Sports Pysch Exam 3

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Which of the following statements regarding self-efficacy is (are) true?
a. There is a reciprocal relationship between efficacy and behavior change.
b. Efficacy changes are related to changes in exercise adherence.
c. Exercise behavior can influence feelings of efficacy.
d. all of the above
e. a and c

d. all of the above

One’s confidence can change as the situation changes. This is known as
a. trait self-confidence
b. state self-confidence
c. situational self-confidence
d. cognitive self-confidence
e. naturally occurring self-confidence

b. state self-confidence

Sport self-confidence is currently viewed as
a. a trait variable
b. a state variable
c. statelike or traitlike depending on the situation
d. an affective variable
e. a cognitive variable

c. statelike or traitlike depending on the situation

The probable reason that approximately a dozen runners broke the 4-minute barrier within one year after Roger Bannister originally did was their
a. enhanced training procedures
b. improved equipment
c. faster tracks
d. expectations that it could be done
e. superior coaching

d. expectations that it could be done

Confidence is seen as multidimensional, consisting of confidence in
a. one’s ability to execute physical skills
b. one’s level of fitness
c. one’s psychological skills
d. all of the above
e. a and c

d. all of the above

According to the study by Nelson and Furst on arm wrestling and expectations,
a. objectively weaker subjects who expected to win actually did win more often than stronger subjects who expected to lose
b. objectively stronger subjects won regardless of expectations
c. objectively weaker subjects won regardless of expectations
d. expectations were a better predictor of success than actual strength was
e. a and d

e. a and d

According to Rosenthal and Jacobson’s study on teachers’ expectancies and students’ performances,
a. children identified as "late bloomers" exhibited the greatest gains in IQ
b. teachers’ expectations were not related to IQ scores
c. children identified as "late bloomers" exhibited the slightest gains in IQ
d. males had higher gains in IQ than females did
e. none of the above

a. children identified as "late bloomers" exhibited the greatest gains in IQ

Coaches often form expectations of athletes based on
a. performance information and media reports
b. performance information and person cues
c. person cues and media reports
d. scouting and media reports
e. person cues and scouting reports

b. performance information and person cues

Which of the following is (are) true?
a. Coaches spend more time with high-expectancy athletes.
b. Coaches show more positive affect to high-expectancy athletes.
c. Coaches spend more time with low-expectancy athletes.
d. a and b
e. b and c

d. a and b

Which of the following is (are) FALSE?
a. Coaches give high-expectancy athletes more instructional feedback.
b. Coaches provide more praise to high-expectancy athletes.
c. Coaches provide more beneficial feedback to low-expectancy athletes.
d. a and b
e. b and c

c. Coaches provide more beneficial feedback to low-expectancy athletes.

Which of the following is (are) true?
a. Low-expectancy athletes exhibit lower performances due to less effective reinforcement and playing time.
b. Low-expectancy athletes attribute their failures to lack of effort.
c. Low-expectancy athletes attribute their failures to lack of ability.
d. a and c
e. a and b

d. a and c

The four-step process concerning the formation of a coach’s expectations and their effects on the coach’s and athlete’s behavior signifies that
a. coaches should continually reevaluate an athlete’s ability throughout the season
b. coaches should carefully monitor their quantity and quality of reinforcement and instructional feedback
c. coaches should rely on one source to make ability judgments
d. all of the above
e. a and b

e. a and b

Self-efficacy theory was originated by
a. Charley Hardy
b. Tara Scanlan
c. Albert Bandura
d. Larry Brawley
e. Joseph Wolpe

c. Albert Bandura

Confidence is usually defined by sport psychologists as the
a. belief that you can successfully perform a desired behavior
b. inner self
c. equivalent of self-esteem
d. belief that you can do anything you desire if you set your mind to it
e. none of the above

a. belief that you can successfully perform a desired behavior

Self-efficacy has been used interchangeably with
a. self-esteem
b. self-confidence
c. self-motivation
d. self-concept
e. self-fulfilling prophecy

b. self-confidence

Confidence can be improved by
a. thinking confidently
b. acting confidently
c. using imagery
d. all of the above
e. a and b

d. all of the above

If you want to avoid breaking down an individual’s self-confidence,
a. don’t criticize people for inconsequential errors
b. don’t criticize the behavior; criticize the person
c. don’t use sarcasm to motivate people
d. all of the above
e. a and c

e. a and c

Which of the following is NOT a recommendation provided by Horn regarding expectations of coaches?
a. Coaches should interact infrequently with athletes.
b. Coaches should respond to skill errors with immediate criticism.
c. Coaches should try to create a mastery-oriented environment.
d. a and c
e. b and c

c. Coaches should try to create a mastery-oriented environment.

Collective efficacy refers to
a. each individual’s perception of the efficacy of the team as a whole
b. the aggregate of each individual’s own self-efficacy
c. the coach’s view of the efficacy of the team as a whole
d. the belief that the team can win the championship
e. none of the above

a. each individual’s perception of the efficacy of the team as a whole

According to the latest thinking, self-efficacy is now called
a. self-regulatory efficacy
b. self-improvement
c. self-esteem
d. self-worth
e. self-monitoring

a. self-regulatory efficacy

Recent research has identified nine sources of sport self-confidence. These fit into which of the following categories?
a. climate (environment)
b. self-regulation
c. arousal
d. a and b
e. b and c

d. a and b

Research by Gould and his colleagues on setting up detailed plans as a way to increase confidence showed that
a. elite athletes had the most detailed plans
b. female athletes had the most detailed plans
c. male athletes had the most detailed plans
d. college athletes had the most detailed plans
e. none of the above

a. elite athletes had the most detailed plans

Coaching efficacy is composed of all of the following areas except
a. game strategy
b. playing experience
c. motivation
d. technique
e. character building

b. playing experience

The relationship between confidence and performance is
a. positive linear
b. negative linear
c. curvilinear
d. negatively accelerated
e. positively accelerated

c. curvilinear

Research has indicated that live and filmed modeling increases self-efficacy in muscular-endurance tasks. This is an example of
a. verbal persuasion
b. vicarious experiences
c. performance accomplishments
d. emotional arousal
e. parental expectations

b. vicarious experiences

Which of the following is NOT a benefit of confidence?
a. positive emotions
b. effort
c. concentration
d. goals
e. visualization

e. visualization

he strongest and most dependable information on which to base self-efficacy judgments comes from
a. vicarious experiences
b. performance accomplishments
c. emotional states
d. verbal persuasion
e. physiological states

b. performance accomplishments

An injured athlete is feeling depressed and anxious about his rehabilitation and thus has a low sense of self-efficacy. This is an example of using which source of self-efficacy?
a. vicarious experiences
b. physiological states
c. verbal persuasion
d. performance accomplishments
e. emotional states

e. emotional states

Which of the following is (are) NOT a major source of self-efficacy?
a. parental expectations
b. performance accomplishments
c. emotional arousal
d. vicarious experiences
e. a and d

a. parental expectations

Which of the following points about self-efficacy theory is (are) true?
a. Self-efficacy affects effort expenditure and persistence.
b. Self-efficacy plus ability are enough for success.
c. Self-efficacy is task specific.
d. all of the above
e. a and c

e. a and c

Researchers investigating the concept of psychological momentum in sport found that teams of athletes having momentum
a. will continue to perform well for the next few minutes of play
b. will continue to perform well for the rest of the game
c. were just as likely to perform poorly as to continue to perform well
d. are important in individual sports but not in team sports
e. are important in team sports but not in individual sports

c. were just as likely to perform poorly as to continue to perform well

According to recent research on the "hot hand" in basketball, if a coach needed to choose a player to take the last critical shot, he should choose
a. the player who has the hot hand
b. It doesn’t matter whom he chooses.
c. the player with the hot hand who is also generally a good shooter
d. the player with the hot hand who is generally not a good shooter
e. none of the above

c. the player with the hot hand who is also generally a good shooter

Which of the following is NOT one of the components of the model of sport confidence?
a. sources of sport confidence
b. constructs of sport confidence
c. factors influencing sport confidence
d. controllability of sport confidence
e. factors affecting sport confidence

d. controllability of sport confidence

Which of the following is true regarding judges’ knowing a skater beforehand?
a. Judges’ knowledge of the skater did not affect their scoring.
b. Skaters who were known to judges were ranked higher than skaters not known to judges.
c. Skaters known to judges received higher artistic marks than skaters not known to judges.
d. a and c
e. b and c

b. Skaters who were known to judges were ranked higher than skaters not known to judges.

t is recommended that appropriate goals be
a. short-term only
b. long-term only
c. a combination of short- and long-term
d. short-term early in the season, then long-term midway through the season
e. either short-term or long-term depending on the way you phrase your generalized goals

c. a combination of short- and long-term

Focusing on performance (as opposed to outcome goals) during competition has been shown to be associated with _____ anxiety and _____ performance.
a. more; poorer
b. less; superior
c. more; superior
d. less; poorer
e. none of the above

b. less; superior

Which of the following (according to research by Filby and colleagues) would produce the best performance?
a. performance goals
b. process goals
c. outcome goals
d. a combination of goals
e. subjective goals

d. a combination of goals

Studies of goal setting in business have concluded that
a. although goals work in some situations, more often than not, specific goals are not better than "do your best" goals
b. it does not matter how difficult your goals are—any goal will be effective
c. goal setting works very well
d. goal setting is effective but only when the goals are easy
e. all of the above

c. goal setting works very well

Burton (1989a), in a study of basketball skills, found that
a. general goals were just as effective as specific goals
b. goal setting was effective for all tasks
c. short-term goals were more effective than long-term goals
d. goal setting enhanced performance better on low- as compared with high-complexity tasks
e. goal setting improved performance more for the subjects who were told to "do their best" than for those who were told "improve 15%"

d. goal setting enhanced performance better on low- as compared with high-complexity tasks

Directing a performer’s attention to important elements of a skill is
a. one way in which goal setting can influence performance
b. one indirect thought process that explains goal setting’s impact on athletes
c. not really a part of a systematic goal-setting program because most athletes can direct their own attention appropriately
d. the same thing as mobilizing the athlete’s effort
e. b and c

a. one way in which goal setting can influence performance

The mechanistic explanation for the effectiveness of goal setting includes
a. directing the performer’s attention to important elements of a skill
b. mobilizing effort and increasing persistence by providing incentives
c. the development and employment of new learning strategies
d. all of the above
e. a and b

d. all of the above

Burton contends that athletes who set outcome goals will experience more anxiety and lower self-confidence in competition; this is
a. because their goals are not within their complete control
b. one of the mechanistic explanations for the effectiveness of goal setting
c. one of the indirect thought-process explanations for the effectiveness of goal setting
d. all of the above
e. a and c

e. a and c

After a five-month goal-setting program, swimmers were found to
a. have learned to set performance goals
b. exhibit less anxiety, regardless of their ability to set performance goals
c. exhibit less anxiety if they set outcome goals rather than performance goals
d. exhibit higher confidence and improved performance if they set outcome goals rather than performance goals
e. c and d

a. have learned to set performance goals

Having a goal to win the race is an example of a(n) _____ goal, whereas having a goal to "improve my best time" is an example of a(n) ______ goal.
a. outcome; process
b. process; outcome
c. outcome; performance
d. subjective; objective
e. a and c

e. a and c

Which of the following is NOT a common obstacle in setting goals?
a. It is too time consuming.
b. There are previous negative experiences in setting goals.
c. Goals are too unstructured.
d. a and c
e. b and c

c. Goals are too unstructured.

The phrase "out of sight, out of mind" is a reminder to
a. write your goals down and place them where they can be easily seen
b. write your goals down and put them secretly away, only to be reread at the end of the season
c. use visualization when you set your performance goals
d. sign a behavioral contract with your coach or parents, which should be placed in a drawer (or some safe place) and reevaluated once a year
e. constantly use self-talk while competing to refresh your memory of your goal

a. write your goals down and place them where they can be easily seen

Dishman (1988) found that a spouse’s support is
a. a critical factor affecting exercise adherence
b. probably not relevant for developing a systematic goal-setting program
c. recognized as one of the problems associated with the setting and writing down of appropriate goals
d. a and c
e. all of the above

a. a critical factor affecting exercise adherence

Which of the following is (are) a common problem when setting goals?
a. setting too few goals
b. failing to adjust goals
c. failing to recognize individual differences
d. all of the above
e. b and c

e. b and c

A formal assessment of an athlete’s current ability or needs is
a. part of the instructor’s or leader’s preparation stage of implementing a goal-setting program
b. great for identifying what areas you think the athlete needs to improve
c. part of the education and acquisition stage of implementing a goal-setting program
d. a and b
e. none of the above

d. a and b

When formulating a goal-setting program with a novice goal setter, it is best to
a. help the person set multiple goals, such as skill goals, concentration goals, and technique goals
b. help the person select one goal from a list of multiple goals she would like to pursue
c. let the person choose the top two goals from a list of possible goals that you create for her
d. let the person decide on the type and number of goals to pursue

b. help the person select one goal from a list of multiple goals she would like to pursue

It is important to _____ throughout the entire goal-setting process.
a. provide feedback
b. provide support
c. provide encouragement
d. reevaluate goals
e. all of the above

e. all of the above

In developing a goal-setting program, it is important for individuals to set
a. only performance goals
b. performance and process goals
c. process and outcome goals
d. process, performance, and outcome goals
e. performance and outcome goals

d. process, performance, and outcome goals

Which of the following is (are) useful for setting team goals?
a. establishing short-term goals first
b. monitoring progress toward team goals
c. fostering team confidence concerning team goals
d. all of the above
e. b and c

e. b and c

Which of the following is (are) true regarding goal-setting practices of high school and collegiate coaches?
a. The most important part of goal commitment is goal specificity.
b. Coaches were consistent in writing down their goals.
c. The only disadvantage noted was setting goals unrealistically high.
d. a and b
e. a and c

c. The only disadvantage noted was setting goals unrealistically high.

Simply telling an athlete to "do your best" is
a. fine for younger kids
b. effective when the sport is well learned
c. not specific enough
d. effective for developing an athlete’s commitment
e. all of the above

c. not specific enough

In an attempt to build hope, Gould and colleagues created the Power 4W program. Which of the following is NOT one of the Power 4W components?
a. want power
b. wish power
c. wade power
d. will power
e. way power

c. wade power

According to Snyder, hope involves having a realistic goal and
a. having a very difficult goal
b. being able to reach the goal
c. having a high level of concentration
d. having a low level of anxiety
e. having the self-talk to support it

b. being able to reach the goal

Which of the following would NOT be classified as an internal distracter?
a. attending to past events
b. attending to future events
c. overly analyzing body mechanics
d. visual and auditory distracters
e. fatigue

d. visual and auditory distracters

Which of the following is NOT a key element included in most definitions of concentration?
a. the ability to focus attention on the relevant cues
b. maintaining attentional focus for the duration of the competition
c. the ability to narrow attentional focus during intense pressure
d. having the proper attentional focus depending on the situation
e. All of the above are indeed key elements of concentration.

c. the ability to narrow attentional focus during intense pressure

High scores on the BIT subscale of Nideffer’s TAIS indicate
a. an ability to effectively integrate many external stimuli simultaneously
b. an ability to effectively integrate several ideas at one time
c. a tendency to become confused and overloaded with external stimuli
d. chronically narrowed attention
e. an ability to effectively narrow attention when it is appropriate

b. an ability to effectively integrate several ideas at one time

An athlete who is losing in a tennis match might tell her opponent that the opponent is "really following through on her serve nicely." From an attentional perspective, this is a ploy to have the opponent
a. feel good about herself
b. start to focus and think too much about her serve
c. lose her intensity
d. use negative self-talk
e. none of the above

b. start to focus and think too much about her serve

The narrowing and internal focus associated with choking can result in
a. impaired timing
b. loss of coordination
c. poor judgment and decision making
d. all of the above
e. a and b

d. all of the above

According to the text, "choking" should be defined as
a. a bad performance at a critical time of competition
b. a process that leads to impaired performance
c. making a mistake that costs you or your team a victory
d. making a mistake that is emotionally important to an athlete
e. all of the above

b. a process that leads to impaired performance

According to a summary of 25 years of research on association and dissociation,
a. dissociative strategies are associated with running fast more than associative strategies
b. practice runners prefer association; competitive runners prefer dissociation
c. dissociation can reduce the fatigue and monotony of training or recreational runs
d. a and c
e. b and c

c. dissociation can reduce the fatigue and monotony of training or recreational runs

Athletes with a preference for a broad-external focus
a. are seldom distracted by an audience
b. rarely try too hard to please others
c. seem to notice everything that is happening around them
d. are well prepared to act as a coach or informal leader
e. b and c

c. seem to notice everything that is happening around them

"Cue" words are often effective because
a. they can help trigger a particular response
b. they can be motivational or emotionally stimulating
c. they may have an instructional component
d. all of the above
e. b and c

d. all of the above

Future-oriented thinking (attending to events in the future)
a. is common among younger athletes
b. involves seeing a past mistake while focusing on the present
c. often takes the form of "what about me" statements
d. all of the above
e. a and c

a. is common among younger athletes

"No-look" passes in basketball are accomplished by using
a. a narrow-internal attentional focus
b. advanced cues to predict teammates’ future movements
c. several different types of attentional strategies
d. a narrow-external attentional focus
e. none of the above

b. advanced cues to predict teammates’ future movements

Research investigating differences between experts and novices concludes that these differences are in large part due to experts’ ability to
a. attend more to advance information to make faster decisions
b. predict the flight pattern of a ball
c. use "tunnel vision"
d. all of the above
e. a and b

e. a and b

Top athletes seem to be able to do just the right thing at just the right time. From an attentional perspective, research has shown that this is mostly due to their ability to
a. analyze situations more quickly and use more anticipatory cues
b. use a narrow-external focus
c. use a broad-external focus
d. use a narrow-internal focus
e. analyze situations by using imagery and positive self-talk

a. analyze situations more quickly and use more anticipatory cues

If a pole-vaulter shifts attention from imagining the approach to the pit to focusing on actually seeing the runway, his attentional focus has changed from _____ to _____.
a. narrow-external; narrow-internal
b. narrow-internal; broad-external
c. broad-internal; narrow-external
d. broad-external; narrow-external
e. none of the above

e. none of the above

If a golfer shifts attention just before a tee shot, from the length of the fairway and the direction of the wind to focusing only on the ball, her attention has shifted from _____ to _____.
a. broad-internal; narrow-external
b. broad-internal; narrow-internal
c. broad-external; narrow-internal
d. broad-external; narrow-external
e. none of the above

d. broad-external; narrow-external

An example of Nideffer’s broad-external type of attentional focus is
a. a basketball point guard’s rapidly assessing the positioning of the defense while on a fast break
b. a coach’s analyzing the game plan prior to the start of the competition
c. a baseball pitcher’s focusing on the catcher’s mitt just before beginning his pitch
d. a wrestler’s practicing mental imagery on the bus ride to a meet
e. a basketball player’s sighting the rim while on the free-throw line

a. a basketball point guard’s rapidly assessing the positioning of the defense while on a fast break

Which of the following best represents William James’ classic description of attention?
a. It involves the ability to pay attention to several things at once.
b. It implies withdrawal from some things in order to deal effectively with others.
c. It involves components of both width and direction.
d. It involves the components of both internality and stability.
e. none of the above

b. It implies withdrawal from some things in order to deal effectively with others. b. It implies withdrawal from some things in order to deal effectively with others.

Entirely focusing on body mechanics and movements
a. is important when learning a skill
b. may be inappropriate once a skill becomes automatic
c. may be detrimental to performance because the mind gets in the way of the body
d. all of the above
e. b and c

d. all of the above

Using a trigger word to stop negative self-statements is called
a. thought stopping
b. attentional narrowing
c. external attentional focus
d. peripheral narrowing
e. tunnel vision

a. thought stopping

Tennis and baseball players are able to successfully hit balls traveling toward them at high speeds because
a. they have learned to watch the ball hit their racket (or bat)
b. they have learned to predict the flight of the ball by using advanced attentional cues
c. they have learned to use a narrow-external focus
d. they have learned to rapidly shift their attentional focus
e. they have learned to use a broad-external focus

b. they have learned to predict the flight of the ball by using advanced attentional cues

From an attentional perspective, overlearning of skills
a. makes the skills more automatic, thus requiring less attention
b. allows for attentional selectivity
c. produces higher amounts of internal attentional control
d. allows for higher amounts of external attentional control
e. none of the above

a. makes the skills more automatic, thus requiring less attention

Developing competitive plans should focus on what type of goals?
a. outcome goals
b. technical goals
c. performance goals
d. process goals
e. product goals

d. process goals

In preparing for a major competition, many elite athletes structure training to put themselves under the same sort of pressure encountered during the actual competition. This is an example of
a. mental rehearsal
b. precompetitive routines
c. precompetitive plans
d. simulation training
e. cognitive-behavioral interventions

d. simulation training

In a study on figure skaters, self-monitoring helped skaters to become
a. more task focused
b. more process oriented
c. more determined
d. more willing to listen to coaches
e. none of the above

a. more task focused

Psychophysiological research on attentional processes in archers and pistol shooters has revealed that accuracy is increased when performers’ brain waves are in which frequency?
a. beta
b. alpha
c. delta
d. gamma
e. creatine

b. alpha

According to Nideffer, effective attenders indicate that they can
a. deal well with a multitude of stimuli from both external and internal sources
b. effectively switch their attention from broad to narrow focus when necessary
c. attend to many stimuli (both internally and externally) while not becoming overloaded with too much information
d. a and c
e. all of the above

e. all of the above

Which of the following is NOT a subscale of the Test of Attentional and Interpersonal Style (TAIS)?
a. external overload
b. reduced focus
c. broad-internal
d. internal overload
e. broad-narrow

e. broad-narrow

Just before shooting, elite pistol shooters display
a. increased galvanic skin responses
b. cardiac acceleration
c. cardiac deceleration
d. acceleration of the autonomic nervous system
e. reduced blood pressure

c. cardiac deceleration c. cardiac deceleration

According to the new theories of multiple resource pools, attentional capacity is
a. centralized
b. distributed throughout the nervous system
c. broad in nature
d. narrow in nature
e. sequential

b. distributed throughout the nervous system

Individuals with a good ability to concentrate, scan, and store relevant cues are likely to score _____ on a concentration block grid in 1 minute.
a. in the upper 20s to low 30s
b. in the low 20s
c. somewhere between 45 and 50
d. at least as high as an elite athlete can score in 30 seconds
e. in the upper 60s

a. in the upper 20s to low 30s

Why would you want to have a friend wave his arms around you while you are focusing on a basketball?
a. to assist you in shifting your attention from the ball to the waving arms
b. to help you in your search for irrelevant cues
c. to force you to maintain concentration on the ball
d. all of the above
e. a and c

c. to force you to maintain concentration on the ball

Results from the study of self-talk among junior tennis players (Van Raalte et al.) revealed that
a. there was more positive self-talk than negative self-talk
b. most of the self-talk was instructional in nature
c. there was a strong relationship between audible, positive self-talk and performance
d. a and b
e. none of the above

e. none of the above

According to recent research, instructional self-talk is best on what type of tasks?
a. strength
b. endurance
c. accuracy
d. balance
e. strength and endurance

c. accuracy

Telling yourself to focus probably is best defined as
a. establishing a routine to be used primarily during "down" times
b. a method to keep attention focused through the use of eye control
c. a cue word for bringing you back into a present focus
d. an exercise that enables you to practice shifting attentional focus
e. the opposite of "stop!" as an attention-focusing tool

c. a cue word for bringing you back into a present focus

Ironic processes in sport refers to
a ironically performing movement
b. the idea that trying not to perform an action can trigger its occurrence accidentally
c. doing something an athlete is not trained to do
d. performing well even with little experience
e. none of the above

b. the idea that trying not to perform an action can trigger its occurrence accidentally

A response to either good or bad performances that causes a personal, ego-involved reaction during competition is known as
a. judgmental thinking
b. nonjudgmental thinking
c. ego thought
d. paralysis by analysis
e. all of the above

a. judgmental thinking

To improve concentration, an athlete should
a. practice without distractions present
b. establish routines
c. practice eye control
d. all of the above
e. b and c

e. b and c

Which of the following is (are) a major process involved in explaining the attention-performance relationship?
a. attentional selectivity
b. attentional capacity
c. attentional alertness
d. all of the above
e. a and b

d. all of the above

Most theories investigating the role of attention in performance have used what type of approach?
a. information-processing
b. attentional control
c. conscious control process
d. attentional-arousal
e. limited-capacity

a. information-processing

he concept of attentional alertness operates under the assumption that arousal
a. narrows attention
b. broadens attention
c. enhances attention
d. disrupts attention
e. none of the above

a. narrows attention

Research has indicated that paying attention to step-by-step instructions is most helpful
a. for elite performers
b. for new learners
c. for closed skills
d. for open skills
e. continuous skills

b. for new learners

Which of the following is (are) principles of effective concentration?
a. A focused state of mind requires intentional mental effort.
b. Athletes can consciously focus on more than one thought at a time.
c. During peak performance there is no difference between an athlete’s thoughts and actions.
d. a and c
e. b and c

d. a and c

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Which of the following is the process of getting oxygen from the environment to the tissues of the body? Diffusion ...

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