration
pure, genuine

pure, genuine

Which word has a negative connotation?

clever
astute
deceptive
ingenious

deceptive

Read the sentence from Samuel Johnson's preface to A Dictionary of the English Language.

And such is the fate of hapless lexicography, that not only darkness, but light, impedes and distresses it; things may be not only too little, but too much known, to be happily illustrated.

What is the best definition of the underlined word as it is used in the sentence?

unlucky or unfortunate; pitiable
unknown or unfamiliar; mysterious
without intelligence; foolish
without tenderness; harsh

unlucky or unfortunate;pitable

At the time of its publication, A Dictionary of the English Language was unique because of its .

etymologies
defintions
omissions
quotations

quotations

Read the sentence from Samuel Johnson's preface to A Dictionary of the English Language.

It is the fate of those who toil at the lower employments of life, to be rather driven by the fear of evil, than attracted by the prospect of good; to be exposed to censure, without hope of praise.

What is the best definition of the underlined word as it is used in the sentence?

a statement of wit or amusement
an expression of disapproval or condemnation
a sentiment of indifference or apathy
an exclamation of profound admiration or esteem

an expression of disapproval or condemnation

Read the paragraph.

In conclusion, the work of Foley artists is only one step in the overall filmmaking process. By adding the appropriate sound effects, Foley artists create a level of realism that helps the audience embrace the premise of the film, whether it is some crazy alien adventure or something based on everyday life.

Which is the best thing the writer could add to improve the conclusion?

a sentence about where the term Foley came from
a quote from a Foley artist about how fun it is to work in film
a question about where Foley artists record sounds
a speculation about the continued importance of Foley work

a speculation about the continued importance of Foley work

In an essay written in a formal style, what kind of tone should the writing have?

casual
clichéd
objective
opinionated

objective

When developing the paragraphs in an essay, why should the writer include information about sources for all quoted information?

to avoid plagiarism
to support the thesis
to prevent repetition
to help with transitions

to avoid plagiarism

Read the paragraph.

When most people think of movie careers, they think of actors or directors. But the film industry has a multitude of career opportunities available in all stages of the film production process. Of these, visual effects is one of the most creative and exciting fields. The visual effects field has exploded in importance and offers opportunities for both technical and creative expression.

What is the best place to put this paragraph in an essay?

the introduction
body paragraph 1
body paragraph 3
the conclusion

the introduction

A student should conduct research for an essay to gather the ____ , or the details that show that the student's essay is true.

evidence
objective
thesis
topic

evidence

Read the body paragraphs from an essay on sound effects in film.

1. Here comes the fun part. You get to use all those props to create sound effects. So start breaking that celery and crunching that cellophane!

2. You'll need to be prepared before you start recording. Planning ahead is crucial. Make a list of everything in the film scene that could make a noise, whether it's a piece of clothing rustling or a bunch of leaves skittering.

3. Now that you've got your list, it's time to assemble your "noisemakers." You can find useful information online for what to use to make the best sounds. For example, to make the sound of walking on snow, you put corn starch in a leather pouch.

What is the most logical way to organize these body paragraphs?

2, 1, 3
1, 3, 2
3, 2, 1
2, 3, 1

...

The ____ in an essay should contain the essay's topic and viewpoint.

thesis
evidence
focus
purpose

thesis

During which part of the writing process should a writer do research to gather evidence?

brainstorming
drafting
prewriting
revising

prewriting

Read an excerpt from an article on filmmaking.

Filmmaking can be broken down into three phases. The preproduction phase includes things such as securing financing for the film, writing the script, scouting locations, and hiring cast and crew. In the production phase the actual recording of the video and audio takes place. This phase also includes things such as setting up cameras, electricity, lights, and sound. Makeup, costume, and set designers are on hand during this phase as well. Finally, during the postproduction phase, the film is edited, sound and visual effects are inserted, and a music score is added.

Which research paper would this article best support?

"Discovering Filmmaking in the Twenty-First Century"
"A Discussion of Filmmaking in the Modern Film Industry"
"The Realities of Filmmaking in the Twenty-First Century"
"Tracking the Intricacies of the Modern Filmmaking Process"

...

Read an excerpt from an article that Max is using to provide evidence for his paper on filmmaking.

Filmmaking can be broken down into three phases. The preproduction phase includes things such as securing financing for the film, writing the script, scouting locations, and hiring cast and crew. In the production phase the actual recording of the video and audio takes place. This phase also includes things such as setting up cameras, electricity, lights, and sound. Makeup, costume, and set designers are on hand during this phase as well. Finally, during the postproduction phase, the film is edited, sound and visual effects are inserted, and a music score is added.

Max wants to organize this information into a table with three columns. Which is the best way to sort the information?

cast, crew, editor
finance, camera, effects
preproduction, production, postproduction
makeup design, set design, costume design

preproduction ,production, postproduction

Read the paragraph Miguel is developing for the body of his essay.

Producers stay with a film from inception through completion. The producers find financing for the film. They make sure the film stays on schedule. They approve the completed film.

To improve the paragraph, the Miguel should add

citations.
a final insight.
a thesis statement.
transitions.

transitions

Read the paragraph.

In conclusion, the work of Foley artists is only one step in the overall filmmaking process. By adding the appropriate sound effects, Foley artists create a level of realism that helps the audience embrace the premise of the film, whether it is some crazy alien adventure or something based on everyday life.

Which phrase should be revised to match the objective tone and formal style of the rest of the paragraph?

work of Foley artists is only one step
Foley artists create a level of realism
it is some crazy alien adventure
something based on everyday life

it is some crazy alien adventure

Read the sentence.

Before attempting to undertake a career in the film industry, it's important to investigate the skills and qualifications required, as one should with any job.

To put the sentence in formal style, which is the best revision to make?

changing "undertake" to "go for"
changing "it's" to "it is"
changing "investigate" to "check out"
changing "job" to "gig"

changing "it's" to "it is"

Which is the most reliable source to support a paper on the proper care of peach trees?

the article "Peach Trees" on a local university website
the wiki "Twenty Things to Know about Peach Trees"
the blog "Peachy Peaches: 360 Days of Healthy Peaches"
the article "Best Peaches" on a local farmer's website

the article "Peach Trees" on a local university website

If there are errors in the mechanics of an essay, the writer should revise the essay's

grammar.
organization.
style.
tone.

grammar

Read the excerpts from historical documents.

From the Declaration of Independence:

For taking away our Charters, abolishing our most valuable Laws, and altering fundamentally the Forms of our Governments:

For suspending our own Legislatures, and declaring themselves invested with Power to legislate for us in all cases whatsoever.

From the Declaration of Sentiments:

After depriving her of all rights as a married woman, if single, and the owner of property, he has taxed her to support a government which recognizes her only when her property can be made profitable to it.

How are these excerpts similar?

Both insist that taxes should be reduced.
Both offer accusations of legal oppression.
Both complain about real estate values.
Both encourage the underprivileged to speak up.

both offer accusations of legal oppression

Read the excerpt from the Declaration of Sentiments.

He has compelled her to submit to laws, in the formation of which she had no voice.

He has withheld from her rights which are given to the most ignorant and degraded men—both natives and foreigners.

What ideas are associated with the words compelled and withheld?

doubt and confusion
injustice and oppression
courage and bravery
praise and recognition

injustice and oppression

Read the excerpt from the Declaration of Sentiments by Elizabeth Cady Stanton.

But when a long train of abuses and usurpations, pursuing invariably the same object evinces a design to reduce them under absolute despotism, it is their duty to throw off such government, and to provide new guards for their future security. Such has been the patient sufferance of the women under this government, and such is now the necessity which constrains them to demand the equal station to which they are entitled.

How does Stanton use pathos as a rhetorical appeal?

by describing one young woman's unfulfilled potential
by emphasizing the injustices endured by women
by explaining laws that govern marriages
by establishing her authority to question the status quo

by emphasizing the injustices endured by women

Which statement uses logos as a rhetorical appeal?

No young child should go to bed feeling hungry.
The committee has experience with staffing and operating food banks.
Without food banks, families would face the empty shelves of their pantries.
If the food bank collects one hundred more cans, it will be fully stocked.

...

Read the excerpt from the Declaration of Independence.

And for the support of this Declaration, with a firm reliance on the Protection of Divine Providence, we mutually pledge to each other our Lives, our Fortunes and our sacred Honor.

Which statement best describes the use of rhetorical appeals in the excerpt?

The excerpt relies on pathos by offering high praise to the document's authors.
The excerpt relies on pathos by making strong emotional claims.
The excerpt relies on logos by referencing other historical texts.
The excerpt relies on logos by explaining the reasoning behind the document.

the excerpt relies on pathos by making strong emotional claims

Read the excerpt from the Declaration of Independence.

Nor have We been wanting in attention to our Brittish brethren. We have warned them from time to time of attempts by their legislature to extend an unwarrantable jurisdiction over us. We have reminded them of the circumstances of our emigration and settlement here. We have appealed to their native justice and magnanimity, and we have conjured them by the ties of our common kindred to disavow these usurpations, which would inevitably interrupt our connections and correspondence. They too have been deaf to the voice of justice and of consanguinity.

What is the author's purpose in this excerpt?

to inform readers about British immigration to the colonies
to convince readers that Britain has treated the colonists unfairly
to inform readers about specific acts of British military aggression
to convince readers that American colonists should be tried in Britain

to convince readers that Britain has treated the colonists unfairly

Read the excerpt from the Declaration of Independence.

We have appealed to their native justice and magnanimity, and we have conjured them by the ties of our common kindred to disavow these usurpations, which would inevitably interrupt our connections and correspondence.

What ideas are associated with the words justice, magnanimity, and correspondence?

might and power
wealth and materialism
peace and friendship
study and research

peace and friendship

Read the sentence.

Kev's keen insights and ________ comments impressed the judges throughout the debate.

Which word completes the sentence with the most positive connotations?

inept
astute
adequate
satisfactory

...

Read the excerpt from the Declaration of Sentiments.

He has made her, morally, an irresponsible being, as she can commit many crimes with impunity, provided they be done in the presence of her husband. In the covenant of marriage, she is compelled to promise obedience to her husband, he becoming, to all intents and purposes, her master—the law giving him power to deprive her of her liberty, and to administer chastisement.

Which statement best describes the relationship between Stanton's diction and her purpose?

Stanton uses words with positive connotations to encourage women to discover their voices.
Stanton uses words with negative connotations to emphasize the persecution of women.
Stanton uses words with positive connotations to highlight women's road toward social progress.
Stanton uses words with negative connotations to criticize women for their apathy.

Stanton uses words with negative connotations to emphasize the persecution of women

Read the excerpts from historical documents.

From the Declaration of Independence:

We . . . solemnly publish and declare, That these United Colonies are, and of Right ought to be Free and Independent States; that they are Absolved from all Allegiance to the British Crown, and that all political connection between them and the State of Great Britain, is and ought to be totally dissolved . . .

From the Declaration of Sentiments:

. . . we insist that they have immediate admission to all the rights and privileges which belong to them as citizens of the United States.

How are these excerpts similar?

Both offer complaints.
Both recall history.
Both state demands.
Both admit defeat.

Both state demands.

Read the excerpt from the Declaration of Independence.

We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty, and the pursuit of Happiness. That to secure these rights, Governments are instituted among Men, deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed, That whenever any Form of Government becomes destructive of these ends, it is the Right of the People to alter or to abolish it, and to institute new Government . . .

Which statement best describes the relationship between Jefferson's diction and his purpose?

Jefferson uses words with neutral connotations to present a claim based on reason and precedent.
Jefferson uses words with positive connotations to praise his listeners for their political activism.
Jefferson uses words with neutral connotations to suggest that there is no urgency to his message.
Jefferson uses words with positive connotations to encourage peaceful relations with Britain.

Jefferson uses words with neutral connotations to present a claim based on reason and precedent

Consider the chart.

Document Author Date of
presentation Intended
audience
Declaration of
Independence Thomas Jefferson 1776 Continental
Congress
Declaration of
Sentiments Elizabeth Cady
Stanton 1848

Elizabeth Cady Stanton first delivered her Declaration of Sentiments to ____ .

state lawmakers
college students
a community activist group
a women's rights convention

a women's rights convention

Which statement uses pathos as a rhetorical appeal?

Sixty percent of the community center staff are unpaid volunteers.
The center is subsidized, and over half of the children attend for free.
The children's innocence touches the volunteers' hearts.
Many staffers are retired teachers with impressive resumes.

The children's innocence touches the volunteer's hearts

Read the excerpts from historical documents.

From the Declaration of Independence:

. . . That whenever any Form of Government becomes destructive of these ends, it is the Right of the People to alter or to abolish it, and to institute new Government, laying its foundation on such principles and organizing its powers in such form, as to them shall seem most likely to effect their Safety and Happiness.

From the Declaration of Sentiments:

Whenever any form of government becomes destructive of these ends, it is the right of those who suffer from it to refuse allegiance to it, and to insist upon the institution of a new government, laying its foundation on such principles, and organizing its powers in such form, as to them shall seem most likely to effect their safety and happiness.

Why do Jefferson and Stanton include these similar excerpts in their documents?

because they are heartfelt praises intended to applaud activists
because they mention the Founding Fathers in an attempt to inspire
because they are powerful calls to change that define their causes
because they are battle cries that demand physical confrontation

because they are powerful calls to change that define their causes

Which is an effective thesis?

There are many bees in the world, such as the ones in your garden.
Bees are a crucial part of any thriving ecosystem, including your garden.
While bees have some benefits, the buzzing around the garden gets annoying.
Generally speaking, bees are okay so long as they stay outside in the garden.

Bees are a crucial part of any thriving ecosystem, including your garden.

Which statement best describes why Elizabeth Cady Stanton's Declaration of Sentiments mirrors the language of the Declaration of Independance?

Stanton wants to encourage women to appreciate the freedoms that they enjoy in American society.
Stanton wants to acknowledge the efforts of American forefathers and the cooperation that prompted independence from Britain.
Stanton wants to promote an understanding of the American political system that allows men to vote for a representative government.
Stanton wants to emphasize the historical significance of the women's movement and its potential for revolutionary change.

Stanton wants to emphasize the historical significance of the women's movement and its potential for revolutionary change.

Samuel Johnson's dictionary is best described as the first

study of word origins.
collection of word meanings.
modern English dictionary.
modern literary study.

modern english dictionary

Read the excerpt from the Declaration of Independence.

Governments are instituted among Men, deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed, That whenever any Form of Government becomes destructive of these ends, it is the Right of the People to alter or to abolish it, and to institute new Government, laying its foundation on such principles and organizing its powers in such form, as to them shall seem most likely to effect their Safety and Happiness.

What is the author's purpose in this excerpt?

to inform readers about different systems of government
to inform readers about recent governmental reforms
to persuade readers of the need for governmental change
to persuade readers to petition their local governments

to persuade readers of the need for governmental change

Read the excerpt from Samuel Johnson's preface to A Dictionary of the English Language.

I applied myself to the perusal of our writers; and noting whatever might be of use to ascertain or illustrate any word or phrase, accumulated in time the materials of a dictionary, which, by degrees, I reduced to method, establishing to myself, in the progress of the work, such rules as experience and analogy suggested to me; experience, which practice and observation were continually increasing; and analogy, which, though in some words obscure, was evident in others.

The excerpt suggests that Johnson's work is significant because it

teaches readers how to understand analogies.
follows a method prescribed by other dictionaries.
reflects an exhaustive study of its words.
includes obscure words not previously defined.

reflects an exhaustive study of its word

Read the excerpt from Thoughts and Sentiments.

However, notwithstanding all that has been done and written against it, that brutish barbarity, and unparalelled injustice, is still carried on to a very great extent in the colonies, and with an avidity as insidious, cruel and oppressive as ever.

Which words best describe Cugoano's attitude toward the topic of slavery in this excerpt?

angry and disgusted
calm and understanding
sad and defeated
passive and detached

angry and disgusted

Read the excerpts from historical documents.

From the Declaration of Independence:

When in the Course of human events, it becomes necessary for one people to dissolve the political bands which have connected them with another, and to assume, among the Powers of the earth, the separate and equal station to which the Laws of Nature and of Nature's God entitle them, a decent respect to the opinions of mankind requires that they should declare the causes which impel them to the separation.

From the Declaration of Sentiments:

When, in the course of human events, it becomes necessary for one portion of the family of man to assume among the people of the earth a position different from that which they have hitherto occupied, but one to which the laws of nature and of nature's God entitle them, a decent respect to the opinions of mankind requires that they should declare the causes that impel them to such a course.

How are these excerpts similar?

Both insist that drastic action requires a statement of rationale.
Both claim that revolutionary change requires hostile combat.
Both suggest that oppressive parties should be punished.
Both demand that laws change based on popular beliefs.

both insist that drastic action requires a statement of rationale

Which is the best example of an explicit statement from Thoughts and Sentiments that shows Cugoano's beliefs about slavery?

"However, notwithstanding all that has been done and written against it, that brutish barbarity, and unparalelled injustice, is still carried on to a very great extent in the colonies, and with an avidity as insidious, cruel and oppressive as ever."
"However, it cannot but be very discouraging to a man of my complexion in such an attempt as this, to meet with the evil aspersions of some men, who say, 'That an African is not entitled to any competent degree of knowledge, or capable of imbibing any sentiments of probity; and that nature designed him for some inferior link in the chain, fitted only to be a slave.'"
"By some of such complexion, as whether black or white it matters not, I was early snatched away from my native country, with about eighteen or twenty more boys and girls, as we were playing in a field."
"But the supporters and favourers of slavery make other things a pretence and an excuse in their own defence; such as, that they find that it was admitted under the Divine institution by Moses, as well as the long continued practice of different nations for ages; and that the Africans are peculiarly marked out by some signal prediction in nature and complexion for that purpose."

"However, notwithstanding all that has been done and written against it, that brutish barbarity, and unparalelled injustice, is still carried on to a very great extent in the colonies, and with an avidity as insidious, cruel and oppressive as ever."

Read the excerpt from Thoughts and Sentiments.

But the whole business of slavery is an evil of the first magnitude, and a most horrible iniquity to traffic with slaves and souls of men; and an evil, sorry I am, that it still subsists, and more astonishing to think, that it is an iniquity committed amongst Christians, and contrary to all the genuine principles of Christianity, and yet carried on by men denominated thereby.

Read the excerpt from Letters of the Late Ignatius Sancho, An African.

That subject, handled in your striking manner, would ease the yoke (perhaps) of many—but if only of one—Gracious God!—what a feast to a benevolent heart!—and, sure I am, you are an epicurean in acts of charity.

In these excerpts, how do both men use God and religion to achieve their purpose?

Both men claim that good Christians and enlightened individuals will support the abolishment of slavery.
Both men invoke God and use their Christian faith to establish a common ground with their intended audiences.
Both men claim that slavery is the utmost of un-Christian practices and that slaveholders are immoral.
Both men call on the grace of God to help them make their arguments and to be heard.

Both men invoke God and use their Christian faith to establish a common ground with their intended audiences

Read the excerpt from the Declaration of Sentiments.

Having deprived her of this first right of a citizen, the elective franchise, thereby leaving her without representation in the halls of legislation, he has oppressed her on all sides.

Which words in the excerpt have negative connotations? Check all that apply.

deprived
elective
representation
oppressed
sides

deprived oppressed

Read the sentence.

Editing a film is similar to editing a novel: the editor puts together the pieces to create a wicked fun tale that you'd have to be nuts not to love, and also flows logically and smoothly.

To put the sentence in formal style, which is the best choice to replace the underlined phrase?

a story that appeals to the audience
a tearjerker that'll for sure grab the audience
a yarn that's definitely gonna win awards
a film that is guaranteed to rock

a story that appeals to the audience

Read the excerpts from Samuel Johnson's preface to A Dictionary of the English Language.

Which statement best describes the use of the underlined word in the excerpts?

Excerpt 1 recognizes the importance of word origins, but excerpt 2 suggests that studying word origins could be a waste of time.
Excerpt 1 recognizes the importance of word origins, and excerpt 2 suggests that etymology is more important than syntax.
Excerpt 1 questions the study of word origins, but excerpt 2 asserts the need to include etymology in dictionaries.
Excerpt 1 questions the study of word origins, and excerpt 2 insists that etymology is best studied over the course of one's lifetime.

Excerpt 1 recognizes the importance of word origins, but excerpt 2 suggests that studying word origins could be a waste of time.

Read the thesis.

Foley artists are essential to the success of a film, since they create the sound effects that make the film's setting believable to the audience.

Which is the most accurate evaluation of the thesis?

The thesis is effective because it covers a broad topic while maintaining an objective viewpoint.
The thesis is ineffective because it lacks clear transitions between the thoughts of the writer.
The thesis is effective because it contains a topic that is focused and a viewpoint that is clear.
The thesis is ineffective because it lacks proper citations and does not grab the reader's attention.

The thesis is effective because it contains a topic that is focused and a viewpoint that is clear.

Read the sentence from Samuel Johnson's preface to A Dictionary of the English Language.

To have attempted much is always laudable, even when the enterprize is above the strength that undertakes it.

What is the best definition of the underlined word as it is used in the sentence?

foolish or unwise; rash
displaying intellect; academic
humorous or comical; droll
deserving praise; admirable

deserving praise; admirable

When conducting research online for an essay, which tips should the researcher follow? Check all that apply.

use broad keyword searches
think about the smaller picture
look for reliable sources
keep track of sources
specify relationships between keywords

look for reliable sources keep track of sources specify relationships between keywords

The Enlightenment in England (Modern Humanities) - Subjecto.com

The Enlightenment in England (Modern Humanities)

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Read the excerpt from Thoughts and Sentiments.

The longer that men continue in the practice of evil and wickedness, they grow the more abandoned; for nothing in history can equal the barbarity and cruelty of the tortures and murders committed under various pretences in modern slavery, except the annals of the Inquisition and the bloody edicts of Popish massacres.

What belief does Cugoano explicitly express in this excerpt?

There have been worse things than slavery.
Slavery is an awful and vicious practice.
Slaveholders need spiritual guidance.
One cannot stop the practice of slavery.

Slavery is an awful and vicious practice.

Read the excerpt from Letters of the Late Ignatius Sancho, An African.

‘Tis at the service of the afflicted,—and a much greater matter: for, in serious truth, it casts a sad shade upon the world, that so great a part of it are, and have been so long, bound in chains of darkness, and in chains of misery.

What is Sterne’s purpose in this excerpt?

to describe slavery as just one of many different types of injustices in the world
to explain that slavery is deeply rooted in society and impossible to fight
to show that slavery is a terrible practice that has brought misery to too many people
to argue that sooner or later people will do the right thing and abolish slavery

to show that slavery is a terrible practice that has brought misery to too many people

An author’s ____ is his or her reason for writing a text

purpose
idea
belief
assumption

purpose

Read the excerpt from Letters of the Late Ignatius Sancho, An African.

My chief pleasure has been books.—Philanthropy I adore.—How very much, good Sir, am I (amongst millions) indebted to you for the character of your amiable uncle Toby!—I declare, I would walk ten miles in the dog-days, to shake hands with the honest corporal.

What belief of Sancho’s is implied in this excerpt?

Uncle Toby has freed millions of enslaved people.
Uncle Toby has taught him how to read.
Uncle Toby is a very talented writer.
Uncle Toby is a remarkable creation.

Uncle Toby is a remarkable creation.

Read the excerpt from Thoughts and Sentiments.

It is therefore manifest, that something else ought yet to be done; and what is required, is evidently the incumbent duty of all men of enlightened understanding, and of every man that has any claim or affinity to the name of Christian, that the base treatment which the African Slaves undergo, ought to be abolished; and it is moreover evident, that the whole, or any part of that iniquitous traffic of slavery, can no where, or in any degree, be admitted, but among those who must eventually resign their own claim to any degree of sensibility and humanity, for that of barbarians.

Read the excerpt from Letters of the Late Ignatius Sancho, An African.

I am sure you will applaud me for beseeching you to give one half hour’s attention to slavery, as it is at this day practised in our West Indies.—That subject, handled in your striking manner, would ease the yoke (perhaps) of many—but if only of one—Gracious God!—what a feast to a benevolent heart!—and, sure I am, you are an epicurean in acts of charity.—You, who are universally read, and as universally admired—you could not fail

In these excerpts, how does Cugoano’s purpose differ from Sancho’s purpose?

Cugoano is hoping that a few enslaved people can be released, while Sancho is hoping that Sterne can abolish slavery altogether.
Cugoano makes references to his Christian faith, while Sancho stays away from the topic of religion altogether.
Sancho is humbly asking for someone’s help, while Cugoano is asking for immediate and drastic changes in policies about slavery.
Sancho is informing the general public about the horrors of slavery, while Cugoano is writing a private letter.

Sancho is humbly asking for someone’s help, while Cugoano is asking for immediate and drastic changes in policies about slavery.

Read the excerpt from Thoughts and Sentiments.

Thanks be to God, I was delivered from Grenada, and that horrid brutal slavery.—A gentleman coming to England, took me for his servant, and brought me away, where I soon found my situation become more agreeable. After coming to England, and seeing others write and read, I had a strong desire to learn, and getting what assistance I could, I applied myself to learn reading and writing, which soon became my recreation, pleasure, and delight; and when my master perceived that I could write some, he sent me to a proper school for that purpose to learn.

Read the excerpt from Letters of the Late Ignatius Sancho, An African.

The first part of my life was rather unlucky, as I was placed in a family who judged ignorance the best and only security for obedience.—A little reading and writing I got by unwearied application.—The latter part of my life has been—thro’ God’s blessing, truly fortunate, having spent it in the service of one of the best families in the kingdom.—My chief pleasure has been books.

In these excerpts, how is Cugoano’s approach similar to Sancho’s approach?

Like Sancho, Cugoano demonstrates that he had a difficult beginning as an enslaved person, but then prevailed through luck and perseverance.
Like Sancho, Cugoano does not emphasize the horrors of his experiences as an enslaved person, but focuses on his good fortune instead.
Like Sancho, Cugoano is thankful to find himself currently in the service of a noble and gracious English family.
Like Sancho, Cugoano presents himself as a humble man who is thankful for all of his good fortune and reluctant to make changes.

Like Sancho, Cugoano demonstrates that he had a difficult beginning as an enslaved person, but then prevailed through luck and perseverance.

Read the excerpt from Thoughts and Sentiments.

And if such men can boast of greater degrees of knowledge, than any African is entitled to, I shall let them enjoy all the advantages of it unenvied, as I fear it consists only in a greater share of infidelity, and that of a blacker kind than only skin deep. And if their complexion be not what I may suppose, it is at least the nearest in resemblance to an infernal hue.

What belief is implied but not explicitly stated in this excerpt?

All men are created equal in the eyes of the Christian God.
There are good men who understand the need for slavery.
Those who support slavery are evil, and their souls are doomed.
Africans are entitled to the same rights as Europeans and Americans.

Those who support slavery are evil, and their souls are doomed.

Read the excerpt from Thoughts and Sentiments.

After coming to England, and seeing others write and read, I had a strong desire to learn, and getting what assistance I could, I applied myself to learn reading and writing, which soon became my recreation, pleasure, and delight; and when my master perceived that I could write some, he sent me to a proper school for that purpose to learn. Since, I have endeavoured to improve my mind in reading, and have sought to get all the intelligence I could, in my situation of life, towards the state of my brethren and countrymen in complexion, and of the miserable situation of those who are barbarously sold into captivity, and unlawfully held in slavery.

Read the excerpt from Letters of the Late Ignatius Sancho, An African.

The first part of my life was rather unlucky, as I was placed in a family who judged ignorance the best and only security for obedience.—A little reading and writing I got by unwearied application.—The latter part of my life has been—thro’ God’s blessing, truly fortunate, having spent it in the service of one of the best families in the kingdom.—My chief pleasure has been books.

In these excerpts, how do both men use their personal histories to achieve their purpose?

Both men use their past experiences to show readers that they persevered and became accomplished readers and writers.
Both men use their personal histories to show readers the horrors and misery of being enslaved.
Both men share their past experiences to show readers that they are much smarter than the average person.
Both men share their personal stories to show readers that they are still having a very difficult time adjusting to European customs.

Both men use their past experiences to show readers that they persevered and became accomplished readers and writers.

Read the excerpt from Letters of the Late Ignatius Sancho, An African.

My chief pleasure has been books.—Philanthropy I adore.—How very much, good Sir, am I (amongst millions) indebted to you for the character of your amiable uncle Toby!—I declare, I would walk ten miles in the dog-days, to shake hands with the honest corporal.—Your Sermons have touch’d me to the heart, and I hope have amended it, which brings me to the point.

What is Sancho’s attitude toward Sterne’s writing in this excerpt?

suspicious and critical
respectful and humble
impolite and annoyed
playful and amused

respectful and humble

Read the excerpt from Thoughts and Sentiments.

It is therefore manifest, that something else ought yet to be done; and what is required, is evidently the incumbent duty of all men of enlightened understanding, and of every man that has any claim or affinity to the name of Christian, that the base treatment which the African Slaves undergo, ought to be abolished; and it is moreover evident, that the whole, or any part of that iniquitous traffic of slavery, can no where, or in any degree, be admitted, but among those who must eventually resign their own claim to any degree of sensibility and humanity, for that of barbarians.

Read the excerpt from Letters of the Late Ignatius Sancho, An African.

I am sure you will applaud me for beseeching you to give one half hour’s attention to slavery, as it is at this day practised in our West Indies.—That subject, handled in your striking manner, would ease the yoke (perhaps) of many—but if only of one—Gracious God!—what a feast to a benevolent heart!—and, sure I am, you are an epicurean in acts of charity.—You, who are universally read, and as universally admired—you could not fail

In these excerpts, how is Cugoano’s purpose similar to Sancho’s purpose?

Like Sancho, Cugoano is asking for someone’s help in passing on his message.
Like Sancho, Cugoano is hoping that some of the Africans held in captivity will be released.
Like Sancho, Cugoano is speaking out against the horrible practice of slavery.
Like Sancho, Cugoano is trying to become a widely read writer and respected philosopher.

Like Sancho, Cugoano is speaking out against the horrible practice of slavery.

Read the excerpt from Samuel Johnson’s preface to A Dictionary of the English Language.

From the authours which rose in the time of Elizabeth, a speech might be formed adequate to all the purposes of use and elegance. If the language of theology were extracted from Hooker and the translation of the Bible; the terms of natural knowledge from Bacon; the phrases of policy, war, and navigation from Raleigh; the dialect of poetry and fiction from Spenser and Sidney; and the diction of common life from Shakespeare, few ideas would be lost to mankind, for want of English words, in which they might be expressed.

It is not sufficient that a word is found, unless it be so combined as that its meaning is apparently determined by the tract and tenour of the sentence; such passages I have therefore chosen.

How is Johnson’s approach innovative?

He defines literary and poetic terms.
He studies the diction of everyday speech.
He relies on the credibility of established authors.
He refuses to include biblical terminology.

He relies on the credibility of established authors.

Read the excerpt from Samuel Johnson’s preface to A Dictionary of the English Language.

The solution of all difficulties, and the supply of all defects, must be sought in the examples, subjoined to the various senses of each word, and ranged according to the time of their authours.
When first I collected these authorities, I was desirous that every quotation should be useful to some other end than the illustration of a word; I therefore extracted from philosophers principles of science; from historians remarkable facts; from chymists complete processes; from divines striking exhortations; and from poets beautiful descriptions.

The excerpt suggests that Johnson’s work is significant because it

Read the excerpt from Samuel Johnson’s preface to A Dictionary of the English Language.

But to COLLECT the WORDS of our language was a task of greater difficulty: the deficiency of dictionaries was immediately apparent; and when they were exhausted, what was yet wanting must be sought by fortuitous and unguided excursions into books, and gleaned as industry should find, or chance should offer it, in the boundless chaos of a living speech. My search, however, has been either skilful or lucky; for I have much augmented the vocabulary.

The excerpt claims that Johnson’s work is significant because he

changed the format of dictionaries.
searched literature and found more words.
applied rules to make language less chaotic.
selected only the most difficult words to define.

searched literature and found more words.

Read the sentence from Samuel Johnson’s preface to A Dictionary of the English Language.

Wherever I turned my view, there was perplexity to be disentangled, and confusion to be regulated; choice was to be made out of boundless variety.

Which word in the sentence helps readers determine the meaning of the word perplexity?

wherever
view
disentangled
variety

disentangled

Which words have positive connotations? Check all that apply.

luxurious
arrogant
elegant
pretentious
fashionable

luxurious elegant fashionable

Read the excerpts from Samuel Johnson’s preface to A Dictionary of the English Language.

Thus have I laboured by settling the orthography, displaying the analogy, regulating the structures, and ascertaining the signification of English words, to perform all the parts of a faithful lexicographer: but I have not always executed my own scheme, or satisfied my own expectations.

The underlined word emerges as a key term in the preface because Johnson

hints at the economic importance of his dictionary.
hopes that his dictionary will enlighten the uneducated.
seeks literary recognition for his publication.
strives to emphasize the effort his dictionary required.

strives to emphasize the effort his dictionary required.

Read the excerpts from Samuel Johnson’s preface to A Dictionary of the English Language.

In both excerpts, the word structure refers to the

ways a dictionary is assembled.
organization of alphabetical entries.
components, or parts, of words.
places, or institutions, that house books.

components, or parts, of words.

Read the excerpts from Samuel Johnson’s preface to A Dictionary of the English Language.

Which statement best describes Johnson’s treatment of the underlined word?

Johnson uses the word to criticize established publications.
Johnson uses the word to express indifference about written material.
Johnson uses the word to assert his admiration for published writing.
Johnson uses the word to suggest that his writing is worthy of high praise.

Johnson uses the word to assert his admiration for published writing.

Read the excerpt from Samuel Johnson’s A Dictionary of the English Language.

Mádness. n.s. [from mad.]

Distraction; loss of understanding; perturbation of the faculties.

Why, woman, your husband is in his old tunes again: he so rails against all married mankind, so curses all Eve’s daughters, and so buffets himself on the forehead, that any madness I ever yet beheld seemed but tameness and civility to this distemper. Shakesp. Merry Wives of Windsor.

There are degrees of madness as of folly, the disorderly jumbling ideas together, in some more, some less. Locke.

How does this dictionary entry differ from those of earlier dictionaries?

It provides more than one definition for the word.
It uses the word in a sentence.
It reveals the word’s root or derivative.
It includes published examples of the word’s use.

It includes published examples of the word’s use.

Read the sentence from Samuel Johnson’s preface to A Dictionary of the English Language.

I have studiously endeavoured to collect examples and authorities from the writers before the restoration, whose works I regard as the wells of English undefiled, as the pure sources of genuine diction.

Which words in the sentence help readers determine the meaning of the word undefiled?

studiously, endeavoured
examples, authorities
writers, restoration
pure, genuine

pure, genuine

Which word has a negative connotation?

clever
astute
deceptive
ingenious

deceptive

Read the sentence from Samuel Johnson’s preface to A Dictionary of the English Language.

And such is the fate of hapless lexicography, that not only darkness, but light, impedes and distresses it; things may be not only too little, but too much known, to be happily illustrated.

What is the best definition of the underlined word as it is used in the sentence?

unlucky or unfortunate; pitiable
unknown or unfamiliar; mysterious
without intelligence; foolish
without tenderness; harsh

unlucky or unfortunate;pitable

At the time of its publication, A Dictionary of the English Language was unique because of its .

etymologies
defintions
omissions
quotations

quotations

Read the sentence from Samuel Johnson’s preface to A Dictionary of the English Language.

It is the fate of those who toil at the lower employments of life, to be rather driven by the fear of evil, than attracted by the prospect of good; to be exposed to censure, without hope of praise.

What is the best definition of the underlined word as it is used in the sentence?

a statement of wit or amusement
an expression of disapproval or condemnation
a sentiment of indifference or apathy
an exclamation of profound admiration or esteem

an expression of disapproval or condemnation

Read the paragraph.

In conclusion, the work of Foley artists is only one step in the overall filmmaking process. By adding the appropriate sound effects, Foley artists create a level of realism that helps the audience embrace the premise of the film, whether it is some crazy alien adventure or something based on everyday life.

Which is the best thing the writer could add to improve the conclusion?

a sentence about where the term Foley came from
a quote from a Foley artist about how fun it is to work in film
a question about where Foley artists record sounds
a speculation about the continued importance of Foley work

a speculation about the continued importance of Foley work

In an essay written in a formal style, what kind of tone should the writing have?

casual
clichéd
objective
opinionated

objective

When developing the paragraphs in an essay, why should the writer include information about sources for all quoted information?

to avoid plagiarism
to support the thesis
to prevent repetition
to help with transitions

to avoid plagiarism

Read the paragraph.

When most people think of movie careers, they think of actors or directors. But the film industry has a multitude of career opportunities available in all stages of the film production process. Of these, visual effects is one of the most creative and exciting fields. The visual effects field has exploded in importance and offers opportunities for both technical and creative expression.

What is the best place to put this paragraph in an essay?

the introduction
body paragraph 1
body paragraph 3
the conclusion

the introduction

A student should conduct research for an essay to gather the ____ , or the details that show that the student’s essay is true.

evidence
objective
thesis
topic

evidence

Read the body paragraphs from an essay on sound effects in film.

1. Here comes the fun part. You get to use all those props to create sound effects. So start breaking that celery and crunching that cellophane!

2. You’ll need to be prepared before you start recording. Planning ahead is crucial. Make a list of everything in the film scene that could make a noise, whether it’s a piece of clothing rustling or a bunch of leaves skittering.

3. Now that you’ve got your list, it’s time to assemble your "noisemakers." You can find useful information online for what to use to make the best sounds. For example, to make the sound of walking on snow, you put corn starch in a leather pouch.

What is the most logical way to organize these body paragraphs?

2, 1, 3
1, 3, 2
3, 2, 1
2, 3, 1

The ____ in an essay should contain the essay’s topic and viewpoint.

thesis
evidence
focus
purpose

thesis

During which part of the writing process should a writer do research to gather evidence?

brainstorming
drafting
prewriting
revising

prewriting

Read an excerpt from an article on filmmaking.

Filmmaking can be broken down into three phases. The preproduction phase includes things such as securing financing for the film, writing the script, scouting locations, and hiring cast and crew. In the production phase the actual recording of the video and audio takes place. This phase also includes things such as setting up cameras, electricity, lights, and sound. Makeup, costume, and set designers are on hand during this phase as well. Finally, during the postproduction phase, the film is edited, sound and visual effects are inserted, and a music score is added.

Which research paper would this article best support?

"Discovering Filmmaking in the Twenty-First Century"
"A Discussion of Filmmaking in the Modern Film Industry"
"The Realities of Filmmaking in the Twenty-First Century"
"Tracking the Intricacies of the Modern Filmmaking Process"

Read an excerpt from an article that Max is using to provide evidence for his paper on filmmaking.

Filmmaking can be broken down into three phases. The preproduction phase includes things such as securing financing for the film, writing the script, scouting locations, and hiring cast and crew. In the production phase the actual recording of the video and audio takes place. This phase also includes things such as setting up cameras, electricity, lights, and sound. Makeup, costume, and set designers are on hand during this phase as well. Finally, during the postproduction phase, the film is edited, sound and visual effects are inserted, and a music score is added.

Max wants to organize this information into a table with three columns. Which is the best way to sort the information?

cast, crew, editor
finance, camera, effects
preproduction, production, postproduction
makeup design, set design, costume design

preproduction ,production, postproduction

Read the paragraph Miguel is developing for the body of his essay.

Producers stay with a film from inception through completion. The producers find financing for the film. They make sure the film stays on schedule. They approve the completed film.

To improve the paragraph, the Miguel should add

citations.
a final insight.
a thesis statement.
transitions.

transitions

Read the paragraph.

In conclusion, the work of Foley artists is only one step in the overall filmmaking process. By adding the appropriate sound effects, Foley artists create a level of realism that helps the audience embrace the premise of the film, whether it is some crazy alien adventure or something based on everyday life.

Which phrase should be revised to match the objective tone and formal style of the rest of the paragraph?

work of Foley artists is only one step
Foley artists create a level of realism
it is some crazy alien adventure
something based on everyday life

it is some crazy alien adventure

Read the sentence.

Before attempting to undertake a career in the film industry, it’s important to investigate the skills and qualifications required, as one should with any job.

To put the sentence in formal style, which is the best revision to make?

changing "undertake" to "go for"
changing "it’s" to "it is"
changing "investigate" to "check out"
changing "job" to "gig"

changing "it’s" to "it is"

Which is the most reliable source to support a paper on the proper care of peach trees?

the article "Peach Trees" on a local university website
the wiki "Twenty Things to Know about Peach Trees"
the blog "Peachy Peaches: 360 Days of Healthy Peaches"
the article "Best Peaches" on a local farmer’s website

the article "Peach Trees" on a local university website

If there are errors in the mechanics of an essay, the writer should revise the essay’s

grammar.
organization.
style.
tone.

grammar

Read the excerpts from historical documents.

From the Declaration of Independence:

For taking away our Charters, abolishing our most valuable Laws, and altering fundamentally the Forms of our Governments:

For suspending our own Legislatures, and declaring themselves invested with Power to legislate for us in all cases whatsoever.

From the Declaration of Sentiments:

After depriving her of all rights as a married woman, if single, and the owner of property, he has taxed her to support a government which recognizes her only when her property can be made profitable to it.

How are these excerpts similar?

Both insist that taxes should be reduced.
Both offer accusations of legal oppression.
Both complain about real estate values.
Both encourage the underprivileged to speak up.

both offer accusations of legal oppression

Read the excerpt from the Declaration of Sentiments.

He has compelled her to submit to laws, in the formation of which she had no voice.

He has withheld from her rights which are given to the most ignorant and degraded men—both natives and foreigners.

What ideas are associated with the words compelled and withheld?

doubt and confusion
injustice and oppression
courage and bravery
praise and recognition

injustice and oppression

Read the excerpt from the Declaration of Sentiments by Elizabeth Cady Stanton.

But when a long train of abuses and usurpations, pursuing invariably the same object evinces a design to reduce them under absolute despotism, it is their duty to throw off such government, and to provide new guards for their future security. Such has been the patient sufferance of the women under this government, and such is now the necessity which constrains them to demand the equal station to which they are entitled.

How does Stanton use pathos as a rhetorical appeal?

by describing one young woman’s unfulfilled potential
by emphasizing the injustices endured by women
by explaining laws that govern marriages
by establishing her authority to question the status quo

by emphasizing the injustices endured by women

Which statement uses logos as a rhetorical appeal?

No young child should go to bed feeling hungry.
The committee has experience with staffing and operating food banks.
Without food banks, families would face the empty shelves of their pantries.
If the food bank collects one hundred more cans, it will be fully stocked.

Read the excerpt from the Declaration of Independence.

And for the support of this Declaration, with a firm reliance on the Protection of Divine Providence, we mutually pledge to each other our Lives, our Fortunes and our sacred Honor.

Which statement best describes the use of rhetorical appeals in the excerpt?

The excerpt relies on pathos by offering high praise to the document’s authors.
The excerpt relies on pathos by making strong emotional claims.
The excerpt relies on logos by referencing other historical texts.
The excerpt relies on logos by explaining the reasoning behind the document.

the excerpt relies on pathos by making strong emotional claims

Read the excerpt from the Declaration of Independence.

Nor have We been wanting in attention to our Brittish brethren. We have warned them from time to time of attempts by their legislature to extend an unwarrantable jurisdiction over us. We have reminded them of the circumstances of our emigration and settlement here. We have appealed to their native justice and magnanimity, and we have conjured them by the ties of our common kindred to disavow these usurpations, which would inevitably interrupt our connections and correspondence. They too have been deaf to the voice of justice and of consanguinity.

What is the author’s purpose in this excerpt?

to inform readers about British immigration to the colonies
to convince readers that Britain has treated the colonists unfairly
to inform readers about specific acts of British military aggression
to convince readers that American colonists should be tried in Britain

to convince readers that Britain has treated the colonists unfairly

Read the excerpt from the Declaration of Independence.

We have appealed to their native justice and magnanimity, and we have conjured them by the ties of our common kindred to disavow these usurpations, which would inevitably interrupt our connections and correspondence.

What ideas are associated with the words justice, magnanimity, and correspondence?

might and power
wealth and materialism
peace and friendship
study and research

peace and friendship

Read the sentence.

Kev’s keen insights and ________ comments impressed the judges throughout the debate.

Which word completes the sentence with the most positive connotations?

inept
astute
adequate
satisfactory

Read the excerpt from the Declaration of Sentiments.

He has made her, morally, an irresponsible being, as she can commit many crimes with impunity, provided they be done in the presence of her husband. In the covenant of marriage, she is compelled to promise obedience to her husband, he becoming, to all intents and purposes, her master—the law giving him power to deprive her of her liberty, and to administer chastisement.

Which statement best describes the relationship between Stanton’s diction and her purpose?

Stanton uses words with positive connotations to encourage women to discover their voices.
Stanton uses words with negative connotations to emphasize the persecution of women.
Stanton uses words with positive connotations to highlight women’s road toward social progress.
Stanton uses words with negative connotations to criticize women for their apathy.

Stanton uses words with negative connotations to emphasize the persecution of women

Read the excerpts from historical documents.

From the Declaration of Independence:

We . . . solemnly publish and declare, That these United Colonies are, and of Right ought to be Free and Independent States; that they are Absolved from all Allegiance to the British Crown, and that all political connection between them and the State of Great Britain, is and ought to be totally dissolved . . .

From the Declaration of Sentiments:

. . . we insist that they have immediate admission to all the rights and privileges which belong to them as citizens of the United States.

How are these excerpts similar?

Both offer complaints.
Both recall history.
Both state demands.
Both admit defeat.

Both state demands.

Read the excerpt from the Declaration of Independence.

We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty, and the pursuit of Happiness. That to secure these rights, Governments are instituted among Men, deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed, That whenever any Form of Government becomes destructive of these ends, it is the Right of the People to alter or to abolish it, and to institute new Government . . .

Which statement best describes the relationship between Jefferson’s diction and his purpose?

Jefferson uses words with neutral connotations to present a claim based on reason and precedent.
Jefferson uses words with positive connotations to praise his listeners for their political activism.
Jefferson uses words with neutral connotations to suggest that there is no urgency to his message.
Jefferson uses words with positive connotations to encourage peaceful relations with Britain.

Jefferson uses words with neutral connotations to present a claim based on reason and precedent

Consider the chart.

Document Author Date of
presentation Intended
audience
Declaration of
Independence Thomas Jefferson 1776 Continental
Congress
Declaration of
Sentiments Elizabeth Cady
Stanton 1848

Elizabeth Cady Stanton first delivered her Declaration of Sentiments to ____ .

state lawmakers
college students
a community activist group
a women’s rights convention

a women’s rights convention

Which statement uses pathos as a rhetorical appeal?

Sixty percent of the community center staff are unpaid volunteers.
The center is subsidized, and over half of the children attend for free.
The children’s innocence touches the volunteers’ hearts.
Many staffers are retired teachers with impressive resumes.

The children’s innocence touches the volunteer’s hearts

Read the excerpts from historical documents.

From the Declaration of Independence:

. . . That whenever any Form of Government becomes destructive of these ends, it is the Right of the People to alter or to abolish it, and to institute new Government, laying its foundation on such principles and organizing its powers in such form, as to them shall seem most likely to effect their Safety and Happiness.

From the Declaration of Sentiments:

Whenever any form of government becomes destructive of these ends, it is the right of those who suffer from it to refuse allegiance to it, and to insist upon the institution of a new government, laying its foundation on such principles, and organizing its powers in such form, as to them shall seem most likely to effect their safety and happiness.

Why do Jefferson and Stanton include these similar excerpts in their documents?

because they are heartfelt praises intended to applaud activists
because they mention the Founding Fathers in an attempt to inspire
because they are powerful calls to change that define their causes
because they are battle cries that demand physical confrontation

because they are powerful calls to change that define their causes

Which is an effective thesis?

There are many bees in the world, such as the ones in your garden.
Bees are a crucial part of any thriving ecosystem, including your garden.
While bees have some benefits, the buzzing around the garden gets annoying.
Generally speaking, bees are okay so long as they stay outside in the garden.

Bees are a crucial part of any thriving ecosystem, including your garden.

Which statement best describes why Elizabeth Cady Stanton’s Declaration of Sentiments mirrors the language of the Declaration of Independance?

Stanton wants to encourage women to appreciate the freedoms that they enjoy in American society.
Stanton wants to acknowledge the efforts of American forefathers and the cooperation that prompted independence from Britain.
Stanton wants to promote an understanding of the American political system that allows men to vote for a representative government.
Stanton wants to emphasize the historical significance of the women’s movement and its potential for revolutionary change.

Stanton wants to emphasize the historical significance of the women’s movement and its potential for revolutionary change.

Samuel Johnson’s dictionary is best described as the first

study of word origins.
collection of word meanings.
modern English dictionary.
modern literary study.

modern english dictionary

Read the excerpt from the Declaration of Independence.

Governments are instituted among Men, deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed, That whenever any Form of Government becomes destructive of these ends, it is the Right of the People to alter or to abolish it, and to institute new Government, laying its foundation on such principles and organizing its powers in such form, as to them shall seem most likely to effect their Safety and Happiness.

What is the author’s purpose in this excerpt?

to inform readers about different systems of government
to inform readers about recent governmental reforms
to persuade readers of the need for governmental change
to persuade readers to petition their local governments

to persuade readers of the need for governmental change

Read the excerpt from Samuel Johnson’s preface to A Dictionary of the English Language.

I applied myself to the perusal of our writers; and noting whatever might be of use to ascertain or illustrate any word or phrase, accumulated in time the materials of a dictionary, which, by degrees, I reduced to method, establishing to myself, in the progress of the work, such rules as experience and analogy suggested to me; experience, which practice and observation were continually increasing; and analogy, which, though in some words obscure, was evident in others.

The excerpt suggests that Johnson’s work is significant because it

teaches readers how to understand analogies.
follows a method prescribed by other dictionaries.
reflects an exhaustive study of its words.
includes obscure words not previously defined.

reflects an exhaustive study of its word

Read the excerpt from Thoughts and Sentiments.

However, notwithstanding all that has been done and written against it, that brutish barbarity, and unparalelled injustice, is still carried on to a very great extent in the colonies, and with an avidity as insidious, cruel and oppressive as ever.

Which words best describe Cugoano’s attitude toward the topic of slavery in this excerpt?

angry and disgusted
calm and understanding
sad and defeated
passive and detached

angry and disgusted

Read the excerpts from historical documents.

From the Declaration of Independence:

When in the Course of human events, it becomes necessary for one people to dissolve the political bands which have connected them with another, and to assume, among the Powers of the earth, the separate and equal station to which the Laws of Nature and of Nature’s God entitle them, a decent respect to the opinions of mankind requires that they should declare the causes which impel them to the separation.

From the Declaration of Sentiments:

When, in the course of human events, it becomes necessary for one portion of the family of man to assume among the people of the earth a position different from that which they have hitherto occupied, but one to which the laws of nature and of nature’s God entitle them, a decent respect to the opinions of mankind requires that they should declare the causes that impel them to such a course.

How are these excerpts similar?

Both insist that drastic action requires a statement of rationale.
Both claim that revolutionary change requires hostile combat.
Both suggest that oppressive parties should be punished.
Both demand that laws change based on popular beliefs.

both insist that drastic action requires a statement of rationale

Which is the best example of an explicit statement from Thoughts and Sentiments that shows Cugoano’s beliefs about slavery?

"However, notwithstanding all that has been done and written against it, that brutish barbarity, and unparalelled injustice, is still carried on to a very great extent in the colonies, and with an avidity as insidious, cruel and oppressive as ever."
"However, it cannot but be very discouraging to a man of my complexion in such an attempt as this, to meet with the evil aspersions of some men, who say, ‘That an African is not entitled to any competent degree of knowledge, or capable of imbibing any sentiments of probity; and that nature designed him for some inferior link in the chain, fitted only to be a slave.’"
"By some of such complexion, as whether black or white it matters not, I was early snatched away from my native country, with about eighteen or twenty more boys and girls, as we were playing in a field."
"But the supporters and favourers of slavery make other things a pretence and an excuse in their own defence; such as, that they find that it was admitted under the Divine institution by Moses, as well as the long continued practice of different nations for ages; and that the Africans are peculiarly marked out by some signal prediction in nature and complexion for that purpose."

"However, notwithstanding all that has been done and written against it, that brutish barbarity, and unparalelled injustice, is still carried on to a very great extent in the colonies, and with an avidity as insidious, cruel and oppressive as ever."

Read the excerpt from Thoughts and Sentiments.

But the whole business of slavery is an evil of the first magnitude, and a most horrible iniquity to traffic with slaves and souls of men; and an evil, sorry I am, that it still subsists, and more astonishing to think, that it is an iniquity committed amongst Christians, and contrary to all the genuine principles of Christianity, and yet carried on by men denominated thereby.

Read the excerpt from Letters of the Late Ignatius Sancho, An African.

That subject, handled in your striking manner, would ease the yoke (perhaps) of many—but if only of one—Gracious God!—what a feast to a benevolent heart!—and, sure I am, you are an epicurean in acts of charity.

In these excerpts, how do both men use God and religion to achieve their purpose?

Both men claim that good Christians and enlightened individuals will support the abolishment of slavery.
Both men invoke God and use their Christian faith to establish a common ground with their intended audiences.
Both men claim that slavery is the utmost of un-Christian practices and that slaveholders are immoral.
Both men call on the grace of God to help them make their arguments and to be heard.

Both men invoke God and use their Christian faith to establish a common ground with their intended audiences

Read the excerpt from the Declaration of Sentiments.

Having deprived her of this first right of a citizen, the elective franchise, thereby leaving her without representation in the halls of legislation, he has oppressed her on all sides.

Which words in the excerpt have negative connotations? Check all that apply.

deprived
elective
representation
oppressed
sides

deprived oppressed

Read the sentence.

Editing a film is similar to editing a novel: the editor puts together the pieces to create a wicked fun tale that you’d have to be nuts not to love, and also flows logically and smoothly.

To put the sentence in formal style, which is the best choice to replace the underlined phrase?

a story that appeals to the audience
a tearjerker that’ll for sure grab the audience
a yarn that’s definitely gonna win awards
a film that is guaranteed to rock

a story that appeals to the audience

Read the excerpts from Samuel Johnson’s preface to A Dictionary of the English Language.

Which statement best describes the use of the underlined word in the excerpts?

Excerpt 1 recognizes the importance of word origins, but excerpt 2 suggests that studying word origins could be a waste of time.
Excerpt 1 recognizes the importance of word origins, and excerpt 2 suggests that etymology is more important than syntax.
Excerpt 1 questions the study of word origins, but excerpt 2 asserts the need to include etymology in dictionaries.
Excerpt 1 questions the study of word origins, and excerpt 2 insists that etymology is best studied over the course of one’s lifetime.

Excerpt 1 recognizes the importance of word origins, but excerpt 2 suggests that studying word origins could be a waste of time.

Read the thesis.

Foley artists are essential to the success of a film, since they create the sound effects that make the film’s setting believable to the audience.

Which is the most accurate evaluation of the thesis?

The thesis is effective because it covers a broad topic while maintaining an objective viewpoint.
The thesis is ineffective because it lacks clear transitions between the thoughts of the writer.
The thesis is effective because it contains a topic that is focused and a viewpoint that is clear.
The thesis is ineffective because it lacks proper citations and does not grab the reader’s attention.

The thesis is effective because it contains a topic that is focused and a viewpoint that is clear.

Read the sentence from Samuel Johnson’s preface to A Dictionary of the English Language.

To have attempted much is always laudable, even when the enterprize is above the strength that undertakes it.

What is the best definition of the underlined word as it is used in the sentence?

foolish or unwise; rash
displaying intellect; academic
humorous or comical; droll
deserving praise; admirable

deserving praise; admirable

When conducting research online for an essay, which tips should the researcher follow? Check all that apply.

use broad keyword searches
think about the smaller picture
look for reliable sources
keep track of sources
specify relationships between keywords

look for reliable sources keep track of sources specify relationships between keywords

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