Statistics Chap. 4

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The _______ ______ for a procedure consists of all possible simple events or all outcomes that cannot be broken down any further.

sample space

The classical approach to probability requires that the outcomes are ____ _____.

equally likely

A procedure is repeated again and again, the relative frequency of an event tends to approach the actual probability. This is known as _____ _____.

the law of large numbers

When using the ______ ____ always be careful to avoid double-counting outcomes.

addition rule

Events that are ____ cannot occur at the same time.


________ indicates the probability that in a single trial, event A occurs, event B occurs, or they both occur.

P(A or B)

A _______ _____ is any event combining two or more simple events.

compound event

Which word is associated with multiplication when computing probabilities?


A picture of line segments branching out from one starting point illustrating the possible outcomes of a procedure is called a ______ ______.

tree diagram

Two events A and B are _________ if the occurrence of one does not affect the probability of the occurrence of the other.


Selections made with replacement are considered to be _________.


"At least one" is equivalent to "_____ __ _____."

one or more

The complement of "at least one" is "_____."


A _______ probability of an event is a probability obtained with knowledge that some other event has already occurred.


Any collection of results or outcomes of a procedure


An outcome or an event that cannot be further broken down into simpler components

simple event

Rare Event Rule For Inferential Statistics

If, under a given assumption, the probability of a particular observed event is extremely small, we conclude that the assumption is probably not correct.


denotes probability

A, B, and C __, ___, and ___ denote specific events.

P(A) ____ denotes the probability of event ___(any event) occurring.

Classical (Math) Probability -Used when the outcomes are equally likely
Assume that a given procedure has "n" different simple events (in the sample space) and that each of those simple events has an EQUALLY LIKELY CHANCE OF OCCURRING. If event A can occur in "s" of these "n" ways, then P(A)= number of ways A can occur ÷ number of different simple events–> P(A)= s ÷ n

Relative Frequency Approximation Conduct an experiment and observe the outcomes.
P(A)= # of times A occurred ÷ # of times experiment performed.

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