Sociology Final- Chapter 14

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Education is the social institution by which society provides people with important knowledge, including

-job skills. -basic facts and information. -cultural norms and values.

In low-income nations, most education is a matter of

what parents and other community members teach their children.

The fact that, historically, schooling has been mostly for elites is evident in the fact that the word "school" has the same root as the Greek word for


If you were to enter a school in ancient Greece or China, the students you would find there would be mainly

the rich.

In the world as a whole, about what share of children reach the secondary grades in school?


One major reason that schooling is limited in India is that

many poor children must work for income.

On which of the following continents do we find the most countries with high rates of illiteracy?


Getting into college in Japan, compared to the United States, is more a matter of

performance on achievement tests.

At what point in our history had a majority of adults in the United States earned a high-school diploma?

the mid-1960s

In the United States today, about what percentage of the adult population has a high school diploma?

88 percent

In the United States today, approximately what percentage of people over the age of twenty-five have earned a four-year college degree?

31 percent

In the United States, the focus of education has always been

what is practical and job-related.

The functions of schooling include

-socializing the young. -cultural innovation. -helping to integrate a diverse society.

Which of the following is a latent function of schooling?

providing child-care

Which of the following statements applies the symbolic-interaction approach to schooling?

If teachers think some category of students is superior, those same students may end up doing superior work.

One result of tracking in schools is that

the students who get the best schooling are usually those who are more privileged to begin with.

Jonathan Kozol criticizes the U.S. educational system for

unequal funding that makes some schools far better than others.

An example of the cultural capital advantage of well-to-do students in U.S. schooling is parents who

-spend more time reading to their children. -value schooling and encourage their children. -encourage the development of imagination in their children.

Comparing school performance, researchers have found that the most important cause of the achievement gap between rich and poor children is

differences in home environments.

As income-level goes up among U.S. families, we find that

the share of children going to college goes up.

Community colleges are an important part of higher education in the United States because they

-enroll over 40 percent of all college students. -greatly expand the opportunity to attend college. -enroll almost half of African American and Hispanic undergraduates.

Considering both African Americans and Hispanic Americans over the age of twenty-five,

women are more likely than men to have completed four or more years of college.

Which of the following correctly states the effect of additional schooling on average income?

Earning a high school diploma and earning a college degree both raise income levels.

According to Theodore Sizer, bureaucracy harms schooling by

-imposing uniformity on culturally diverse schools. -emphasizing test scores and other numerical ratings. -expecting all students to progress at the same rate.

For the United States as a whole, about what percentage of people between ages sixteen and twenty-four drop out before completing high school?

7 percent

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