Substance Abuse Chapter 13 Study Questions

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Papaver somniferum is the scientific name for

the opium poppy

The earliest recorded use of opium as a medicine was probably by

Egyptians, around 1500 BC

The 16th century European physician Paracelsus, and later Dr. Thomas Sydenham promoted the use of


One thing that apparently contributed to the spread of opium smoking in China was

a 1644 edict from the emperor forbidding tobacco smoking.

The Opium War of 1839-1842 resulted, among other things, in

the island of Hong Kong becoming a British possession.

The two major active chemicals in opium are

morphine and codeine.

In 1898, Bayer laboratories marketed diacetylmorphine tablets under the brand name


Possession of opium, morphine, or heroin without a prescription was made a crime by

a 1915 Supreme Court decision.

By the beginning of the 20th century, a greater percentage of Americans were dependent on opioids than at any time before or since. Opium smoking and medical use of injected pure morphine were important contributors to this along with

patent medicines containing opium extracts or morphine.

Heroin became the drug of choice for many opioid users

during the 1920s, because it was easier to smuggle the small amounts needed for an effective dose.

"Black tar" is

a name given heroin from Mexico that is brown or black in its pure form

At the current time, most of the heroin in the U.S. originates from poppy fields in

Colombia and Mexico.

Vicodin and OxyContin are examples of

prescription opioids that are being misused at relatively high rates.

Which of these opioids is about 100 times as potent as morphine?


Naloxone, nalorphine, and naltrexone are examples of

opioid antagonists.

Enkephalins, endorphins, and dynorphins are

three classes of endogenous chemicals that have effects similar to morphine

Although pain relief is now the major medical use for opioids, they have been used to save many lives (especially in underdeveloped countries) because of their ability to

treat diarrhea.

Siegel and his colleagues have shown in animal studies that tolerance to opioids

is partly due to conditioned responses.

The textbook says that opioid withdrawal is similar to

a bad case of intestinal flu

The fact that animals with no history of opioid withdrawal will press a lever to self-administer low doses of intravenous morphine or heroin demonstrates the importance of ____________ in developing opioid dependence.

positive reinforcement

In a heroin user, negative reinforcement of drug-taking behavior can occur when

withdrawal symptoms are alleviated by another injection

Long-term exposure to opioid drugs

has not been clearly shown to produce damage to any tissue or organ system.

Heroin is more potent than morphine because

it more readily crosses the blood-brain barrier

T or F. Morphine and codeine are derived from the opium poppy. Papaver somniferum.


T or F. Heroin was originally a brand name for diacetylmorphine, manufactured by Bayer laboratories.


T or F. Heroin first became popular among opioid abusers in the 1970s, due to returning Vietnam veterans.


T or F. Naloxone and nalorphine are endogenous chemicals that have effects similar to morphine.


T or F. Withdrawal from opiod drugs is often fatal.


T or F. In recent years, heroine use has been rapidly a spreading problem in the US suggesting that it is becoming an epidemic.


T or F. The most popular prescription opioids are hydrocodone and oxycodone.


T or F. One of the major issues facing physicians today is that patients are not taking enough prescription opioids to manage their pain.


T or F. The majority of US soldiers who used heroine in Vietnam did so through the intravenous route because the drug was relatively impure.


T or F. Long-term use of opioid drugs has been clearly shown to damage both the liver and the brain.


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