Sociology – Real World – Ch 11- Globalization Issues

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Agricultural Revolution

The social and economic changes, including population increases, that followed from the domestication of plants and animals and the gradually increasing efficiency of food production (page 325)

capitalism

An economic system based on the laws of free market competition, privatization of the means of production, and production for profit, with an emphasis on supply and demand as a means to set prices (page 330)

communism

A system of government that eliminates private property; the most extreme form of socialism, because all citizens work for the government and there are no class distinctions (page 331)

globalization

The cultural and economic changes resulting from dramatically increased international trade and exchange in the late twentieth and early twenty-first centuries (page 341)

Independent (or Third) Sector

The part of the economy composed of nonprofit organizations; their workers are mission driven, rather than profit driven, and such organizations direct surplus funds to the causes they support (page 353)

Industrial Revolution

The rapid transformation of social life resulting from the technological and economic developments that began with the assembly line, steam power, and urbanization (page 326)

Information Revolution

The recent social revolution made possible by the development of the microchip in the 1970s, which brought about vast improvements in the ability to manage information (page 327)

knowledge workers

Those who work primarily with information and who create value in the economy through their ideas, judgments, analyses, designs, or innovations (page 327)

outsourcing

"Contracting out" or transferring to another country the labor that a company might otherwise have employed its own staff to perform; typically done for financial reasons (page 345)

resistance strategies

Ways that workers express discontent with their working conditions and try to reclaim control of the conditions of their labor (page 336)

service workers

Those whose work involves providing a service to businesses or individual clients, customers, or consumers rather than manufacturing goods (page 327)

socialism

An economic system based on the collective ownership of the means of production, collective distribution of goods and services, and government regulation of the economy (page 330)

sweatshop

A workplace where workers are subject to extreme exploitation, including below-standard wages, long hours, and poor working conditions that may pose health or safety hazards (page 342)

telecommuting

Working from home while staying connected to the office through communications technology (page 334)

union

An association of workers who bargain collectively for increased wages and benefits and better working conditions (page 338)

Globalization

The fact that almost all of the small electronics used in the United States are made in Asia is an illustration of:

membership has steeply declined

How has union membership changed in recent years?

She would disapprove because she thinks that low-wage work is demeaning and insufficient to survive on.

What do you think that Barbara Ehrenreich would say about efforts to reform welfare that tried to move people off welfare rolls and into minimum wage jobs?

autonomy

The ability to direct one’s individual destiny is:

It encourages efficiency through technological innovation.

Edward Brent, a professor of sociology at the University of Missouri, has invented a piece of software called Qualrus, which he uses to grade students’ papers. He claims this saves him at least 200 hours of grading every year. Why is using a computer program to grade a particularly capitalist technique?

workers who make microchips at a Silicon Valley plant

Which of the following groups of workers would be LEAST likely to strike successfully?

at least partially socialist

In Great Britain, the government owns the British Broadcasting Corporation, or BBC, which is the world’s largest television and radio broadcasting service. This tells you that Great Britain is:

knowledge work

Advertising, engineering, marketing, product design, and web design are all examples of:

paying workers less than the value of what they created

According to Karl Marx, where does surplus value come from?

the steam engine

What new technology was integral to the Industrial Revolution?

the increasingly important role that capitalism plays in Cuba

Cuba’s communist government has recently introduced reforms that make it easier to attract tourists, and many skilled professionals have started working in the tourism industry to earn more money, regardless of their degree. What is this a sign of?

they are collective

How are strikes different from acts of resistance like daydreaming on the job?

the production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services.

The economy is not only about money, but also about:

globalization

The cultural and economic changes that result from dramatic increases in international trade and exchange are called:

outsourcing

In 2009 the British government announced that it was cutting costs by eliminating many jobs and transferring others to India, including more than 100 jobs involving finance and information technology. What is this an example of?

In service work, unlike manufacturing work, it is common for workers’ expectations to conflict with those of customers.

How is service work different from manufacturing work?

individual resistance

When office workers hang pictures in their cubicles or waste time daydreaming while on the clock, it is an example of:

Moore’s Law

The theory that the capacity of microchips will double every 18 months is called:

hunting and gathering

Given that the greater the division of labor in a society, the greater the degree of inequality, which type of economic system would you expect to be the most equal?

It is damaging to workers and suppresses their real selves.

According to Robin Leidner’s Fast Food, Fast Talk, what are the consequences of scripting workers’ interactions with customers?

knowledge work

Advertising, engineering, marketing, product design, and web design are all examples of

deep integration

You want to discover who made the comforter on your bed. You notice that one tag says, "Made in the USA from imported materials" and another tag says, "Shell made in China." Eventually you do some research and discover that the cotton for your comforter was grown in Egypt, the thread made in Thailand, the shell woven in China, and the down harvested in South America, before the comforter was assembled in the United States. What is this an example of?

workers who make microchips at a Silicon Valley plant

Which of the following groups of workers would be LEAST likely to strike successfully?

Having virtual goods isn’t just a matter of personal achievement, but also a matter of reputation and status in the community.

Why would anyone want to buy virtual goods for an online computer game like World of Warcraft, rather than gaining them by playing the game?

she is a knowledge worker

You probably have a cell phone in your pocket. If you do, then you could (if you wanted to) buy a ringtone version of a song in just a few seconds. This means that somewhere there is a paid worker, sitting at a computer, using software to edit a digital copy of the original song into a 20-second ring tone. What can you say about this worker?

all answers are correct

How are workers’ situations different in socialist, as opposed to capitalist, economies?

England

Where did the Industrial Revolution begin?

a service worker

Someone who gives acupuncture to dogs in order to relieve their stress is:

at least partially socialist

In Great Britain, the government owns the British Broadcasting Corporation, or BBC, which is the world’s largest television and radio broadcasting service. This tells you that Great Britain is:

work, vital activity, and productive life

Karl Marx believes that we feel "freely active" only in our "animal functions of eating, drinking, and procreating" and feel like animals when we engage in activities that should be truly human. What are activities that should be truly human?

It has shifted the economy toward the production of knowledge and services.

How has the Information Revolution changed the nature of work and the economy?

knowledge work

Advertising, engineering, marketing, product design, and web design are all examples of:

hunting and gathering

Given that the greater the division of labor in a society, the greater the degree of inequality, which type of economic system would you expect to be the most equal?

They are paid for their labor but do not own the things they produce.

Why did Karl Marx believe that workers in a capitalist economy experience alienation?

he advertising firm that scripted the commercial

Think about the process by which athletic shoes are made. Which part of the global commodity chain for these shoes would you be most surprised to find in Indonesia?

the importance of place has greatly diminished

How has the Information Revolution changed the nature of work?

the steam engine

What new technology was integral to the Industrial Revolution?

a resistance strategy

Workers at a large retail outlet are required to wear green aprons with nametags on them, which often leads customers to address them by their first names. Sometimes employees alter their name tags in humorous ways (changing "Asagi" to "Soggy") and then try to convince management that it is a valid name change ("It’s what my parents call me"). What is this an example of?

professional socialization

When someone first takes a job as an aesthetician they have to learn how to use wax to remove unwanted body hair from customers. Though certain skills have to be mastered to do this well, new employees also have to learn from their coworkers about how to talk to customers about parts of the body that are usually very private, an example of:

a sweatshop

According to the U.S. General Accounting Office, an employer that violates more than one federal or state labor law concerning wages, overtime, child labor, safety and health, or industrial regulation is classified as:

deep integration

Corporations whose decision-making, production, and distribution operations are spread all over the world are characteristic of:

closed shops

Workplaces where all of the employees must be members of a union are called:

opening runaway shops

When manufacturing firms move to other countries to take advantage of cheap labor and lax environmental laws, it is called:

Third Sector

Thanksgiving is one of the busiest days of the year for many soup kitchens and other groups that provide food to the homeless and poor. It’s also one of the biggest days of the year for volunteers, as many more people decide to donate their time and efforts, making them, even if just for the day, part of the:

work, vital activity, productive life

Karl Marx believes that we feel "freely active" only in our "animal functions of eating, drinking, and procreating" and feel like animals when we engage in activities that should be truly human. What are activities that should be truly human?

It instituted limits on secondary strikes and boycotts.

What effect did the Taft-Hartley Act of 1947 have on unions?

pure communism

"From each according to his ability, to each according to his need." This slogan could only be fully realized with:

It’s about the struggle of janitors, most of them immigrants, to unionize.

In 2000 Ken Loach made a film called Bread and Roses. The film was set in Los Angeles. Given what you know from Chapter 11, what is the film about?

it is damaging to workers, and suppresses their real selves

According to Robin Leidner’s Fast Food, Fast Talk, what are the consequences of scripting workers’ interactions with customers?

their own labor

In a capitalist system, what do workers have available to sell?

both A and D answers are correct

Why was the successful UPS strike of 1997 relatively unique and unlikely to be repeated?

She would disapprove because she thinks that low-wage work is demeaning and insufficient to survive on.

What do you think that Barbara Ehrenreich would say about efforts to reform welfare that tried to move people off welfare rolls and into minimum wage jobs?

transnational corporations

Firms that purposely transcend national borders so that their products can be manufactured at sites all over the world are called:

the ease with which manufacturing firms can move operations to another country

What economic change has made it more difficult for workers to strike effectively?

the advertising firm that scripted the commercial

Think about the process by which athletic shoes are made. Which part of the global commodity chain for these shoes would you be most surprised to find in Indonesia?

the switch to a manufacturing economy

What change caused people to migrate into cities from rural areas?

it encourages efficiency through technological innovation

Edward Brent, a professor of sociology at the University of Missouri, has invented a piece of software called Qualrus, which he uses to grade students’ papers. He claims this saves him at least 200 hours of grading every year. Why is using a computer program to grade a particularly capitalist technique?

paying workers less than the value of what they created

According to Karl Marx, where does surplus value come from?

membership has steeply declined

How has union membership changed in recent years?

Having virtual goods isn’t just a matter of personal achievement, but also a matter of reputation and status in the community.

Why would anyone want to buy virtual goods for an online computer game like World of Warcraft, rather than gaining them by playing the game?

globalization

The fact that almost all of the small electronics used in the United States are made in Asia is an illustration of:

Moore’s Law

The theory that the capacity of microchips will double every 18 months is called:

it is named after Henry Ford, who is credited for inventing the assembly line

The economic system in place in industrialized nations during the first half of the twentieth century is often called "Fordism" by sociologists. It is a system characterized by the increasingly efficient mass production of goods. Why do you think that this system is called "Fordism"?

socialism

The economic system based on collective ownership of the means of production and collective distribution of goods and services is called:

a sweatshop

According to the U.S. General Accounting Office, an employer that violates more than one federal or state labor law concerning wages, overtime, child labor, safety and health, or industrial regulation is classified as:

hunting and gathering

Given that the greater the division of labor in a society, the greater the degree of inequality, which type of economic system would you expect to be the most equal?

pollution

Which of the following social problems might be alleviated if more Americans were encouraged to telecommute?

Businesses get increased productivity and fewer sick days.

What are the benefits of telecommuting?

shallow integration

When Japanese cars that are made entirely in Japan are imported into the United States to be sold to Americans, and American jeans made in the United States are exported to Japan to be sold to Japanese, it is an example of:

opening runaway shops

When manufacturing firms move to other countries to take advantage of cheap labor and lax environmental laws, it is called:

They exploit workers to produce virtual goods instead of material goods.

How are ‘gold farms’ different than traditional sweatshops?

their own labor

In a capitalist system, what do workers have available to sell?

the race to the bottom

In 1995 the Philippines passed the Special Economic Zone Act, which established certain areas where corporations could set up factories, import raw materials without paying duties or tariffs, and in some cases avoid paying any taxes for a number of years. What is this an example of?

globalization

The cultural and economic changes that result from dramatic increases in international trade and exchange are called:

socialism

The economic system based on collective ownership of the means of production and collective distribution of goods and services is called:

closed shops

Workplaces where all of the employees must be members of a union are called:

unions

Who led campaigns to end child labor and increase workplace safety?

shallow integration

When liquor stores in the United States import wine made entirely from French grapes and bottled in France or beer brewed from grain and hops grown in Holland, it is an example of:

resistance strategies

Tactics that let workers take back some degree of control over the conditions in which they work are called:

shallow integration

When Japanese cars that are made entirely in Japan are imported into the United States to be sold to Americans, and American jeans made in the United States are exported to Japan to be sold to Japanese, it is an example of:

it is human nature to seek out work

What does Karl Marx believe is the natural human attitude toward work and productive activity?

at least partially socialist

In Great Britain, the government owns the British Broadcasting Corporation, or BBC, which is the world’s largest television and radio broadcasting service. This tells you that Great Britain is:

communism

What is the most extreme form of socialism called?

knowledge worker

Someone who works primarily with information and develops or uses knowledge in the workplace is called:

It emphasized that the workers needed more than wages barely sufficient to keep them alive.

During the 1912 textile mill strikes in Lawrence, Massachusetts, the striking workers’ slogan was "bread and roses." What did the slogan mean?

the microchip

What technological development is associated with the Information Revolution?

Having virtual goods isn’t just a matter of personal achievement, but also a matter of reputation and status in the community.

Why would anyone want to buy virtual goods for an online computer game like World of Warcraft, rather than gaining them by playing the game?

in a traditional economy, work took place at home

How did the Industrial Revolution create "work" in the modern sense?

Moore’s Law

The theory that the capacity of microchips will double every 18 months is called:

their families

Alienation refers to separation. Which of the following does Marx NOT argue that workers are separated from?

It’s about the struggle of janitors, most of them immigrants, to unionize.

In 2000 Ken Loach made a film called Bread and Roses. The film was set in Los Angeles. Given what you know from Chapter 11, what is the film about?

their jobs cannot be moved overseas

In 2005 teaching assistants at the University of Oregon went on strike. What feature of their job made it easier for them to strike than most American workers?

all possible answers are correct

What change was associated with the Industrial Revolution?

knowledge workers

What career is NOT a category of contingent work?

capitalism shaping human service institutions

Welfare agencies run by for-profit firms are an example of:

Telecommuters must provide a concrete measure of their accomplishments, not just show up.

How could telecommuting increase worker productivity?

Multinational corporations will increasingly shape the policies of governments.

According to critics of globalization, what disadvantages result from increased international trade?

it encourages efficiency through technological innovation

Edward Brent, a professor of sociology at the University of Missouri, has invented a piece of software called Qualrus, which he uses to grade students’ papers. He claims this saves him at least 200 hours of grading every year. Why is using a computer program to grade a particularly capitalist technique?

globalization

The cultural and economic changes that result from dramatic increases in international trade and exchange are called:

a stripper who is considered to be an independent contractor and therefore exempt from minimum wage laws

Which of the following would be an example of a contingent worker?

globalization

Michael Hardt and Antonio Negri wrote Empire to express their concern that nation-states are increasingly losing control and being replaced by an international "empire" that is not under any one person’s control, but that follows a logic of exploitative capitalism. Given what you know about changes in the economy, what do you think they are concerned about?

It instituted limits on secondary strikes and boycotts.

What effect did the Taft-Hartley Act of 1947 have on unions?

shallow integration

When Japanese cars that are made entirely in Japan are imported into the United States to be sold to Americans, and American jeans made in the United States are exported to Japan to be sold to Japanese, it is an example of:

at least partially socialist

In Great Britain, the government owns the British Broadcasting Corporation, or BBC, which is the world’s largest television and radio broadcasting service. This tells you that Great Britain is:

social institution

a major sphere of social life, or societal subsystem, organized to meet human needs

economy

the social institution that organizes a society’s production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services

postindustrial economy

a productive system based on service work and computer technology

primary sector

the part of the economy that draws raw materials from that natural environment

secondary sector

the part of the economy that transforms raw materials into manufactured goods

tertiary sector

the part of the economy that involves services rather than goods

global economy

economic activity that crosses national borders

capitalism

an economic system in which natural resources and the means of producing goods and services are privately owned

socialism

an economic system in which natural resources and the means of producing goods and services are collectively owned

historical changes in economics and work

Hunting and gathering societies, Horticultural societies, Pastoral Societies, The Agricultural Revolution, Neolithic Revolution, The Industrial Revolution, The Information Revolution

horticultural societies

based on the domestication of animals, farming First surpluses

Industrial Revolution

rapid transformation of social life resulting from the technological and economic developments assembly line, steam power, and urbanization. Migration to cities

Information Revolution

social revolution made possible by the development of the microchip in the 1970s, Other technologies associated with the Information Revolution include the Internet, computer networking, and all types of digital media and communications.

Outsourcing

The tendency in capitalism is to move operations to other countries where labor and production costs are cheaper.

capitalism shaping human service institutions.

Welfare agencies run by for-profit firms are an example of:

knowledge workers

Someone who works primarily with information and develops or uses knowledge in the workplace is called:

commodity chains

What are networks of corporations, manufacturers, distributors, and consumer outlets that create products called?

the advertising firm that scripted the commercial

Think about the process by which athletic shoes are made. Which part of the global commodity chain for these shoes would you be most surprised to find in Indonesia?

alienated

Workers in large department stores usually are paid commissions, which means that they are in direct competition with their fellow employees. According to Karl Marx, this makes them:

shallow integration

When liquor stores in the United States import wine made entirely from French grapes and bottled in France or beer brewed from grain and hops grown in Holland, it is an example of:

the growth of information technology

What changes in the economy would be associated with travel agents hiring inmates in minimum security prisons to take calls and schedule vacations for customers?

the switch to a manufacturing economy

What change caused people to migrate into cities from rural areas?

a resistance strategy

Workers at a large retail outlet are required to wear green aprons with nametags on them, which often leads customers to address them by their first names. Sometimes employees alter their name tags in humorous ways (changing "Asagi" to "Soggy") and then try to convince management that it is a valid name change ("It’s what my parents call me"). What is this an example of?

the production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services.

The economy is not just about money but about:

It’s cheaper

Why would a company outsource or contract out labor they might otherwise employ their own staff to perform?

The jobs in question could not be moved overseas and he striking workers had good rapport with customers.

Why was the successful UPS strike of 1997 relatively unique and unlikely to be repeated?

globalization

The cultural and economic changes that result from dramatic increases in international trade and exchange are called:

their own labor

In a capitalist system, what do workers have available to sell?

Having virtual goods isn’t just a matter of personal achievement, but also a matter of reputation and status in the community.

Why would anyone want to buy virtual goods for an online computer game like World of Warcraft, rather than gaining them by playing the game?

deep integration

Corporations whose decision-making, production, and distribution operations are spread all over the world are characteristic of:

pure communism

"From each according to his ability, to each according to his need." This slogan could only be fully realized with:

Human workers can resist and undermine the bureaucratic restraints that limit their autonomy.

How are strictly controlled workers within bureaucracies different from robots?

the Agricultural Revolution

New innovations in farming like mechanized seed spreaders and new techniques of crop rotation were part of what macro-level social change?

He no longer had control over what he produced.

In 2003 Evan Williams, the owner of the Internet firm Blogger, sold his company to Google; in the process he became a Google employee, along with his six employees. Why might Karl Marx suspect that this move would leave Williams feeling more alienated than before?

globalization

Michael Hardt and Antonio Negri wrote Empire to express their concern that nation-states are increasingly losing control and being replaced by an international "empire" that is not under any one person’s control, but that follows a logic of exploitative capitalism. Given what you know about changes in the economy, what do you think they are concerned about?

alienated

Workers in large department stores usually are paid commissions, which means that they are in direct competition with their fellow employees. According to Karl Marx, this makes them:

knowledge worker

Someone who works primarily with information and develops or uses knowledge in the workplace is called:

pure communism

"From each according to his ability, to each according to his need." This slogan could only be fully realized with:

In service work, unlike manufacturing work, it is common for workers’ expectations to conflict with those of customers.

How is service work different than manufacturing work?

They are paid for their labor but do not own the things they produce.

Why did Karl Marx believe that workers in a capitalist economy experience alienation?

a workplace with poor working conditions, below standard wages, and long hours

What is a sweatshop?

Telecommuters must provide a concrete measure of their accomplishments, not just show up.

How could telecommuting increase worker productivity?

It encourages efficiency through technological innovation.

Edward Brent, a professor of sociology at the University of Missouri, has invented a piece of software called Qualrus, which he uses to grade students’ papers. He claims this saves him at least 200 hours of grading every year. Why is using a computer program to grade a particularly capitalist technique?

It has shifted the economy toward the production of knowledge and services.

How has the Information Revolution changed the nature of work and the economy?

the production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services.

The economy is not only about money, but also about:

they are collective

How are strikes different from acts of resistance like daydreaming on the job?

all answers are correct

How are workers’ situations different in socialist, as opposed to capitalist, economies?

the death of distance

If you are ever unlucky enough to have someone steal your credit card, you will have to call a hotline and talk to a customer service representative, who can remove fraudulent charges from your account. Lately, that customer service representative is likely to be in India. Which of the following terms applies to this phenomenon?

socialism

The economic system based on collective ownership of the means of production and collective distribution of goods and services is called:

shallow integration

When liquor stores in the United States import wine made entirely from French grapes and bottled in France or beer brewed from grain and hops grown in Holland, it is an example of:

the greatly diminished importance of place

In September of 2001, doctors conducted the first ever telesurgery, operating on a patient in France from an office in downtown Manhattan. According to an account of the surgery, "By means of a wizardly mixture of high-speed fiber optics and surgical robots—in this case, a setup known as the Zeus Telesurgical Robotic System—the surgeons in New York were able to navigate around the patient’s abdomen with precision." What feature of contemporary society is this an illustration of?

pure communism

"From each according to his ability, to each according to his need." This slogan could only be fully realized with:

the advertising firm that scripted the commercial

Think about the process by which athletic shoes are made. Which part of the global commodity chain for these shoes would you be most surprised to find in Indonesia?

outsourcing

n 2009 the British government announced that it was cutting costs by eliminating many jobs and transferring others to India, including more than 100 jobs involving finance and information technology. What is this an example of?

a sweatshop

According to the U.S. General Accounting Office, an employer that violates more than one federal or state labor law concerning wages, overtime, child labor, safety and health, or industrial regulation is classified as:

the United States is a capitalist nation with a degree of socialism in government subsidies to businesses.

In 2008 and 2009, the United States government initiated a large-scale economic bailout of the banking and auto industries, in which the government invested enormous amounts of money, becoming the majority shareholder in some corporations. This means that:

a resistance strategy

Workers at a large retail outlet are required to wear green aprons with nametags on them, which often leads customers to address them by their first names. Sometimes employees alter their name tags in humorous ways (changing "Asagi" to "Soggy") and then try to convince management that it is a valid name change ("It’s what my parents call me"). What is this an example of?

privatization of the means of production

Which of the following is one of the primary principles of capitalism?

constantly retrain and learn new skills

One way that you can tell medical doctors are part of the capitalist economy is that they have to:

alienated for human nature

American workers often describe themselves as "working for the weekend," a sentiment that is also expressed in the phrase "thank god it’s Friday." Karl Marx would say that these sentiments say something about our relationship to work and indicate that we are:

globalization

The cultural and economic changes that result from dramatic increases in international trade and exchange are called:

It’s about the struggle of janitors, most of them immigrants, to unionize.

In 2000 Ken Loach made a film called Bread and Roses. The film was set in Los Angeles. Given what you know from Chapter 11, what is the film about?

a service worker

Someone who gives acupuncture to dogs in order to relieve their stress is:

the are collective

How are strikes different from acts of resistance like daydreaming on the job?

professional socialization

When someone first takes a job as an aesthetician they have to learn how to use wax to remove unwanted body hair from customers. Though certain skills have to be mastered to do this well, new employees also have to learn from their coworkers about how to talk to customers about parts of the body that are usually very private, an example of:

it’s human nature to seek out work

What does Karl Marx believe is the natural human attitude toward work and productive activity?

shallow integration

When Japanese cars that are made entirely in Japan are imported into the United States to be sold to Americans, and American jeans made in the United States are exported to Japan to be sold to Japanese, it is an example of:

a 30-year-old woman who works as a customer service representative for a cell phone company

Which of these workers would be most typical of the economy in America today?

capitalism shaping human service institutions.

Welfare agencies run by for-profit firms are an example of:

Human workers can resist and undermine the bureaucratic restraints that limit their autonomy.

How are strictly controlled workers within bureaucracies different from robots?

nothing; there’s no way for them to move up in the world

According to Barbara Ehrenreich, what do workers with minimum-wage service jobs need to do to get ahead and move up in the world?

deep integration

Corporations whose decision-making, production, and distribution operations are spread all over the world are characteristic of:

the production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services.

The economy is not only about money, but also about:

it is cheaper

Why would a company outsource or contract out labor they might otherwise employ their own staff to perform?

commodity chains

What are networks of corporations, manufacturers, distributors, and consumer outlets that create products called?

unions

Who led campaigns to end child labor and increase workplace safety?

They are paid for their labor but do not own the things they produce.

Why did Karl Marx believe that workers in a capitalist economy experience alienation?

Human workers can resist and undermine the bureaucratic restraints that limit their autonomy.

How are strictly controlled workers within bureaucracies different from robots?

their families

Alienation refers to separation. Which of the following does Marx NOT argue that workers are separated from?

It is damaging to workers and suppresses their real selves.

According to Robin Leidner’s Fast Food, Fast Talk, what are the consequences of scripting workers’ interactions with customers?

he greatly diminished importance of place

In September of 2001, doctors conducted the first ever telesurgery, operating on a patient in France from an office in downtown Manhattan. According to an account of the surgery, "By means of a wizardly mixture of high-speed fiber optics and surgical robots—in this case, a setup known as the Zeus Telesurgical Robotic System—the surgeons in New York were able to navigate around the patient’s abdomen with precision." What feature of contemporary society is this an illustration of?

When manufacturing firms move to other countries to take advantage of cheap labor and lax environmental laws, it is called:

opening runaway shops.

a knowledge worker

Someone who works primarily with information and develops or uses knowledge in the workplace is called:

the United States is a capitalist nation with a degree of socialism in government subsidies to businesses.

In 2008 and 2009, the United States government initiated a large-scale economic bailout of the banking and auto industries, in which the government invested enormous amounts of money, becoming the majority shareholder in some corporations. This means that:

globalization

The cultural and economic changes that result from dramatic increases in international trade and exchange are called:

They are paid for their labor but do not own the things they produce.

Why did Karl Marx believe that workers in a capitalist economy experience alienation?

eliminated meat cutting in all of its Texas stores

What did Wal-Mart do when the butchers at the Supercenter in Jacksonville, Texas, voted to unionize?

opening runaway shops

When manufacturing firms move to other countries to take advantage of cheap labor and lax environmental laws, it is called:

the increasingly important role that capitalism plays in Cuba

Cuba’s communist government has recently introduced reforms that make it easier to attract tourists, and many skilled professionals have started working in the tourism industry to earn more money, regardless of their degree. What is this a sign of?

Having virtual goods isn’t just a matter of personal achievement, but also a matter of reputation and status in the community.

Why would anyone want to buy virtual goods for an online computer game like World of Warcraft, rather than gaining them by playing the game?

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