Sociology of Sport- Chapter 5 review

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Which of the following is NOT true about norms?

They differ from one situation to the next.

As the term is used by sociologists, deviance

always involves a violation of a law

Studying deviance in sports presents problems in that

actions that are normal in sports may be deviant outside sport

One of the reasons that it is difficult to study deviance in sports is that much of it involves actions grounded in

accepting and over-conforming to norms in sport cultures.

One of the reasons that it is difficult to study deviance in sports is that

the types of causes of deviance in sports are very divers

It has become difficult to determine what actions are deviant and what actions are accepted parts of athletic training today because

all training involves surpassing limits that are accepted as normal in society

When a basketball player dribbles the ball out of bounds during a game, she has

violated a formal norm.

When two college basketball players turn their back to the U.S. flag during the playing of the national anthem, they

violate an informal norm

An absolutist approach to deviance in sports is based on the assumption that

unchanging moral truths are foundation for all norms

According to an absolutist approach to studying deviance

all deviance is caused by a lack of moral character or a moral failure

People using an absolutist approach tend to

see deviance as located in the person who engages in it

A social constructionist approach to deviance is based on

a combination of cultural, interactionist, and structural theories.

When using a constructionist approach, deviance is defined as ideas, traits, and actions that

fall outside of socially determined normative boundaries

According to constructionist, both norms and deviance are

socially constructed through interactions

According to a constructionist approach, the process of negotiating normative boundaries is influenced by

the power dynamics that exist in a society or social world

A constructionist approach to deviance is based on the assumption that

most ideas, traits, and actions fall into a normally accepted range

Deviance may involve under-conformity or over-conformity to norms. The author explains that deviance involving over-conformity consists of ideas, traits, or actions that

based on unquestioned acceptance of norms

Deviance may involve under-conformity or over-conformity to norms. The author explains that deviance involving under-conformity consists of ideas, traits, or actions that

are subnormal

Anarchy is the social condition that exists when

widespread under-conformity creates general lawlessness

Research on normative over-conformity suggests that if we want to understand this form of deviance we must

critically examine the organization and dynamics of elite sport cultures

Understanding deviance in sports requires an understanding of "the sport ethic." Which of the following beliefs is NOT one of the core norms of the sport ethic?

An athlete accepts pain but avoids risks

The sport ethic is linked to deviance in sports because athletes

expect each other to over-conform to its norms.

The sport ethic becomes a source of dangerous deviance in sports when

people in sports don’t see boundaries to limit over-conformity to the ethic.

Athletes who engage in deviant under-conformity are usually punished or cut from teams; athletes who engage in deviant over-conformity are

likely to experience health problems as a result

A reason that athletes may over-conform to the norms of the sport ethic is because they

seek identity reaffirmation from other athlete

The athletes most likely to over-conform to the norms of the sport ethic are those who see

a strong need to be accepted as athletes by their peer in sports

When athletes collectively dedicate themselves to a goal and willingly endure pain and make sacrifices to achieve it, they often create a social world in which

deviant over-conformity becomes normalized

When athletes collectively over-conform to the norms of the sport ethic, they may develop hubris, which leads them to see themselves as separate from and superior to the rest of the community.
The author explains that this hubris

leads to a sense of entitlement and lack of concerns for people outside their sport

When there is a collective sense of hubris on a team, it is likely that some athletes will

feel a sense of entitlement in the general community.

The author suggest that athletes engage in over-conformity in sports because of their desire to

play and be accepted as an athlete by other athletes

Social processes in elite power and performance sports often lead groups of athletes to develop hubris at the same time that these social processes

separate athletes from the rest of the community

Controlling deviant over-conformity in sports requires a close examination of the

meaning and organization of sports

The most effective way to control deviant over-conformity is to

help athletes set limits when conforming to the norms of the sport ethic

To make changes that would dec

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