SWS2007 – Exam II

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Three basic types of Florida Rivers

Alluvial, Blackwater, Spring-fed


— A type of river with a large, well-defined watershed that carries a high sediment load and has a large forested floodplain. The Apalachicola, Choctawhatchee, Escambia and Ochlockonee rivers are examples.


A type of river that drains pine flatwoods and cypress swamps and has dark, stained waters from decomposing plant material. The Withlacoochee, Hillsborough and Peace rivers are examples

Spring-fed river

A type of river with cool, clear water issuing from springs. Examples include the Weeki Wachee, Rainbow and Crystal rivers.

Know the 3 basic types of Florida rivers.

Alluvial, Blackwater, Spring-fed

Know why river flow in Florida generally is very slow.

Florida’s lack of topography since the highest point only 345ft (Britton Hill). Sustainable gradients are not possible in Florida.

Know what a river gradient is.

The driving force for river flow; the difference in elevation divided by the length, velocity of a river flow.

Know the 3 basic features of Florida lakes.

Small, shallow, and warm

Know the difference between euphotic and dysphotic zones in lakes.

Euphotic – light sufficient for photosynthesis; dysphotic- light insufficient for photosynthesis

Know the #1 source of lake formation in Florida.

Karst erosion, takes place when underground limestone is dissolved by carbon dioxide enriched water.

Okeechobee is what type of lake?

Ancient depression

Know how groundwater use in Florida compares with groundwater use in the U.S.

63 percent of total water withdraws is groundwater in Florida; 21 percent of total water withdraws is ground water for the rest of the United States

Know the two factors that lead to a doubling of FL population between 1950 and 1970.

Mosquito repellent and A/C, ww2 veterans

Know how much water is withdrawn daily in FL.

7 billion gallons/day; 4.4 groundwater; 2.6 surface; 63 percent groundwater

Limestone is the common name for what compound?

Calcium Carbonate CaCO3

Know what an ion is.

an electrically charged atom or group of atoms formed by the loss or gain of one or more electrons, as a cation (positive ion) which is created by electron loss and is attracted to the cathode in electrolysis, or as an anion (negative ion) which is created by an electron gain and is attracted to the anode.

Understand that ions are generally well accommodated in water.

Calcium and carbonate are at near saturation levels in oceans (amounts are close to a threshold to participate).

Understand basically how the oceans are made salty.

As water moves through the watershed, it dissolves salts and minerals that naturally exist in the environment. These dissolved salts are ultimately delivered to the ocean. Evaporation from oceans concentrates salts. 3.5% salinity. Water moving across the landscape, during their transit dissolves and delivered to the ocean.

Understand what is meant by "precipitation" and how it applies to limestone formation.

When two or more compatible ions become sufficiently concentrated in water they ca re-form the solid. Calcium, magnesium, carbonate are sufficient in the ocean, and sink to the bottom.

Know the dominant mechanism by which limestone formations are made.

Calcification of organisms; scallops, corals, oysters, foramifera; calcium + carbonate = calcium carbonate; create conditions around their bodies.

Understand the fundamental evolution of the carbonate elements of the Florida platform, including the time frames, the origin of the carbonates, general conditions relative to sea levels, etc.

150 MYA and 25 MYA , warm shallow water, higher sea levels, building of a platform due to carbonate deposition, limestone platform, solid rock torn from the African continent during the breakup of Pangea, drags shallowing submerged platform with it, appropriate for shallow conditions, and they proliferate on the platform and build for million years, 150 mya to 25 mya, sea level is high keeps it submerged. Varies in thickness. Rock, limestone 150 yrs – 50yrs, water-bearing 50 -25, 25 – clay- stopped limestone because Suwannee current stopped flowing due to lower sea levels.

Know the time period during which the water-bearing elements of the Floridan aquifer developed.

Early/middle Eocene: 150-50 mya formed older limestone, Oligocene: 50-25mya million years ago water-bearing units,

Understand why continental silicon-based materials did not intrude substantially on the platform for approximately 125 mil. years and the changes that occurred that allowed them to influence the FL platform subsequently.

Gulf trough formed the Georgia channel and Suwanee Current isolated the Florida Platform from sandy, silty, and clayey sediments, allowing carbonates to build for millions of years. Stopped 25 million years ago, dramatic drop in sea level. Deposit on top of the lime stone.

Understand how the Floridan aquifer is confined.

(50 mya)A water-bearing formation is located between impermeable layers of clay, rock, or shale. Stopped 25 million years ago, dramatic drop in sea level. Clay from applachians . Forms the upper confinement for the water bearing unit. Deposit on top of the lime stone. Below zone is less permeable material, above zone is porous Limestone.

Given that the Floridan is consolidated, understand how it is made porous and able to contain and transmit water.

Calcium carbonates are made porous by acid dissolution. This creates larges caves and solution cavities. Rainwater is naturally acidic; reacts with the calcium carbonate and dissolves the rock.

Florida’s principal aquifer system is

confined and consolidated.

Know what Karst landscapes are and their general features. Why does FL have extensive areas of karst?

Surface features "fall" into underlying cavities in limestone, karst landscapes include sinkholes, springs, depressions, lakes., manifestation of areas that are underlain by carbonates,

Understand the 3 basic sinkhole types, the materials overlying the carbonates for each, and how they form.

The type of sinkhole depend on the type and thickness of the material overlying limestone. Dissolution = chemical erosion of limestone at the surface (overlying material is thin and sandy), Subsidence – gradual infill of overburden into a solution cavity (overlying material is mostly thick sands (up to 200ft) and some clays, sand trickles into underlying caverns creating a depression), Cover Collapse = abrupt collapse of overburden (thick, cohesive clayey on top of limestone) (erosion as water moves through caversn disrupts structure.


chemical erosion of limestone at the surface – thin sandy overburden – gradual


sand trickles down into caverns creating a depression -thick sands, and some clay overburden – gradual


thick clay on top of limestone – abrupt collapse – erosion of clays as water moves through the underlying caverns disrupts clay structure.


Know the most common origin of lakes in Florida.

karst erosion, sinkholes – subsidence

Know the two months during which the most new sinkholes are reported.

January – freeze protection; May – heavy pumping for agriculture

Understand how hydrologic connections are maintained between surface and groundwater in Florida.

Lakes and sinks can serve as a source of recharge for the aquifer. Hole underneath surface of earth, depressional area opens close to surface and caverns and caves carry water throughout aquifer. Know the general geographic location in FL where the majority of aquifer recharge takes place and why. Towards the center of the state; sinkhole activity, some of the highest elevations of the state.

Know the generalized direction of groundwater flow in Florida.

Groundwater flows from the central part of the state to the coasts.

Understand the relationships between aquifer recharge, elevation, and groundwater flow directions in Florida.

Recharge of the Floridan occurs at high elevations in the central part of the peninsula.

Understand how pressure is created in the Floridan aquifer and how this is related to artesian conditions.

Water under pressure (flowing down from highest elevation) breaks through upper confining layers producing water at the surface, well – moves up to try to get back to level elevation.

Understand how artesian aquifers produce springs, the conditions necessary, and where these conditions tend to dominate in Florida.

Springs form at low elevations relative to recharge area (creates pressure) where the upper confining unit is thin or absent (allows water to reemerge at the surface.), water is under pressure,

Know the boiling and freezing point of water.

Freezing Point – 0 degrees Celsius, Boiling Point – 100 degrees Celsius

Know how hydrogen and oxygen are bonded within a single water molecule. Know the name of the bond.

Covalent bond, sharing of electrons completes both shells

Know how water is made polar.

An electrostatic bond is established between the water molecules creating a hydrogen bond. High electronegativity of oxygen, electrons shared btw hydrogen and oxygen (covalent), not shared equally (clustered near the oxygen)

Understand polarity and how it impacts bonding between water molecules in the liquid and solid.

Slightly negative charges on a oxygen and slight positive charge on the hydrogen, oxygen has high electronegativity. Electrical opposite. Bonding, by the fact that they establish hydrogen bonds,

Know the name of the bond that exists between water molecules in the liquid and solid state.

Hydrogen bond

Know the definition of heat capacity and the value for water. (Note the units)

the amount of heat input required to raise the temperature of 1 g of a substance by 1 degree Celsius, it requires 1 calorie of heat input to raise the temperature of 1 g of water by 1 degree Celsius, 1cal/g/C

Why does water have such a high heat capacity relative to other common liquids like alcohol?

Extensive hydrogen bonding.

Understand how heat capacity impacts body temperature.

Water retains heat and moderates body temperature; the blood of the human body is 80% water. Water prevents rapid fluctuations in body temperature.

What is the importance of heat capacity to the temperatures of large bodies of water?

Temperatures of large standing bodies of water remain relatively constant in regard to air temperature. They absorb large quantities of heat energy and this thermal buffering protects life on Earth from otherwise possibly lethal temperature fluctuations.

Understand basically how ocean surface currents redistribute heat, how this is related to heat capacity; also know what a gyre is.

Oceans can contain≈ 1000x more heat energy than does the atmosphere. Ocean currents redistribute this heat energy.

Understand how the Gulf Stream moderates climate in England, Ireland, etc.

The movement of warm water from the gulf stream (equator) upwards towards England and Ireland makes the climate warmer compared to other areas at similar latitudes.

Understand the definition and mechanism of evaporation. Understand also that the energy absorbed to evaporate water remains with the water in the gaseous state.

Evaporation is the process of turning a liquid into a gas. Liquid water absorbs heat and becomes more energetic and becomes more mobile but before it can go into the gaseous phase it has to break loose from its hydrogen bonds. The energy used to effect the phase change remains with the gaseous water.

Understand the definition and mechanism of condensation. Understand that energy must be removed or released from water in the gaseous phase to return it to the liquid phase. In other words, heat is released to the surrounding environment when water vapor condenses.

Condensation is the process of converting gaseous water to liquid water. When water condenses, energy is transferred from the gaseous water to the surrounding air or the surface on which it is condensing. This removes the energy from the gaseous water and the air or surface is heated.

Know the definitions of and numerical values for latent heat of vaporization and condensation. What is principal reason water has high latent heats?

latent heat of vaporization: Amount of heat ADDED to water to change it from a liquid to a gas (evaporate 1g of water) (580 cal/g) latent heat of condensation: Amount of heat REMOVED from gaseous water to change it from a gas to a liquid (580 cal/g), extensive hydrogen bonds.

Understand essentially how latent heats of evaporation and condensation of water contribute to heat redistribution in the atmosphere. Examine the cycles of evaporation and condensation between the equator and other latitudes.

Areas near the equator receive more heat than areas in northern and southern latitudes. Evaporation of water and rising air near the equator transfer large amounts of heat energy to the atmosphere. This energy is transported to cooler northern and southern latitudes by moving air masses (as gaseous water). When this air eventually cools, it releases the heat acquired at the equator, warming the air at other latitudes

Understand the fundamentals of rainfall three types of rainfall: hot, moist air rises and condenses.

-Frontal: Two masses of air of different temperature, humidity and density meet -Orographic: Warm moisture-laden wind blowing in to the land from the sea encounters a natural barrier -Convective: Rising of warm, moist air due to surface heating

Understand why it rains relatively predictably in Florida during the summer and the relationship to water’s heat capacity relative to land.

Because of the rising of warm, moist air which is due to surface heating (convective rainfall) The heat capacity of water is much higher than land. Gulf, atlantic, and florida, heat up land faster, lower heat capacity, hot air rises, creates updraft, making a vacuum, air flows in from ocean, contains vapor, flows up, moisture into the atmosphere. Rises high enough releases heat, recondecnes and rainfall.

Which type of rainfall dominates FL and the S.E. U.S. during the summer?

Convective rainfall

Understand how cold fronts and warm fronts produce rainfall.

Two masses of air of different temperature, humidity, and density meet. Warm air is "lighter" than cool air. Warm air rises over cool air

Understand the basics of orographic rainfall and how rain shadows are produced

Orographic rainfall: Warm moisture-laden wind blowing into the land/mountains side from the sea encounters a natural barrier, cools off the water and rains, dry on the other side. Rainshadow: a region having little rainfall because it is sheltered from prevailing rain-bearing winds by a range of hills

What is the wettest place in the U.S. and the driest place on earth?

driest place: Atacama desert wettest place: Mount Waialealein, Hawaii

Know the directions of the prevailing winds between 0 and 30o north latitude and between 30 and 60o north latitude.

0-30o north latitude: east to west, (africa to florida) tropical easterlies 30-60o north latitude: west to east (west coast to east coast), prevailing westerlies

T or F: Slow rivers can accumulate dissolved contaminants


Florida has one of the most productive aquifer systems in the world. T/F


Most of Florida’s overall water use is from groundwater. T/F


The highest elevation in Florida is 345 ft. T/F


Rivers flow due to the force of ___________________________.


Florida’s rivers generally flow slowly. T/F


About 80% of Florida’s groundwater comes from _____ deposits that underlie the state.


Indicate one development in the 1950s that allowed rapid pop. growth in FL


The majority of Florida’s water use is from groundwater sources. T/F


Floridians use approximately _____________ billion gallons of water per day.

7 billion

Much of the Floridan aquifer is a confined aquifer. T/F


The Floridan aquifer is a consolidated aquifer. T/F


The dominant source of limestone deposition was from marine organisms. T/F


During the development of the Florida platform, sealevels were generally higher than at present. T/F


Some marine invertebrates have the ability to enhance the precipitation of CaCO3. T/F


Rainfall is naturally acidic T/F


Water in the Floridan is carried in large caves and solution cavities. T/F


____________ dissolves calcium carbonate.


The Floridan aquifer is consolidated / unconsolidated.


Acid can be represented by the H+ ion. T/F


Limestone in the Floridan aquifer is made porous by _____.


The sinkhole type that is most commonly reported.

Cover collapse

Identify one characteristic of karst landscapes.


Extensive pumping of an aquifer can increase sinkhole formation. T/F


Cover subsidence sinkholes form gradually. T/F


Much of the recharge of the Floridan occurs in the central part of the state. T/F


Springs form best where the confining layer is thin. T/F


Sinkholes and lakes are sources of recharge for the Floridan. T/F


Florida has more artesian springs than any other state T/F


Water in much of the Floridan is under pressure. T/F


The boiling point of water is ___ degrees Celsius.


Elements in the same column of the periodic table often have similar chemical properties: True or False


The sharing of electrons between atoms is called ___________________ bonding.


Water has a higher boiling point than Hydrogen sulfide: True or False


What is the chemical formula for atmospheric oxygen?


Water molecules are polar. T/F


The bond between water molecules in a liquid is called ___.

Hydrogen bonding

Oxygen has a high electronegativity. T/F


Chemical bonding within a single water molecule is by covalent bonding. T / F


Circular surface currents in the oceans are called ______.


Heat can be considered a form of energy. T/F


Most of the sun’s energy is absorbed by the ________________


The heat capacity of water is equal to __________

580 cal/g oC

Substances with high heat capacities absorb large amounts of heat, but change temperatures very slowly. T/F


Winds in the northern hemisphere are deflected to the ___ of the direction of travel.


Weather fronts travel from west to east across the U.S. T/F


Regions near the equator receive more solar radiation than regions at other latitudes. T/F


Air moving from about 30 degrees north towards the equator tends to cool equatorial regions. T/F


When gaseous moisture condenses, it releases heat into the surrounding air. T/F


Excess pumping from aquifer systems rarely has an impact on Florida lake levels. t/f


Stable forms of the elements that acquire electrical charge by gaining or losing electrons are called ions.


Limestone is made porous by acid dissolution of the solid rock.


Collapse sinkholes require a thick layer of clayey material over the limestone.


Spring formation is not impacted by elevation differences in the aquifer.


Sinkhole lakes are an important source of recharge for the Florida Aquifer.


Water in the Floridan is under pressure.


The upper confining unit for the Floridan aquifer is derived from carbonate precipitation beginning about 25 million years ago.


The Floridan aquifer is confined.


The upper confining layer for the Floridan is derived from Appalachian erosional sediments.


Most of the recharge of the Floridan occurs in the central part of the state.


Sinkholes are responsible for the majority of lake formation in Florida.


Excess pumping from aquifer systems rarely have an impact on Florida lake levels.


The upper confining layer for the Floridan aquifer is derived form Appalachian erosional sediments.


More than one half of all of Florida’s groundwater withdrawals are for domestic water supply.


Water in the Floridan moves generally from the center of the state towards the coast.


Florida is characterized by karst landscapes because it is extensively underlain by granite.


The most frequently reported sinkholes are cover collapse sinkholes.


In some regions of the state, groundwater flow directions have been altered by heavy pumping of the aquifer.


Subsidence sinkholes generally have a thin layer of sand over the limestone.


Stable forms of the elements that acquire an electrical charge by gaining or losing electrons are called ions.


The Floridan aquifer is consolidated.


Spirngs form best where the confining unit for the aquifer is thin.


Calcium chloride is a principle component of limestone.


Sinkhole lakes are important source of recharge for the Floridan aquifer.


Most of the recharge of the Floridan occurs near the coast.


Springs form best where the confining unit for the aquifer is thin.


Abut 80% of all water withdrawls in Florida is derived from groundwater sources.


Most of the Floridan recharge occurs near the coast .


The upper confining layer for the Floridan aquifer is derived from Applachian erosional sediments.


Limestone is made porous by acid dissolution of solid rock


Sinkholes are responsible for a majority of lake formation in florida.


formation of the florida Platform

250 yrs ago – Pangea, 150 million yrs ago -Pangeo broke and carried with it a flat platform, 150 mya – 50 million yrs ago, building of platform (older limestone) due to carbonate deposition, 50-25 mya – water bearing unit deposited, 25-5 mya sea levels dropped – upper confining layer- interruption of suwannee current

explain how the florida platform was formed

250 yrs ago – Pangea 150 million yrs ago – Pangeo broke and carried with it a flat platform 150 mya – 50 million yrs ago building of platform (older limestone) due to carbonate deposition 50-25 mya – water bearing unit deposited, high sea levels 25-5 mya sea levels dropped – upper confining layer- formed by applachian sediments – interruption of suwannee current

Substances with high heat capacities can absorb large amounts of heat, but

change temperatures very slowly.

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