Soil Formation

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Explain how soil structure affects the physical properties of soil.

Soil structure is the arrangement of soil peds. This arrangement determines the space between soil peds, which determines the porosity of soil.

Microorganisms in soil _______.

d. all of the above

Good soil tilth allows for _______.

d. increased porosity

Which of the following properties of soil has the greatest effect on plant and microorganism growth?

c. soil reaction

Explain how microorganisms, humus, and soil health are related.

Humus is decayed organic matter in soil. Humus is a result of plant and animal matter being incorporated into soil through the action of soil microorganisms. Humus benefits soil health by providing nutrients for soil life, increasing the porosity of soil, and creating good soil tilth.

What is the distinction between soil structure and soil texture?

Soil texture is based on the amount of the different types of soil particles. It differs based on the proportion of sand, silt, and clay present in soil samples. Soil structure, on the other hand, has to do with the pattern of peds in soil. The soil structure determines the amount of space available in the soil and therefore the water absorption of a soil sample.

What soil properties are influenced by microorganism activity?

Microorganism activity affects soil acidity and the amount of organic matter in soil. It also affects the nutrient and mineral levels in soil as well as soil structure.

Explain how plant life is benefited when microorganisms release carbon dioxide into the soil.

When microorganisms release carbon dioxide into the soil, the acidity of water surrounding soil particles is increased. This increase in acidity allows for rock present in soil to be broken down, releasing minerals into the soil. These minerals are then available for use by plant life.

How do organic farming practices relate to soil health?

d. all of the above

The separation of soil into distinct layers is _______.

a. horizonation

How do minerals affect soil productivity?

b. Minerals in the soil can eventually be used for plant growth and production.

Decomposition of plant and animal matter present in soil is largely due to soil microorganisms.


Soil color is classified by _______.

d. using a color reference chart

How do microorganisms affect humus and thereby soil health?

c. Microorganisms increase the production of humus, which leads to an increase in soil health.

Soil structure and soil texture are essentially the same property of soil.


Microorganisms can improve soil health, but do not play a crucial role in it.


Microorganisms play an important role in creating nutrient-rich soil.


Which of the following soil properties is not influenced by microorganism activity?

d. none of the above

Humus creates good soil tilth, which is an indirect benefit of microorganism action.


Healthy soil depends on _______.

d. all of the above

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