variable is a variable that has a single numerical value, determined by chance, for each outcome of a procedure. |
random variable |

random variable has infinitely many values associated with measurements. |
continuous random variable |

In a probability histogram, there is a correspondence between |
… |

The ……. |
expected value |

<0.05 |
unlikely/ unusual |

Which of the following is not a requirement of the binomial probability distribution? |
the trials must be dependent |

In the binomial probability formula, the variable x represents the |
probability of getting X successes among n trials |

If, under a given assumption, the probability of a particular observed event is extremely small, we conclude that the assumption is probably not correct. |
rare event rule |

The _______ of a discrete random variable represents the mean value of the outcomes. |
expected value |

To determine the probability that among the 17 offspring peas ,at least 16 have green pods, use the fact that…. |
P(at least 16)=p(16)+p(17) |

says that the range is about four times the standard deviation |
range rule of thumb |

4*standard deviation |
range rule of thumb |

Why must a continuity correction be used when using the normal approximation for the binomial distribution? |
The normal distribution is a continuous probability distribution being used as an approximation to the binomial distribution which is a discrete probability distribution. |

Sample means, variances and proportions |
unbiased estimators |

Sample medians, ranges and standard deviations |
biased estimators |

a variable (typically represented by x) that has a single numerical value, determined by chance, for each outcome of a procedure |
random variable (X) |

a description that gives the probability for each value of the random variable, often expressed in the format of a graph, table, or formula |
probability distribution |

a EXACT number of values or countable number of values |
DISCRETE random variable |

infinitely many values, and those values can be associated with measurements |
continuous random variable |

mean formula |
mean=X*the probability of X |

standard deviation= |
square root of ……(x-mean)^2 * the probability of (x) |

x successes among n trials is an unusually high number of successes if |
p(X or more)<0.05 |

x successes among n trials is an unusually low number of successes if |
p(x or fewer)<0.05 |

-The procedure has a fixed number of trials. |
binomial distribution |

p(s)=p |
probability of success |

P(f)=1-p=q |
… |

denotes a specific number of successes in n trials, |
X |

denotes the fixed number of trials. |
n |

denotes the probability of success in one of the n trials. |
p |

denotes the probability of getting exactly x successes among the n trials. |
p(x) |

When sampling without replacement, consider events to be independent if |
n<0.05n |

range rule of thumb: |
n+2(standard deviation) n-2(standard deviation) |

bell shaped- empirical rule when |
np>5 |

The Poisson distribution is sometimes used to approximate the binomial distribution when |
n=large p=small |

Its graph is bell-shaped. |
STANDARD NORMAL distribution |

1. The total area under the curve must equal 1. |
density curve |

use area to find…. |
probability |

normal distribution: how to find areas on calc |
normal CDF |

z= |
x-mean/s |

The points do not lie reasonably close to a straight line. |
NOT a normal distribution |

Step 1. First sort the data by arranging the values in order from lowest to highest. |
Manual Construction of a Normal Quantile Plot |

is the distribution of all values of the statistic when all possible samples of the SAME SIZE N are taken from the SAME POPULATION |
the sampling distribution of a statistic |

THE sampling distribution of the sample mean |
normal distribution NOT SKEWED TO LEFT OR RIGHT |

the distribution of sampling variance |
SKEWED NOT NORMAL |

MEADIAN |
BIASED ESTIMATOR |

says that the computed values of the average will be distributed according to the normal distribution (commonly known as a "bell curve"). |
CENTRAL limit theorem |

# stats ch 5 and 6

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