SOCIOLOGY CHAPTER 8

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bourgeoisie.

In Karl Marx’s analysis, another name for the capitalist class is the ________

occupational rankings are roughly the same in all high-income nations.

Based on what you know about occupational prestige, you would assume that ________

more economic inequality.

Compared to other high-income nations, the United States has ________

the state.

In 1917, the Russian Revolution transformed the feudal aristocracy and placed productive property under the control of ________

white-collar work.

Work involving mostly mental activity is called ________

578,000, although the real number could be several times higher

A federal government study in 20134 found that about how many people in the United States were homeless for some time during a year?

Wealth

If you were looking for data supporting the claim that U.S. society is very stratified, you would make the strongest case by pointing to which of the following factors?

ranking categories of people in a hierarchy.

Social stratification is a concept that refers to ________

little improvement for millions of poor, black people.

The ending of apartheid in South Africa has led to ________

Agrarian

According to Simon Kuznets, in which type of society is the extent of social stratification greatest?

37 percent

The wealthiest 1 percent of U.S. families (the "super-rich") controls about _____ of the nation’s privately held wealth.

is a matter of inequality and beliefs about why people should be unequal.

Social stratification ________

found everywhere.

Relative poverty is ________

accent in speech.

One good indication that caste still operates in the United Kingdom is the importance people attach to ________

wealth.

The total amount of financial assets, minus any debts, is referred to as ________

65 percent

The richest 5 percent of U.S. families own about what percentage of privately owned property?

changed very little.

During the last three decades, the real income of African American families in the United States has ________

$81,000.

Today, the wealth of the average U.S. family is about ________

birth; achievement

Being in the upper-upper class is usually the result of _____; being in the lower-upper class is more a matter of _____.

risen for all.

Contrasting living standards in the United States during Marx’s lifetime with living standards in the United States today, we see that U.S. living standards have ________

40 percent

Based on what you have learned in this chapter, about what percentage of all U.S. families have little or no wealth?

Children under the age of eighteen

In the United States, which age category has the highest poverty rate?

lower-middle class.

Working class people might also be described as ________

society operates in a way that carries class differences from one generation to the next.

When Marx argued that capitalism "reproduces the class structure," he meant that ________

increasing.

Based on what you have read, as the United States develops a postindustrial economy, economic inequality is ________

Horizontal social mobility

Which concept describes a person who moves from one occupation to another that provides about the same level of rewards?

lower-upper class.

The family of actor Will Smith and actress Jada Pinkett Smith would best be described as ________

gives some people more privileges and opportunities than others.

Using the sociological perspective, we see that social stratification ________

based entirely on personal merit.

The concept "meritocracy" refers to social stratification ________

too few available jobs.

Sociologist William Julius Wilson suggests the cause of poverty lies in ________

Elizabeth II, the queen of England.

A good example of a person in her society’s upper-upper class is ________

Weber thought socialism would reduce economic differences but also create political elite, increasing differences in power.

Marx claimed social stratification would end with the creation of a socialist economy. What was Weber’s view?

14.5 percent

In 2013, about what share of the U.S. population was officially counted as poor?

Wealth

If you were looking for data supporting the claim that U.S. society is very stratified, you would make the strongest case by pointing to which of the following factors?

people tend to socialize with others of about the same social position.

A common micro-level pattern involving social interaction is that ________

economic class, degree of social status, and amount of power.

Max Weber claimed that social position was based on a person’s ________

encouraged welfare dependency.

People who supported the 1996 welfare reform claim that the earlier system ________

The highest-paid 20 percent

During the last twenty years, which category of the U.S. population has experienced the largest gains in average income?

low status consistency.

A college professor with advanced degrees, moderate salary, and little power to shape national events can be described as having ________

could exist, but only if people are willing to allow anyone to perform any job.

Davis and Moore point out that an egalitarian society ________

Latin America

Looking around the world today, income inequality is greatest in which region?

$63,815.

In 2013, the median income for U.S. families was ________

The working class

According to Karl Marx, which class forms the core of the industrial proletariat?

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