# Test #4 Ch. 21 pt 2

Total word count: 3147
Pages: 11

### Calculate the Price

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275 words
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 Cost behavior refers to the methods used to estimate costs for use in managerial decision making. false Cost behavior refers to the manner in which a cost changes as the related activity changes. true The variable cost per unit remains constant with changes in the level of activity. true Monthly rent on a factory building that does NOT vary with the number of units produced is an example of a fixed cost. true Direct materials cost that varies with the number of units produced is an example of a fixed cost of production. false The relevant range is useful for analyzing cost behavior for management decision-making purposes. true The range of activity over which changes in cost are of interest to management is called the relevant range. true Total fixed costs remain constant as the level of activity changes. true Because variable costs are assumed to change in constant proportion with changes in the activity level, the graph of the variable costs when plotted against the activity level appears as a circle. false Fixed costs are costs that vary in total dollar amount as the level of activity changes. false A production supervisor’s salary that does NOT vary with the number of units produced is an example of a fixed cost. true Variable costs are costs that vary on a per-unit basis as the level of manufacturing activity changes. false Variable costs are costs that vary in total in direct proportion to changes in the activity level. true Variable costs are costs that remain constant in total with changes in the activity level. false Direct materials and direct labor costs are examples of variable costs of production. true Total variable costs change as the level of activity changes. true A mixed cost has characteristics of both a variable cost and a fixed cost. true Rental charges of \$60,000 per year plus \$2 for each machine hour over 15,000 hours is an example of a fixed cost. false A rental cost of \$40,000 plus \$0.50 per machine hour of use is an example of a mixed cost. true The fixed cost per unit varies with changes in the level of activity. true For purposes of analysis, mixed costs can generally be separated into their variable and fixed components. true The contribution margin ratio is the same as the variable cost ratio. false Variable costs as a percentage of sales are equal to 100% minus the contribution margin ratio. true If sales total \$2,000,000, fixed costs total \$800,000, and variable costs are 60% of sales, the contribution margin ratio is 40%. true If sales total \$2,000,000, fixed costs total \$800,000, and variable costs are 60% of sales, the contribution margin ratio is 60%. false If sales total \$1,000,000, fixed costs total \$400,000, and variable costs are 55% of sales, the contribution margin ratio is 45%. true The dollars available from each unit of sales to cover fixed cost and profit is the contribution margin per unit. true The ratio that indicates the percentage of each sales dollar available to cover the fixed costs and to provide operating income is termed the contribution margin ratio. true The data required for determining the break-even point for a business are the total estimated fixed costs for a period stated as a percentage of net sales. false The point in operations at which revenues and expired costs are exactly equal is called the break-even point true Break-even analysis is one type of cost-volume-profit analysis. true If the property tax rates are increased, this change in fixed costs will result in an increase in the break-even point. true If yearly insurance premiums are increased, this change in fixed costs will result in a decrease in the break-even point. false If employees accept a wage contract that decreases the unit contribution margin, the break-even point will decrease. false If direct materials cost per unit increases, the break-even point will increase. true If direct materials cost per unit decreases, the break-even point will increase. false If direct materials cost per unit decreases, the amount of sales necessary to earn a desired amount of profit will decrease. true If fixed costs are \$300,000 and variable costs are 70% of break-even sales, profit is zero when sales revenue is \$1,000,000. true If fixed costs are \$850,000 and the unit contribution margin is \$50, profit is zero when 15,000 units are sold. false If fixed costs are \$220,000 and the unit contribution margin is \$25, the sales necessary to earn an operating income of \$30,000 are 10,000 units. true If fixed costs are \$450,000 and the unit contribution margin is \$50, the sales necessary to earn an operating income of \$30,000 are 14,000 units. false Only a single line, which represents the difference between total sales revenues and total costs, is plotted on the profit-volume chart. true Only a single line, which represents the difference between total sales revenues and total costs, is plotted on the cost-volume-profit chart. false Cost-volume-profit analysis can be presented in both equation form and graphic form. true If a business sells two products, it is NOT possible to estimate the break-even point. false If a business sells four products, it is NOT possible to estimate the break-even point false Even if a business sells six products, it is possible to estimate the break-even point. true A low operating leverage is normal for highly automated industries. false DeGiaimo Co. has an operating leverage of 5. If next year’s sales are expected to increase by 10%, then the company’s operating income will increase by 50%. true If the unit selling price is \$40, the volume of sales is \$3,000,000, sales at the break-even point amount to \$2,500,000, and the maximum possible sales are \$3,300,000, the margin of safety is 12,500 units. true If the unit selling price is \$40, the volume of sales is \$3,000,000, sales at the break-even point amount to \$2,500,000, and the maximum possible sales are \$3,300,000, the margin of safety is 7,500 units. false If the volume of sales is \$4,000,000 and sales at the break-even point amount to \$3,200,000, the margin of safety is 20%. true If the volume of sales is \$6,000,000 and sales at the break-even point amount to \$4,800,000, the margin of safety is 25%. false If the volume of sales is \$6,000,000 and sales at the break-even point amount to \$4,800,000, the margin of safety is 20%. true Cost behavior refers to the manner in which a cost changes as the related activity changes. Costs that remain constant on a per-unit level as the level of activity changes are called variable costs. Which of the following graphs illustrates the behavior of a total fixed cost? Graph 1 Which of the following costs is an example of a cost that remains the same in total as the number of units produced changes? Salary of a factory supervisor Which of the following describes the behavior of the variable cost per unit? Remains constant with changes in production Which of the following activity bases would be the most appropriate for food costs of a hospital? Number of patients who stay in the hospital Which of the following activity bases would be the most appropriate for gasoline costs of a delivery service such as UPS? Number of miles driven Costs that vary in total in direct proportion to changes in an activity level are called variable costs. Which of the following is an example of a cost that varies in total as the number of units produced changes? Direct materials cost Which of the following is an example of a cost that varies in total as the number of units produced changes? Electricity per KWH to operate factory equipment As production increases, what would you expect to happen to fixed costs per unit? Decrease Which of the following statements is TRUE regarding fixed and variable costs? Fixed costs are fixed in total, and variable costs are fixed per unit. Which of the following graphs illustrates the behavior of a total variable cost? Graph 3 The graph of a variable cost when plotted against its related activity base appears as a straight line. Which of the following describes the behavior of the fixed cost per unit? Decreases with increasing production Knowing how costs behave is useful to management for all the following reasons EXCEPT for predicting customer demand Knowing how costs behave is useful to management for all the following reasons EXCEPT for predicting customer demand. Which of the following graphs illustrates the nature of a mixed cost? Graph 2 Given the following cost and activity observations for Merritt Company’s utilities, use the high-low method to calculate Merritt’s fixed costs per month. Cost Machine Hours January \$52,600 20,000 February 75,100 29,000 March 57,000 22,000 April 64,000 24,500 \$2,600 Which of the following costs is a mixed cost? Rental costs of \$5,000 per month plus \$0.30 per machine hour of use Given the following cost and activity observations for Pike Company’s utilities, use the high-low method to calculate Pike’s variable utilities costs per machine hour. Cost Machine Hours May \$8,300 15,000 June 10,400 20,000 July 7,200 12,000 August 9,500 18,000 \$0.40 As production increases, what should happen to the variable costs per unit? Stay the same Winston Co. manufactures office furniture. During the most productive month of the year, 3,500 desks were manufactured at a total cost of \$84,400. In its slowest month, the company made 1,100 desks at a cost of \$46,000. Using the high-low method of cost estimation, total fixed costs are \$28,400. For purposes of analysis, mixed costs are generally separated into their variable and fixed cost components. Given the following cost and activity observations for Pike Company’s utilities, use the high-low method to calculate Pike Company’s variable utilities costs per machine hour. Cost Machine Hours March \$3,100 15,000 April 2,700 10,000 May 2,900 12,000 June 3,500 18,000 \$0.10 Tucker Co. manufactures office furniture. During the most productive month of the year, 3,600 desks were manufactured at a total cost of \$192,000. In its slowest month, the company made 1,200 desks at a cost of \$72,000. Using the high-low method of cost estimation, total fixed costs per month are \$12,000. The systematic examination of the relationships among selling prices, volume of sales and production, costs, expenses, and profits is termed cost-volume-profit analysis. In cost-volume-profit analysis, all costs are classified into the following two categories: variable costs and fixed costs. The contribution margin ratio is the same as the profit-volume ratio. Which ratio indicates the percentage of each sales dollar that is available to cover fixed costs and to provide a profit? Contribution margin ratio Variable costs as a percentage of sales for Leamon Inc. are 75%, current sales are \$600,000, and fixed costs are \$110,000. How much will operating income change if sales increase by \$50,000? \$12,500 increase If sales are \$820,000, variable costs are 68% of sales, and operating income is \$260,000, what is the contribution margin ratio? 32% A firm operated at 90% of capacity for the past year during which fixed costs were \$320,000, variable costs were 60% of sales, and sales were \$1,200,000. Operating profit was \$160,000. If sales are \$200,000, variable costs are 56% of sales, and operating income is \$30,000, what is the contribution margin ratio? 44% Wiles Inc.’s unit selling price is \$40, the unit variable costs are \$30, fixed costs are \$135,000, and current sales are 10,000 units. How much will operating income change if sales increase by 5,000 units? \$50,000 increase If fixed costs are \$850,000 and variable costs are 70% of sales, what is the break-even point (in dollars)? \$2,833,333 If fixed costs are \$250,000, the unit selling price is \$105, and the unit variable costs are \$65, what is the break-even sales (in units)? 6,250 units If fixed costs are \$750,000 and variable costs are 55% of sales, what is the break-even point (in dollars)? \$1,666,667 Foggy Co. has the following operating data for its manufacturing operations: Unit selling price \$ 250 Unit variable cost \$ 100 Total fixed costs \$840,000 The company has decided to increase the wages of hourly workers, which will increase the unit variable cost by 10%. Increases in the salaries of factory supervisors and property taxes for the factory will increase fixed costs by 4%. If sales prices are held constant, the break-even point for Flynn Co. will increase by 640 units. If fixed costs are \$350,000, the unit selling price is \$75, and the unit variable costs are \$30, what is the break-even sales (in units)? 7,778 units If fixed costs are \$810,000, the unit selling price is \$60, and the unit variable costs are \$48, what is the break-even sales (in units) if the variable costs are increased by \$2? 81,000 units If fixed costs are \$810,000, the unit selling price is \$60, and the unit variable costs are \$48, what is the break-even sales (in units) if fixed costs are reduced by \$50,000? 63,333 units If fixed costs are \$450,000, the unit selling price is \$75, and the unit variable costs are \$50, what are the old and new break-even sales (in units) if the unit selling price increases by \$5? 18,000 units and 15,000 units Snower Corporation sells product G for \$150 per unit, the variable cost per unit is \$105, the fixed costs are \$720,000, and Snower is in the 25% corporate tax bracket. What are the sales (in dollars) required to earn a net income (after tax) of \$40,000? \$2,577,778 If fixed costs are \$850,000 and the unit contribution margin is \$90, what amount of units must be sold in order to have a zero profit? 9,445 If fixed costs are \$600,000 and the unit contribution margin is \$12, what amount of units must be sold in order to realize an operating income of \$100,000? 58,334 If fixed costs are \$500,000 and the unit contribution margin is \$40, what is the break-even point in units if fixed costs are reduced by \$80,000? 10,500 If fixed costs are \$561,000 and the unit contribution margin is \$10, what is the break-even point in units if variable costs are decreased by \$0.50 per unit? 53,429 If variable costs per unit increased because of an increase in hourly wage rates, the break-even point would increase If variable costs per unit decreased because of a decrease in utility rates, the break-even point would decrease Which of the following conditions would cause the break-even point to decrease? Unit variable cost decreases Which of the following conditions would cause the break-even point to increase? Unit variable cost increases Which of the following conditions would cause the break-even point to increase? Total fixed costs increase Rouney Co. has budgeted salary increases to factory supervisors totaling 10%. If selling prices and all other cost relationships are held constant, next year’s break-even point will increase by 10%. Vest Food Co. has the following operating data: Unit selling price \$ 10.00 Unit variable costs 6.00 Fixed costs \$960,000 The company is contemplating moving to another state where direct labor costs can be reduced, thereby reducing the unit variable cost by 10%. The state where the company currently operates has offered to reduce property taxes to encourage Vest to stay. The minimum amount of property tax savings necessary to keep the company, assuming no other changes, would be \$125,217. If the contribution margin ratio for Harrison Company is 38%, sales were \$425,000 and fixed costs were \$100,000, what was the income from operations? \$61,500 The point where the sales line and the total costs line intersect on the cost-volume-profit chart represents the break-even point. The point where the profit line intersects the horizontal axis on the profit-volume chart represents the break-even point. With the aid of computer software, managers can vary assumptions regarding selling prices, costs, and volume and can immediately see the effects of each change on the break-even point and profit. Such an analysis is called "what if" or sensitivity analysis. The point where the profit line intersects the left vertical axis on the profit-volume chart represents the maximum possible operating loss. Clinton Co. has an operating leverage of 4. Sales are expected to increase by 8% next year. Operating income is expected to increase by 32%. Kennedy Co. sells two products, Arks and Bins. Last year, Kennedy sold 32,000 units of Arks and 18,000 units of Bins. Related data are: Unit Selling Unit Variable Unit Contribution Product Price Cost Margin Arks \$ 80 \$20 \$60 Bins 120 40 \$80 What was Kennedy Co.’s sales mix last year? 64% Arks, 36% Bins Kennedy Co. sells two products, Arks and Bins. Last year, Kennedy sold 32,000 units of Arks and 18,000 units of Bins. Related data are: Unit Selling Unit Variable Unit Contribution Product Price Cost Margin Arks \$ 80 \$20 \$60 Bins 120 40 \$80 What was Kennedy Co.’s overall enterprise product’s unit selling price? \$94.40 Kennedy Co. sells two products, Arks and Bins. Last year, Kennedy sold 32,000 units of Arks and 18,000 units of Bins. Related data are: Unit Selling Unit Variable Unit Contribution Product Price Cost Margin Arks \$ 80 \$20 \$60 Bins 120 40 \$80 What was Kennedy Co.’s overall enterprise product’s unit variable cost? \$27.20 Kennedy Co. sells two products, Arks and Bins. Last year, Kennedy sold 32,000 units of Arks and 18,000 units of Bins. Related data are: Unit Selling Unit Variable Unit Contribution Product Price Cost Margin Arks \$ 80 \$20 \$60 Bins 120 40 \$80 What was Kennedy Co.’s overall enterprise product’s unit contribution margin? \$67.20 Kennedy Co. sells two products, Arks and Bins. Last year, Kennedy sold 32,000 units of Arks and 18,000 units of Bins. Related data are: Unit Selling Unit Variable Unit Contribution Product Price Cost Margin Arks \$ 80 \$20 \$60 Bins 120 40 \$80 Assuming that last year’s fixed costs totaled \$910,000, what was Kennedy Co.’s break-even point in units? 13,542 units Assume that Crowson Co. sold 8,000 units of Product A and 2,000 units of Product B during the past year. The unit contribution margins for Products A and B are \$20 and \$45, respectively. Crowson has fixed costs of \$350,000. The break-even point in units is 14,000 units. The relative distribution of sales among the various products sold by a business is termed the sales mix. When a business sells more than one product at varying selling prices, the business’s break-even point can be determined as long as the number of products does not exceed There is no limit. If a business had sales of \$4,000,000, fixed costs of \$1,200,000, a margin of safety of 25%, and a contribution margin ratio of 40%, what was the break-even point? \$3,000,000 If a business had sales of \$4,000,000 and a margin of safety of 25%, what was the break-even point? \$3,000,000 If a business had a capacity of \$10,000,000 of sales, actual sales of \$6,000,000, break-even sales of \$4,500,000, fixed costs of \$1,800,000, and variable costs of 60% of sales, what is the margin of safety expressed as a percentage of sales? 25% If sales are \$300,000, variable costs are 60% of sales, and operating income is \$40,000, what is the operating leverage? 3.000 The difference between the current sales revenue and the sales at the break-even point is called the margin of safety. Cost-volume-profit analysis CANNOT be used if which of the following occurs? Costs cannot be properly classified into fixed and variable costs The following is a list of various costs of producing sweatshirts. Classify each cost as either a variable, fixed, or mixed cost for units produced and sold. (a)Electricity costs of \$0.025 per kilowatt-hour. (b)Warehouse rent of \$6,000 per month plus \$0.50 per square foot of storage used. (c)Thread. (d)Lubricants used to oil machinery. (e)Janitorial costs of \$2,000 per month. (f)Advertising costs of \$10,000 per month. (g)Sales salaries. (h)Color dyes for producing different colors of sweatshirts. (i)Salary of the production supervisor. (j)Straight-line depreciation on sewing machines. (k)Patterns for different designs. Patterns typically last many years before being replaced. (l)Maintenance costs with sewing machine company. The cost is \$2,000 per year plus \$0.001 for each machine hour of use. (m)Property taxes on factory, building, and equipment. (n)Cotton and polyester cloth. (o)Hourly wages of sewing machine operators. (a) variable (b) mixed (c) variable (d) variable (e) fixed (f) fixed (g) fixed (h) variable (i) fixed (j) fixed (k) fixed (l) mixed (m) fixed (n) variable (o) variable

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