SOCL 2001 — Ch. 4

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1. Until 10,000 years ago, the basic structure of human society was based on _____.
a. Capitalism
b. Tribes
c. Industrialization
d. Feudalism

Tribes

2. Karl Marx’s Communist Manifesto is based on the ____ perspective.
a. Functionalism
b. Symbolic Interactionism
c. Institutionalism
d. Conflict Theory

Conflict Theory

3. ____ societies relied on permanent tools for survival, and expanded due to innovations such as crop rotation and fertilizer.
a. Industrial
b. Feudal
c. Agricultural
d. Hunter-gatherer

Agricultural

4. Which of the following is NOT an example of self-fulfilling prophecy?
a. Charlotte is an intelligent teenager, but told by her step-sisters and cousins that she’s destined to a life of poverty and failure. Charlotte begins to do poorly in school, and eventually drops out.
b. Though encouraged by his parents to audition for Julliard, Jose believes he isn’t good enough to attend. After his audition, he expresses this reluctance to the admissions committee. They don’t admit him due to his lack of certainty.
c. Morgan overhears a professor predicting the economic recession will prevent entry-level graduates from finding gainful employment. Morgan goes on interviews but doesn’t bother preparing, convinced it’s a waste of time. Morgan appears unprofessional and is not hired.
d. Kevin sprained his ankle a month before a marathon. Though his trainer advises him not to participate, Kevin runs the marathon and places third.

Kevin sprained his ankle a month before a marathon. Though his trainer advises him not to participate, Kevin runs the marathon and places third.

5. The Agricultural Revolution is often referred to as "dawn of civilization" because:
a. Cities and towns were established, and humans had more time for leisure activities.
b. Societies began to form where rainfall was plentiful; groups were able to cultivate plants instead of living nomadic lifestyles.
c. Tribes became nomadic, traveling to various locations in search of sustenance.
d. Animals were first domesticated as a resource for survival.

Cities and towns were established, and humans had more time for leisure activities

6. Please place the following societies in chronological order:
a. Pastoral; Hunter-gatherer; Horticultural; Agricultural
b. Hunter-gatherer; Pastoral; Agricultural; Horticultural
c. Pastoral; Agricultural, Hunter-gatherer; Horticultural
d. Hunter-gatherer; Pastoral; Horticultural; Agricultural

Hunter-gatherer; Pastoral; Horticultural; Agricultural

7. Ivanka Trump is the daughter of business mogul Donald Trump. Her role as heiress to the Trump fortune is an example of ______.
a. Achieved status
b. The Thomas Theorem
c. Ascribed status
d. The looking-glass self

Ascribed status

8. Functionalist Émile Durkheim viewed society as:
a. An even playing field composed of the educated and uneducated
b. Split between two classes categorized by education, kinship, and religion
c. The product of class struggle, requiring social revolutions to correct rampant class inequality
d. An organism in which each portion plays a vital role in keeping the organism stable and healthy

An organism in which each portion plays a vital role in keeping the organism stable and healthy

9. On the first day of high school, Kaitlin overhears a group of girls calling her "goth" and "emo." She soon begins to don more black clothing, dark makeup, and seek out friends who dress the same. This is an example of ¬¬¬¬______.
a. Institutionalization
b. Role playing
c. Role strain
d. Ascribed status

Role playing

10. Which of the following is NOT an example of organic solidarity?
a. A Ford Motors employee assembling taillights on an assembly line
b. A freelance artist creating a sculpture of Barack Obama
c. A fast-food employee putting burgers into their buns
d. A toll-booth employee collecting toll change

A freelance artist creating a sculpture of Barack Obama

11. Alienation is defined by the text as:
a. The condition in which the individual is isolated and divorced from his or her society, work, or sense of self.
b. Social forces considered real which exist outside the individual.
c. The act of defying social norms in favor of group unity
d. The strength of ties that people have to their social groups, was a key factor in social life

The condition in which the individual is isolated and divorced from his or her society, work, or sense of self.

12. Which of the following is NOT one of Marx’s four types of alienation?
a. Alienation from the product of one’s labor
b. Alienation from one’s self
c. Alienation from others
d. Alienation from one’s religion

Alienation from one’s religion

13. A judge and her gavel. A cop and his gun. A lawyer and her power suit. A ____ would be most concerned with the parts these objects play in impression management.
a. Functionalist
b. Symbolic interactionist
c. Feminist
d. Conflict theorist

Symbolic interactionist

14. Durkheim defined ______ as the communal beliefs, morals, and attitudes of a society.
a. The iron cage
b. Collective conscience
c. Bourgeoisie
d. Anomie

Collective conscience

15. As industrialization began to boom, Durkheim believed people were more susceptible to anomie because:
a. Collective norms are weakened.
b. Society no longer has the support of the collective consciousness.
c. Specialization of labor lead to alienation.
d. All of the above

All of the above

16. Karl Marx asserted that the means of societal change existed in the tension between:
a. The enslaved bourgeois reclaiming power from the controlling proletariat.
b. The bourgeois struggling for the allocation of resources amongst themselves.
c. The working class proletariat taking the means of production from the wealthy bourgeois.
d. The proletariat fighting each other for a position within the bourgeois.

The working class proletariat taking the means of production from the wealthy bourgeois.

17. The concept anomie can be defined as:
a. A situation in which society no longer has the support of a firm collective consciousness.
b. How strongly a person is connected to his or her social group.
c. A person’s beliefs and ideology are in conflict with her best interests.
d. When one or more of an individual’s roles clash.

A situation in which society no longer has the support of a firm collective consciousness.

18. Which of the following is an example of role strain?
a. Derek attends law school and becomes a lawyer, though he dreams of one day becoming the next John Grisham.
b. Becca returns to work after giving birth to her daughter, finding it difficult to act as mother, wife, and executive.
c. Alex takes a sabbatical from his job as a professor of Molecular Biology to raise his two young children.
d. Krista lands a role on Days of Our Lives and begins receiving fan mail from fans across the country.

Becca returns to work after giving birth to her daughter, finding it difficult to act as mother, wife, and executive.

19. Charles Cooley’s concept of the looking-glass self hypothesizes that:
a. Self-esteem is directly correlated with body image.
b. The media encourages society to base their appearances on visible public figures.
c. People base their images on how they think other people see them.
d. Personal identity isn’t influenced by outside social forces.

People base their images on how they think other people see them.

20. The term institutionalization can be defined as:
a. The idea that society is constructed by us and those before us, and it is followed like a habit.
b. The act of implanting a convention or norm into society.
c. A status a person chooses, such as a level of education or income.
d. Responsibilities and benefits that a person experiences according to their rank and role in society.

The act of implanting a convention or norm into society.

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