soil quiz 3

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Secondary silicate clay minerals are dominated by the elements aluminum, oxygen, and silicon.

true

Isomorphous substitution typically results in a net negative charge on soil clay minerals.

true

Small cations are attracted to colloid surfaces more strongly than large cations.

true

Highly charged cations are attracted to soil colloid surfaces more strongly that weakly charged cations.

true

Smectites are 2:1 minerals.

true

Illite has a relatively low CEC because there is very little isomorphous substitution.

false

Illite layers are held together tightly by potassium ions.

true

The aluminosilicate mineral studied in class with the highest CEC is vermiculite.

true

The aluminosilicate mineral of the 4 major minerals studied with the lowest CEC is kaolinite.

true

Isomorphous substitution in smectites takes place in the tetrahedral sheet.

false

Kaolinite layers are bound together by hydrogen bonds.

true

Cations are positively charged.

true

Anions are negatively charged.

true

Ions typically are well-accommodated in water.

true

An example of an uncharged aluminosilicate mineral is talc.

true

The charge on soil clays is satisfied by anions from soil solution.

false

Small cations are attracted to colloid surfaces more strongly than large cations.

true

Highly charged cations are attracted to soil colloid surfaces more strongly that weakly charged cations.

true

Charge is developed on silicate clay minerals during mineral formation.

true

A 2:1 mineral has

one octahedral sheet and 2 tetrahedral sheets

Vermiculites are highly expanding minerals.

false

A 1:1 mineral has

one tetrahedral sheet and 1 octahedral sheet

The units used to express cation exchange capacity are

cmolc/kg

Which of the following would be most preferred at charged silicate clay surfaces all else being equal?

Al3+

Which of the following has an influence over the preference of cations at charged clay surfaces?

size, charge, concentration in solution

Cation A has a +3 charge and is small. Cation B has a +1 charge and is large. Which is more likely to occupy negatively charged sites on a clay mineral given equal concentrations in solution?

cation A

The three chemical elements that dominate the structure of aluminosilicate minerals are

al, si, o

cations

positively charged, attracted to soil silicate clay mineral surfaces

A chemical element that has acquired an electrical charge by losing an electron during a reaction is called a/an

cation, ion

When water molecules surround a cation in solution, the oxygen end of the water molecule will orient toward the cation.

true

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