Sociology Chapter 8- Sexuality and Society

Sex

the biological distinction between females and males

primary sex characteristics

the genitals, organs used for reproduction

secondary sex characteristics

bodily development, apart from the genitals, that distinguishes biologically mature females and males

intersexual people

people whose bodies (including genitals) have both female and male characteristics

transsexuals

people who feel they are one sex even though biologically they are the other

incest taboo

a norm forbidding sexual relations or marriage between certain relatives

Gender is cultural...

referring to behavior, power, and privileges a society attaches to being male or female

sexuality is a biological issue

*sex is determined at conception as a male sperm joins a female ovum *males and females have different sex characteristics (primary and secondary) *intersexual people (hermaphrodites) have some combination of male & female genitalia *transsexuals feel they are one sex although biologically they are the other

sexuality is a cultural issue

*for humans sex is a matter of cultural meaning and personal choice rather than biological programming * sexual practices vary considerably from one society to another (i.e. kissing, modesty, and standards of beauty) *the incest taboo exists in all societies because regulating sexuality,especially reproduction, is a necessary element of social organization. Specific taboos vary from one society to another

Sexual revolution

peaked in 60s and 70s. drew sexuality out into the open *baby boomers first generation to grow up with the idea that sex was a normal part of social life

sexual counterrevolution

began 1980 aimed criticism at "permissiveness" and urged a return to a more traditional "family values"

There are few areas of life in which sexuality does not play some part. T or F

True

U.S. culture discouraged open discussion of sexuality, so researchers did not begin to study sexuality until the middle of the twentieth century.

True

Standards of human beauty are the same for people everywhere in the world

False

Sociobiologists point out that, in every society throughout the world, people are attracted to youthfulness.

True

Sociologists point out that human sexual behavior is very similar across all cultures.

False

Every state in the United States permits lawful marriage between a woman and a man who are first cousins.

False

People in all cultures respond to intersexual people with confusion or even disgust.

False

Primary sex characteristics refer to reproductive organs.

True

Although there is a human "sex drive," our biology does not dictate any specific ways of being sexual.

True

No sexual practice—not even the incest taboo—is found everywhere in the world.

False

Historically, public attitudes towards sexuality in the United States have been an inconsistent mix of cultural repression and support for individual choice.

True

During the twentieth century, U.S. society experienced profound changes in sexual attitudes and practices.

True

The publication of Alfred Kinsey's first book in 1948 received considerable attention because scientists were actually studying sex.

True

The baby boom generation—people born between 1946 and 1964—became the first cohort in U.S. history to grow up with the idea that sex was part of everyone's life, married or not

True

While the sexual revolution increased sexual activity overall, it changed behavior among men more than among women.

False

The sexual counterrevolution did little to change the fact that most sexually-active people in the United States had a high number of sexual partners

False

The region of the world where people use birth control the least is North America.

False

Survey research shows that, even though the public remains divided on the issue, U.S. society is more accepting of premarital sex today than it was a generation ago.

True

Despite the widespread image of "swinging singles," married people have sex with their partners more often than singles do.

True

Most married adults in the United States are sexually unfaithful to their spouses at some point in their marriages.

False

The fact that many people are bisexual demonstrates that sexual orientation is not clear-cut

True

Homosexuality and heterosexuality are mutually exclusive, meaning that all people fall into one category or the other.

False

There was no distinct category of "homosexual" people until about a century ago.

True

A majority of adults in the United States report engaging in homosexual activity at some point in their lives.

False

The existence of the Muxes in Mexico shows us that there can be more than two gender categories.

True

Homophobia refers to a fear of sexuality

False

Teenage pregnancy raises the risk of girls not finishing school and becoming poor.

True

The U.S. rate of teenage pregnancy was actually higher in the 1950s than it is today.

True

The sexual revolution raised the level of teenage pregnancy in the United States.

False

Pornography is a moral issue for some people and a power issue for others.

True

Prostitution is greatest in poor nations where women have fewer economic opportunities.

True

On U.S. campuses, the majority of women express dissatisfaction with the culture of "hooking up."

True

Although some people think rape simply reflects a desire for sex, it is an expression of power

True

The structural-functional approach highlights patterns of inequality that are linked to sexuality

False

The symbolic-interaction approach highlights the various meanings people attach to sexuality.

True

The social-conflict approach highlights the ways sexual attitudes and practices are a benefit to some people and a disadvantage to others.

True

Heterosexism refers to rejecting or stigmatizing anyone who is not heterosexual.

True

The abortion debate is about nothing more than the question of when life begins.

False

sexual orientation

a person/s romantic and emotional attraction to another person -most research supports the claim that sexual orientation is rooted in biology -not a neat package, many who think they are heterosexual have had homosexual experiences, and vice versa -gay rights movement helped change public attitude towards homosexuality -still almost 47% of U.S. adults say homosexuality is wrong

Four sexual orientations are:

1. heterosexuality 2. homosexuality 3. bisexuality 4. asexuality

heterosexuality

sexual attraction to someone of the other sex

homosexuality

sexual attraction to somone of the same sex

bisexuality

sexual attraction to people of both sexes

asexuality

lack of sexual attraction to people of either sex

homophobia

discomfort over close personal interaction with people thought to be gay, lesbian, or bisexual

Most research supports the claim that sexual orientation is rooted in _____________in much the same way as being right-handed or left-handed.

biology

pornography

sexually explicit material intended to cause sexual arousal -conservatives condemn it on moral grounds -liberals view it as a power issue, condemning it as demeaning to women

prostitution

the selling of sexual services -illegal almost everywhere in U.S -viewed as victimless crime -but it victimizes women and spreads STD's

abortion

the deliberate termination of a pregnancy -laws banned abortions by all states by 1900 -opposition rose in 19060s -1973 the laws were declared unconstitutional -today, 1.2mil abortions ea yr *pro-choice- support a womens right to choose *pro-life- oppose abortion on moral grounds

queer theory

a body of research findings that challenges the heterosexual bias in U.S. society

heterosexism

a view that labels anyone who is not heterosexual as "queer"

The structural-functional approach to sexuality

highlights societys need to regulate sexual activity, and especially reproduction. -one universal norm is incest taboo which keeps family relations clear

The symbolic-interaction approach to sexuality

-emphasizes the various meanings people attach to sexuality. -social construction of sexuality can be seen in sexual differences between societies and in changing sexual patterns over time

the social-conflict approach to sexuality

links sexuality to social inequality. -feminist theory claims that men dominate women by devaluing them to the level of sexual objects. -Queer theory claims our society has a heterosexual bias, defining anything different as "queer"

Sexual Violence

-90,000 rapes reported per year -number probably much higher -15% of rape victims male victims -rape is a violent crime in which victim and offender typically know each other

Teen Pregnancy

-740,000 U.S. teenagers become pregnant each year -rate has dropped since 1950 -today most pregnant teens are not married, and are at high risk for dropping out of school and being poor

A reason to study sexuality using the sociological perspective is
a. sexuality is both important and controversial.
b. many people do not understand sexuality very well.
c. sexuality plays a part in many areas of social life.
d. All of these are correct.

D

Which concept refers to the biological distinction between males and females?
a. sex
b. primary sex characteristics
c. gender
d. gender roles

a

The development of breasts in females and deeper voices in males are examples of
a. gender norms.
b. primary sex characteristics.
c. secondary sex characteristics.
d. All of these are correct.

c

Which concept refers to genitals that distinguish females and males?
a. gender
b. primary sex characteristics
c. secondary sex characteristics
d. sexual chromosomes

b

Which concept refers to humans who have some combination of female and male sexual characteristics?
a. multi-sexed
b. bisexual
c. transsexual
d. intersexual

d

If you often had the feeling of being "trapped in the wrong body," you might be
a. a hermaphrodite.
b. a homosexual.
c. a transsexual.
d. a bisexual.

c

Comparative research indicates that
a. although sex has a biological foundation, sexual practices vary from place to place as an element of the culture.
b. people throughout the world engage in the same sexual practices.
c. sex is a not permitted in some societies, but it is encouraged in others.
d. sexuality is defined entirely by a biological "sex drive

a

One norm found everywhere is the incest taboo, which refers to norms forbidding
a. young children from engaging in sex.
b. sexual relations or marriage between certain relatives.
c. women from becoming sexually active before marriage.
d. sex except for the purpose of having children

b

Sociologists offer several explanations why the incest taboo is found everywhere. Look at the statements below and identify the statement that is NOT a claim made by sociologists.
a. The incest taboo limits sexual competition within families.
b. The incest taboo helps define people's rights and obligations towards each other.
c. The incest taboo helps clarify the kinship system.
d. The incest taboo discourages contact of family members with the larger society.

d

About what share of the states in this country have laws that permit marriage between first cousins?
a. 10 percent of the states
b. none of the states
c. all of the states
d. half of the states

d

When did the sexual revolution begin?
a. It began during the colonial era.
b. It began during the Great Depression of the 1930s.
c. It began in the 1940s and then grew quickly in the late 1960s.
d. It began about 1980.

c

The importance of Alfred Kinsey's research on sexuality in the United States was
a. making sexuality a focus of scientific study.
b. showing that people were less conventional than most of society thought.
c. encouraging a greater openness towards sexuality.
d. All of these are correct.

d

The sexual counterrevolution had begun in the United States by
a. 1920.
b. 1960.
c. 1980.
d. 1995.

c

The effect of the sexual counterrevolution was
a. to keep sex only within marriage.
b. to encourage people to limit their number of sexual partners or, in some cases, to abstain from sex entirely.
c. to finally close the historical "double standard."
d. to discourage the use of birth control technology.

b

Survey research on attitudes towards premarital sex tells us that
a. the public is more accepting of premarital sex than it was a generation ago.
b. there has been little or no change in public attitudes towards premarital sex in recent decades.
c. the public is less accepting of premarital sex than it was a generation ago.
d. almost no one today claims that premarital sex is wrong.

a

Thinking about the Laumann study of sexual patterns among U.S. adults, which of the following statements is correct?
a. Over a lifetime, almost everyone has about the same amount of sexual experience.
b. Single people have more sex than married people.
c. There are striking differences in sexual experience within the U.S. population.
d. in the age of AIDS , almost all sex is limited to married partners.

c

Research on extramarital sex shows that about _____ of married men and about _____ of married women remain faithful to their spouse throughout their married lives.
a. 25 percent; 40 percent
b. 25 percent; 75 percent
c. 75 percent; 50 percent
d. 75 percent; 90 percent

d

Which of the following concepts refers to a person's romantic and emotional attraction to another person?
a. sex role
b. sexual orientation
c. sexual experience
d. personal transsexuality

b

Sexual attraction to someone of the same sex is called
a. heterosexuality.
b. bisexuality.
c. homosexuality.
d. asexuality

a

Sexual attraction to people of both sexes is called
a. heterosexuality.
b. bisexuality.
c. homosexuality.
d. asexuality.

b

Sarah feels little or no sexual attraction to people of either sex. Her sexual orientation is called
a. heterosexuality.
b. bisexuality.
c. homosexuality.
d. asexuality.

d

The majority of evidence indicates that sexual orientation is rooted in
a. human biology, although social experience plays some role.
b. how societies construct sexuality.
c. individual choice.
d. the way young children are raised.

a

In 2010, about what percentage of U.S. adults claimed homosexuality is "always wrong" or "almost always wrong"?
a. almost 100 percent
b. about 47 percent
c. about 30 percent
d. only 5 percent

b

About ______ of men and _____ of women in the United States define themselves as "partly" or "entirely" homosexual.
a. 30 percent; 30 percent
b. 28 percent; 14 percent
c. 10 percent; 6 percent
d. 2.3 percent; 1.3 percent

d

The concept "homophobia" refers to
a. fear of pregnancy.
b. fear of one's own sexuality.
c. fear of close personal interaction with people thought to be gay, lesbian, or bisexual.
d. fear of attracting sexual interest from another person.

c

Which of the following categories of teenagers would you correctly place at highest probability of pregnancy?
a. teenage women with low incomes and weak families
b. teenage women with high incomes
c. teenage women with little sexual experience
d. all of these are correct

a

People who oppose pornography argue that
a. it may contribute to a breakdown in morals.
b. it may contribute to violence against women.
c. it unfairly depicts women as the playthings of men.
d. All of these are correct.

d

From a global perspective, prostitution is most common in
a. high-income nations, where women are free to choose their profession.
b. poor nations, where women have fewer economic opportunities.
c. all nations because prostitution is found in every country to about the same extent.
d. Middle Eastern countries such as Saudi Arabia and Iran, where women have fewer choices about their lives.

b

Elite prostitutes—young, attractive, and well educated women—are widely referred to as _____.
a. streetwalkers
b. brothel workers
c. call girls or escorts
d. None of these is correct.

c

Prostitution is regarded by many people in the United States as a
a. victimless crime.
b. corporate crime.
c. crime against the person.
d. white-collar crime.

a

A reason NOT to view prostitution as simply a matter of personal choice involving adults is that
a. prostitution subjects many women to outright violence.
b. prostitution plays a part in spreading sexually transmitted diseases, including AIDS.
c. many poor women become trapped in a life of selling sex.
d. All of these are correct.

d

Which one of the following statements about rape is NOT true?
a. Many rapes are not reported to the police.
b. Official rape statistics include only victims who are women.
c. In most cases of rape, the victim does not know the attacker.
d. Most men who rape men are not homosexual.

c

Which of the following statements is a widespread—but false—idea about rape?
a. Many rapes take place in the home.
b. Women who are raped must have encouraged their attackers.
c. Men who rape are interested in power rather than sex.
d. "Date rape" is a common problem on college campuses.

b

The campus culture of "hooking up" involves sexual relationships between partners with which of these characteristics?
a. Individuals know little about each other.
b. Individuals typically have been drinking alcohol.
c. Individuals have no further obligation to each other.
d. All of these are correct.

d

Which theoretical approach rests on the idea that society needs to regulate human sexuality?
a. the structural-functional approach
b. the symbolic-interaction approach
c. the social-conflict approach
d. queer theory

a

Based on what you know about the history of human sexuality, once a society gains birth-control technology
a. social control of sexuality becomes more strict.
b. families, rather than individuals, make choices about sexual partners.
c. social norms regarding sexuality become more permissive.
d. the incest taboo no longer is observed.

c

Assume that you are investigating the consequences of the incest taboo for kinship organization in a number of societies. Which theoretical approach are you using?
a. the structural-functional approach
b. the symbolic-interaction approach
c. the social-conflict approach
d. queer theory

a

The more global our view of sexuality
a. the more variety we see in the meanings people attach to sexuality.
b. the greater the evidence that biology defines sexuality.
c. the clearer we see that sexual practices are mostly the same all around the world.
d. All of these are correct.

a

If you were to study the changing meaning of virginity over the last century in our society, you would discover that the norm stating that people remain virgins until marriage
a. has changed little.
b. has become stronger with regard to women.
c. has become stronger with regard to men.
d. has become weaker.

d

If you were teaching a class about the symbolic-interaction approach to sexuality, on which of the following topics would you likely focus?
a. understanding men's power over women
b. raising public concern about sexual harassment
c. how individuals in various settings engage in different sexual behavior and attach different meanings to sexual activity
d. understanding why society must regulate with whom and when people reproduce

c

Which theoretical approach points to the ways in which sexuality is linked to social inequality?
a. the structural-functional approach
b. the symbolic-interaction approach
c. the social-conflict approach
d. All of these are correct.

c

Read the four statements below. Which statement is NOT consistent with the social-conflict approach?
a. The process of reality construction is highly variable, so that one group's views of sexuality may well differ from another's.
b. Defining women in sexual terms devalues them, turning women into objects of men's interest.
c. U.S. culture often depicts sexuality in terms of sport and violence, such as when we speak of men "scoring" with women, and men "hitting on" women.
d. When police enforce laws against prostitution, the person most likely to be arrested is the female prostitute, not her male "client."

a

Queer theory is a growing body of knowledge asserting that
a. sex has always seemed strange to most people.
b. no sexual practice should be considered wrong.
c. people fear discovering their homosexuality.
d. there is a heterosexual bias in U.S. society.

d

Which of the following concepts refers to stigmatizing anyone who is not heterosexual as "queer"?
a. homophobia
b. heterosexism
c. heterophilia
d. homophilia

b

Criticism of the social-conflict approach's view of sexuality would include the fact that
a. sexuality is not a power issue for everyone.
b. U.S. society has taken many steps to reduce gender inequality.
c. gay people have made significant strides towards greater opportunity and social acceptance.
d. All of these are correct.

d

The text suggests that the most widely contested issue involving sexuality in the United States in recent years has been
a. homosexuality and gay rights.
b. abortion.
c. prostitution.
d. teen pregnancy.

b

According to national survey data, what percentage of adults in the United States state that a woman should be able to obtain an abortion for any reason?
a. 92 percent
b. 72 percent
c. 42 percent
d. 22 percent

c

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Sex

the biological distinction between females and males

primary sex characteristics

the genitals, organs used for reproduction

secondary sex characteristics

bodily development, apart from the genitals, that distinguishes biologically mature females and males

intersexual people

people whose bodies (including genitals) have both female and male characteristics

transsexuals

people who feel they are one sex even though biologically they are the other

incest taboo

a norm forbidding sexual relations or marriage between certain relatives

Gender is cultural…

referring to behavior, power, and privileges a society attaches to being male or female

sexuality is a biological issue

*sex is determined at conception as a male sperm joins a female ovum *males and females have different sex characteristics (primary and secondary) *intersexual people (hermaphrodites) have some combination of male & female genitalia *transsexuals feel they are one sex although biologically they are the other

sexuality is a cultural issue

*for humans sex is a matter of cultural meaning and personal choice rather than biological programming * sexual practices vary considerably from one society to another (i.e. kissing, modesty, and standards of beauty) *the incest taboo exists in all societies because regulating sexuality,especially reproduction, is a necessary element of social organization. Specific taboos vary from one society to another

Sexual revolution

peaked in 60s and 70s. drew sexuality out into the open *baby boomers first generation to grow up with the idea that sex was a normal part of social life

sexual counterrevolution

began 1980 aimed criticism at "permissiveness" and urged a return to a more traditional "family values"

There are few areas of life in which sexuality does not play some part. T or F

True

U.S. culture discouraged open discussion of sexuality, so researchers did not begin to study sexuality until the middle of the twentieth century.

True

Standards of human beauty are the same for people everywhere in the world

False

Sociobiologists point out that, in every society throughout the world, people are attracted to youthfulness.

True

Sociologists point out that human sexual behavior is very similar across all cultures.

False

Every state in the United States permits lawful marriage between a woman and a man who are first cousins.

False

People in all cultures respond to intersexual people with confusion or even disgust.

False

Primary sex characteristics refer to reproductive organs.

True

Although there is a human "sex drive," our biology does not dictate any specific ways of being sexual.

True

No sexual practice—not even the incest taboo—is found everywhere in the world.

False

Historically, public attitudes towards sexuality in the United States have been an inconsistent mix of cultural repression and support for individual choice.

True

During the twentieth century, U.S. society experienced profound changes in sexual attitudes and practices.

True

The publication of Alfred Kinsey’s first book in 1948 received considerable attention because scientists were actually studying sex.

True

The baby boom generation—people born between 1946 and 1964—became the first cohort in U.S. history to grow up with the idea that sex was part of everyone’s life, married or not

True

While the sexual revolution increased sexual activity overall, it changed behavior among men more than among women.

False

The sexual counterrevolution did little to change the fact that most sexually-active people in the United States had a high number of sexual partners

False

The region of the world where people use birth control the least is North America.

False

Survey research shows that, even though the public remains divided on the issue, U.S. society is more accepting of premarital sex today than it was a generation ago.

True

Despite the widespread image of "swinging singles," married people have sex with their partners more often than singles do.

True

Most married adults in the United States are sexually unfaithful to their spouses at some point in their marriages.

False

The fact that many people are bisexual demonstrates that sexual orientation is not clear-cut

True

Homosexuality and heterosexuality are mutually exclusive, meaning that all people fall into one category or the other.

False

There was no distinct category of "homosexual" people until about a century ago.

True

A majority of adults in the United States report engaging in homosexual activity at some point in their lives.

False

The existence of the Muxes in Mexico shows us that there can be more than two gender categories.

True

Homophobia refers to a fear of sexuality

False

Teenage pregnancy raises the risk of girls not finishing school and becoming poor.

True

The U.S. rate of teenage pregnancy was actually higher in the 1950s than it is today.

True

The sexual revolution raised the level of teenage pregnancy in the United States.

False

Pornography is a moral issue for some people and a power issue for others.

True

Prostitution is greatest in poor nations where women have fewer economic opportunities.

True

On U.S. campuses, the majority of women express dissatisfaction with the culture of "hooking up."

True

Although some people think rape simply reflects a desire for sex, it is an expression of power

True

The structural-functional approach highlights patterns of inequality that are linked to sexuality

False

The symbolic-interaction approach highlights the various meanings people attach to sexuality.

True

The social-conflict approach highlights the ways sexual attitudes and practices are a benefit to some people and a disadvantage to others.

True

Heterosexism refers to rejecting or stigmatizing anyone who is not heterosexual.

True

The abortion debate is about nothing more than the question of when life begins.

False

sexual orientation

a person/s romantic and emotional attraction to another person -most research supports the claim that sexual orientation is rooted in biology -not a neat package, many who think they are heterosexual have had homosexual experiences, and vice versa -gay rights movement helped change public attitude towards homosexuality -still almost 47% of U.S. adults say homosexuality is wrong

Four sexual orientations are:

1. heterosexuality 2. homosexuality 3. bisexuality 4. asexuality

heterosexuality

sexual attraction to someone of the other sex

homosexuality

sexual attraction to somone of the same sex

bisexuality

sexual attraction to people of both sexes

asexuality

lack of sexual attraction to people of either sex

homophobia

discomfort over close personal interaction with people thought to be gay, lesbian, or bisexual

Most research supports the claim that sexual orientation is rooted in _____________in much the same way as being right-handed or left-handed.

biology

pornography

sexually explicit material intended to cause sexual arousal -conservatives condemn it on moral grounds -liberals view it as a power issue, condemning it as demeaning to women

prostitution

the selling of sexual services -illegal almost everywhere in U.S -viewed as victimless crime -but it victimizes women and spreads STD’s

abortion

the deliberate termination of a pregnancy -laws banned abortions by all states by 1900 -opposition rose in 19060s -1973 the laws were declared unconstitutional -today, 1.2mil abortions ea yr *pro-choice- support a womens right to choose *pro-life- oppose abortion on moral grounds

queer theory

a body of research findings that challenges the heterosexual bias in U.S. society

heterosexism

a view that labels anyone who is not heterosexual as "queer"

The structural-functional approach to sexuality

highlights societys need to regulate sexual activity, and especially reproduction. -one universal norm is incest taboo which keeps family relations clear

The symbolic-interaction approach to sexuality

-emphasizes the various meanings people attach to sexuality. -social construction of sexuality can be seen in sexual differences between societies and in changing sexual patterns over time

the social-conflict approach to sexuality

links sexuality to social inequality. -feminist theory claims that men dominate women by devaluing them to the level of sexual objects. -Queer theory claims our society has a heterosexual bias, defining anything different as "queer"

Sexual Violence

-90,000 rapes reported per year -number probably much higher -15% of rape victims male victims -rape is a violent crime in which victim and offender typically know each other

Teen Pregnancy

-740,000 U.S. teenagers become pregnant each year -rate has dropped since 1950 -today most pregnant teens are not married, and are at high risk for dropping out of school and being poor

A reason to study sexuality using the sociological perspective is
a. sexuality is both important and controversial.
b. many people do not understand sexuality very well.
c. sexuality plays a part in many areas of social life.
d. All of these are correct.

D

Which concept refers to the biological distinction between males and females?
a. sex
b. primary sex characteristics
c. gender
d. gender roles

a

The development of breasts in females and deeper voices in males are examples of
a. gender norms.
b. primary sex characteristics.
c. secondary sex characteristics.
d. All of these are correct.

c

Which concept refers to genitals that distinguish females and males?
a. gender
b. primary sex characteristics
c. secondary sex characteristics
d. sexual chromosomes

b

Which concept refers to humans who have some combination of female and male sexual characteristics?
a. multi-sexed
b. bisexual
c. transsexual
d. intersexual

d

If you often had the feeling of being "trapped in the wrong body," you might be
a. a hermaphrodite.
b. a homosexual.
c. a transsexual.
d. a bisexual.

c

Comparative research indicates that
a. although sex has a biological foundation, sexual practices vary from place to place as an element of the culture.
b. people throughout the world engage in the same sexual practices.
c. sex is a not permitted in some societies, but it is encouraged in others.
d. sexuality is defined entirely by a biological "sex drive

a

One norm found everywhere is the incest taboo, which refers to norms forbidding
a. young children from engaging in sex.
b. sexual relations or marriage between certain relatives.
c. women from becoming sexually active before marriage.
d. sex except for the purpose of having children

b

Sociologists offer several explanations why the incest taboo is found everywhere. Look at the statements below and identify the statement that is NOT a claim made by sociologists.
a. The incest taboo limits sexual competition within families.
b. The incest taboo helps define people’s rights and obligations towards each other.
c. The incest taboo helps clarify the kinship system.
d. The incest taboo discourages contact of family members with the larger society.

d

About what share of the states in this country have laws that permit marriage between first cousins?
a. 10 percent of the states
b. none of the states
c. all of the states
d. half of the states

d

When did the sexual revolution begin?
a. It began during the colonial era.
b. It began during the Great Depression of the 1930s.
c. It began in the 1940s and then grew quickly in the late 1960s.
d. It began about 1980.

c

The importance of Alfred Kinsey’s research on sexuality in the United States was
a. making sexuality a focus of scientific study.
b. showing that people were less conventional than most of society thought.
c. encouraging a greater openness towards sexuality.
d. All of these are correct.

d

The sexual counterrevolution had begun in the United States by
a. 1920.
b. 1960.
c. 1980.
d. 1995.

c

The effect of the sexual counterrevolution was
a. to keep sex only within marriage.
b. to encourage people to limit their number of sexual partners or, in some cases, to abstain from sex entirely.
c. to finally close the historical "double standard."
d. to discourage the use of birth control technology.

b

Survey research on attitudes towards premarital sex tells us that
a. the public is more accepting of premarital sex than it was a generation ago.
b. there has been little or no change in public attitudes towards premarital sex in recent decades.
c. the public is less accepting of premarital sex than it was a generation ago.
d. almost no one today claims that premarital sex is wrong.

a

Thinking about the Laumann study of sexual patterns among U.S. adults, which of the following statements is correct?
a. Over a lifetime, almost everyone has about the same amount of sexual experience.
b. Single people have more sex than married people.
c. There are striking differences in sexual experience within the U.S. population.
d. in the age of AIDS , almost all sex is limited to married partners.

c

Research on extramarital sex shows that about _____ of married men and about _____ of married women remain faithful to their spouse throughout their married lives.
a. 25 percent; 40 percent
b. 25 percent; 75 percent
c. 75 percent; 50 percent
d. 75 percent; 90 percent

d

Which of the following concepts refers to a person’s romantic and emotional attraction to another person?
a. sex role
b. sexual orientation
c. sexual experience
d. personal transsexuality

b

Sexual attraction to someone of the same sex is called
a. heterosexuality.
b. bisexuality.
c. homosexuality.
d. asexuality

a

Sexual attraction to people of both sexes is called
a. heterosexuality.
b. bisexuality.
c. homosexuality.
d. asexuality.

b

Sarah feels little or no sexual attraction to people of either sex. Her sexual orientation is called
a. heterosexuality.
b. bisexuality.
c. homosexuality.
d. asexuality.

d

The majority of evidence indicates that sexual orientation is rooted in
a. human biology, although social experience plays some role.
b. how societies construct sexuality.
c. individual choice.
d. the way young children are raised.

a

In 2010, about what percentage of U.S. adults claimed homosexuality is "always wrong" or "almost always wrong"?
a. almost 100 percent
b. about 47 percent
c. about 30 percent
d. only 5 percent

b

About ______ of men and _____ of women in the United States define themselves as "partly" or "entirely" homosexual.
a. 30 percent; 30 percent
b. 28 percent; 14 percent
c. 10 percent; 6 percent
d. 2.3 percent; 1.3 percent

d

The concept "homophobia" refers to
a. fear of pregnancy.
b. fear of one’s own sexuality.
c. fear of close personal interaction with people thought to be gay, lesbian, or bisexual.
d. fear of attracting sexual interest from another person.

c

Which of the following categories of teenagers would you correctly place at highest probability of pregnancy?
a. teenage women with low incomes and weak families
b. teenage women with high incomes
c. teenage women with little sexual experience
d. all of these are correct

a

People who oppose pornography argue that
a. it may contribute to a breakdown in morals.
b. it may contribute to violence against women.
c. it unfairly depicts women as the playthings of men.
d. All of these are correct.

d

From a global perspective, prostitution is most common in
a. high-income nations, where women are free to choose their profession.
b. poor nations, where women have fewer economic opportunities.
c. all nations because prostitution is found in every country to about the same extent.
d. Middle Eastern countries such as Saudi Arabia and Iran, where women have fewer choices about their lives.

b

Elite prostitutes—young, attractive, and well educated women—are widely referred to as _____.
a. streetwalkers
b. brothel workers
c. call girls or escorts
d. None of these is correct.

c

Prostitution is regarded by many people in the United States as a
a. victimless crime.
b. corporate crime.
c. crime against the person.
d. white-collar crime.

a

A reason NOT to view prostitution as simply a matter of personal choice involving adults is that
a. prostitution subjects many women to outright violence.
b. prostitution plays a part in spreading sexually transmitted diseases, including AIDS.
c. many poor women become trapped in a life of selling sex.
d. All of these are correct.

d

Which one of the following statements about rape is NOT true?
a. Many rapes are not reported to the police.
b. Official rape statistics include only victims who are women.
c. In most cases of rape, the victim does not know the attacker.
d. Most men who rape men are not homosexual.

c

Which of the following statements is a widespread—but false—idea about rape?
a. Many rapes take place in the home.
b. Women who are raped must have encouraged their attackers.
c. Men who rape are interested in power rather than sex.
d. "Date rape" is a common problem on college campuses.

b

The campus culture of "hooking up" involves sexual relationships between partners with which of these characteristics?
a. Individuals know little about each other.
b. Individuals typically have been drinking alcohol.
c. Individuals have no further obligation to each other.
d. All of these are correct.

d

Which theoretical approach rests on the idea that society needs to regulate human sexuality?
a. the structural-functional approach
b. the symbolic-interaction approach
c. the social-conflict approach
d. queer theory

a

Based on what you know about the history of human sexuality, once a society gains birth-control technology
a. social control of sexuality becomes more strict.
b. families, rather than individuals, make choices about sexual partners.
c. social norms regarding sexuality become more permissive.
d. the incest taboo no longer is observed.

c

Assume that you are investigating the consequences of the incest taboo for kinship organization in a number of societies. Which theoretical approach are you using?
a. the structural-functional approach
b. the symbolic-interaction approach
c. the social-conflict approach
d. queer theory

a

The more global our view of sexuality
a. the more variety we see in the meanings people attach to sexuality.
b. the greater the evidence that biology defines sexuality.
c. the clearer we see that sexual practices are mostly the same all around the world.
d. All of these are correct.

a

If you were to study the changing meaning of virginity over the last century in our society, you would discover that the norm stating that people remain virgins until marriage
a. has changed little.
b. has become stronger with regard to women.
c. has become stronger with regard to men.
d. has become weaker.

d

If you were teaching a class about the symbolic-interaction approach to sexuality, on which of the following topics would you likely focus?
a. understanding men’s power over women
b. raising public concern about sexual harassment
c. how individuals in various settings engage in different sexual behavior and attach different meanings to sexual activity
d. understanding why society must regulate with whom and when people reproduce

c

Which theoretical approach points to the ways in which sexuality is linked to social inequality?
a. the structural-functional approach
b. the symbolic-interaction approach
c. the social-conflict approach
d. All of these are correct.

c

Read the four statements below. Which statement is NOT consistent with the social-conflict approach?
a. The process of reality construction is highly variable, so that one group’s views of sexuality may well differ from another’s.
b. Defining women in sexual terms devalues them, turning women into objects of men’s interest.
c. U.S. culture often depicts sexuality in terms of sport and violence, such as when we speak of men "scoring" with women, and men "hitting on" women.
d. When police enforce laws against prostitution, the person most likely to be arrested is the female prostitute, not her male "client."

a

Queer theory is a growing body of knowledge asserting that
a. sex has always seemed strange to most people.
b. no sexual practice should be considered wrong.
c. people fear discovering their homosexuality.
d. there is a heterosexual bias in U.S. society.

d

Which of the following concepts refers to stigmatizing anyone who is not heterosexual as "queer"?
a. homophobia
b. heterosexism
c. heterophilia
d. homophilia

b

Criticism of the social-conflict approach’s view of sexuality would include the fact that
a. sexuality is not a power issue for everyone.
b. U.S. society has taken many steps to reduce gender inequality.
c. gay people have made significant strides towards greater opportunity and social acceptance.
d. All of these are correct.

d

The text suggests that the most widely contested issue involving sexuality in the United States in recent years has been
a. homosexuality and gay rights.
b. abortion.
c. prostitution.
d. teen pregnancy.

b

According to national survey data, what percentage of adults in the United States state that a woman should be able to obtain an abortion for any reason?
a. 92 percent
b. 72 percent
c. 42 percent
d. 22 percent

c

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