Sociology chapter 3 & 4

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The little girl who was found in the 1970’s tied to the potty chair; who sparked a psychological /socialogical study of nature vs nurture and critical period of social learning was

Genie Edward o. Wilson

In the "nature vs nurture" argument regarding socialization, the "nurture" component refers to

The social environment

Explain nurture

How you are grown socially (not biologically)

Based on studies of isolated and institutionalized children, what is a key variable in acquiring the basic "human" traits we take for granted? (Think Genie and Harlow)

"Human" traits result not from basic instincts but rather from early close relations with other humans

The research in the early 1960s using rhesus monkeys to demonstrate the importance of intimate physical contact in the rearing of animals was conducted by

Harry and Margaret Harlow

What did the Harlow experiment conclude as being the key to infant-mother bonding?

Intimate social contact

What concepts do sociologists refer to when they say that "society makes us human"?


The process by which we develop a sense of self, referred to as the "looking-glass self," was developed by

Charles Horton Cooley

Our image of how others see us is called the


Professor Zale bases her self-concept as a professor on the interactions she has with students and the reactions she receives from them during class. In view of this, which process is Professor Zale utilizing?

Cooley’s looking glass self

the symbolic interactionist who taught at the University of Chicago and stressed that play was critical to the development of the concept of self was

George Herbert Mead

according to Mead’s theory of development, individuals who have a profound influence on the lives of another person, such as parents or siblings, are referred to as

Significant others

Tory is 5 years of age. he loves to dress up like Batman and pretend to save Gotham City from the penguin. According to Mead’s theory, he is in the what stage.


According to Piaget, the stage of development that is dominated by touching, listening, looking, and the inability to recognize cause and effect is the what stage


Morris is 3 years old and is just beginning to talk. He can count to 10 but is not altogether sure what numbers actually mean. According to Piaget, Morris is in the what stage


According to Piaget, when children are capable of abstract thinking, they have reached the level of development called the

Formal operational stage

The techniques created by Sigmund Freud for the treatment of emotional problems through long-term, intensive exploration of the subconscious mind referred to as


In Freud’s theory, what part of the personality represents the pleasure-seeking aspect, demanding immediate fulfillment of basic needs such as attention, food, safety, and sex?

The id

In psychoanalytic theory, the " culture within us" is represented by the


Why do many sociologists object to psychoanalysis as a valid explanation for human behavior

Sociologist object to the view that inborn and subconscious motivations are the primary reasons for human behavior

The social scientists who criticized the theory of Lawrence Kohlberg and developed an alternate theory on the development of mortality based on personal relationships was

Carol Gilligan

The Smiths are going Christmas shopping for their two children, Dick and Jane. They plan to buy Dick a Tonka truck and Jane a Barbie. Their selection of toys for their children as an example of what by the parents

Gender socialization

Individuals who are approximately the same age and are linked by common interests, including friends, classmates, and "the kids in the neighborhood,"or more appropriately referred to as


How does the mass media influence the gender roles in contemporary American society

it reinforces gender roles considered appropriate for ones’ sex

The average person is exposed to how many commercials a year


Video games have begun to portray woman in changing gender roles, such as Lara Croft, the adventure-seeking archaeoligist, and Xena, warrior Princess. This change in roles may also serve as what kind of stereotype for women?

New stereotype of women as symbolic males

Frank is a son of a middle class family. He took the family car without permission last night, returning home at 3 a.m. with the smell of alcohol on his breath. It is most likely, based on the research of Kohn, that the next day Frank’s parents will:

Suspend Frank’s driving privileges for a month and discussing with Frank danger of drinking and driving

What was the result of research on mother-child bonding based on hours per week children spent in day care

As the numbers of hours in daycare increased, the bond was weaker between mother and child

Although formal education is intended to transmit knowledge and skills, it unintentionally teaches students that the same rules apply to everyone. This is universality reflects what sociologists described as what function

Latent function

When young people enter college as a resident students, they must learn new norms, Values, attitude, and behaviors. This is an example of what


Fred has joined a fraternity. As as part of his initiation, he has been forced to cook for the fraternity brothers, clean the frat house, and address to the fraternity members as "sir." This is an example of what Harold Garfinkel termed

Degradation ceremony

What terms applies to the stages that people pass through from birth to death, beginning with "childhood" and concluding with " the older years."

The life course

what two sociological perspective are most linked to macrosociology

Functionalism and conflict perspective

A focus on the broad features of society to analyze such things as social class and how groups relate to one another is called


Which socialogical perspective is most closely linked to microsociology

Symbolic and interactionism

Based on Durkheim’s classification of society, the Old Order Amish would fall into which this category of what solidarity

Mechanical solidarity

An approach to social interaction in which social life is analyzed in terms of the stage is called


In ethnomethodology, the ideas we take for granted that underlie our behavior and we violate at our risk are called

Background assumptions

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