Sociology Chapter 19

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ordinary elements of everyday life


extraordinary element of everyday life

Religion is a social institution that is best defined as involving

beliefs and practices

People understand profane things in terms of

their everyday usefulness

Ritual is a matter of

formal, ceremonial behavior

Faith is a knowing based on

conviction, rather than scientific evidence

Sociological analysis is concerned with

patterns of religious activities and their effect on society


an object in the natural world collectively defined as sacred

Not one of the three societal functions of religion

fostering social conflict

Correct criticism of the structural-functional approach to religion

ignoring religion’s ability to generate social conflict

Guided by the symbolic-interaction paradigm, sociologists examine

~how people construct the boundary between sacred and profane ~how it’s related to rituals ~how it gives security and meaning

Sociologist who contributed to a symbolic-interaction analysis of religion

Peter Berger

Karl Marx believed that religion:

serves ruling elites by legitimizing the status quo and diverting people’s attention from social inequalities

Criticism about Karl Marx’a social-conflict approach to religion

doesn’t promote equality

What do the sacred texts of Christianity, Judaism, and Islam have in common?


In his analysis of Protestantism and the rise of Capitalism, Max Weber asserted that Protestantism:

emphasizes duty and hard work and fostered the rise of capitalism

As Max Weber saw it, capitalism amounted to:

disenchanted religion

The fusion of Christian principles with political activism, often Marxist in character

liberation theology

Not consistent with liberation theology

human suffering is part of God’s natural order of things

religious organization well integrated into the larger society


Over the course of its history, the Catholic Church has existed in various forms, including as a:

state church, church, and denomination

As the official church of England, the Anglican Church is correctly described as a

state church

In the United States, the Amish would be an example of a


A sect is a type of religious organization that

stands apart from the larger society

Breakaway group from some established religious organization


Animism is the belief that

everything has a spirit

Animism is closely associated with

Native American Societies

The priesthood first developed in

agrarian societies

the Muslim population of the US is about

7 million people

The largest concentration of Jews is in

North America

The oldest of the world religions is


The term karma refers to

the belief that the spiritual progress of the human soul

The teachings of Buddha are called


Buddhists believe that much of life involves


In general, compared to Eastern religions, Western religions are:

deity based

On national surveys ___ of people in the US identify with a religion


In the US, a majority of people (52.8%) claim some identity as


In the US, roughly __ of the population is very religious


In the US, members of a ___ are more religious than members of a ___

sect; church

The largest number of Protestants are of which denomination?


Secularization refers to the historical:

decline in the importance of the sacred

Example of civil religion


The claim that the US is a post denomination society is based on a movement:

towards spiritualism and away from established denominations

NOT a trait of religious fundamentalism

accepting religious pluralism

Most sociologists agree that

religion will remain an important part of US society


religious organization that is substantially outside a society’s cultural traditions

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