Sociology Chapter 15

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The concept "megalopolis" refers to which of the following?

a vast urban region containing many cities and suburbs

The environmental racism thesis falls within which theoretical approach?

the social-conflict approach

In the preindustrial stage of technological development, population

increases very slowly, with a high birth rate offset by a high death rate

A third urban revolution is now taking place in

low-income nations

The basic idea behind demographic transition theory is

population patterns reflect a society’s level of technological development.

When in history did global population begin to spike upward?

1750

In low-income countries, increasing opportunities available to women are likely to

All of these responses are correct.

In terms of migration within the United States, the region of the country most often left behind is

the heartland or Great Plains, from North Dakota down to Texas.

Which of the following concepts was used by Ferdinand Tönnies to refer to a type of social organization in which people come together only on the basis of individual self-interest?

Gesellschaft

Why is the gradual loss of the world’s rainforests an important environmental concern?

Rainforests are vital to maintaining the planet’s biodiversity and climate

If a nation has a sex ratio of 108, as India does, it is very likely that parents there

value sons more than daughters.

Which of the following statements expresses the "limits to growth" thesis?

We are rapidly consuming the Earth’s finite resources.

Fertility refers to

the incidence of childbearing in a nation’s population.

Why are sex ratios usually below 100?

Because women typically outlive men.

About when did urban centralization-the industrial metropolis-reach its peak in the United States?

1950

According to Emile Durkheim, while traditional, rural societies were built on_____, modern urban societies are held together by _____.

likeness; difference

Among which of the following categories of the U.S. population is fertility low?

Asian Americans

Which of the following concepts refers to the study of the interaction of living organisms and the natural environment?

ecology

The United States is a high-income country; therefore, we would expect population increase to result from which of the following?

both immigration and natural increase

The demographic measure called the "sex ratio" refers to

the number of males for every 100 females in the population.

Currently, about how many people are added to the world’s population each year?

84 million

How much did the world’s population increase during the twentieth century?

quadrupled.

Most historians agree that the first city was

Jericho

Throughout most of human history, families had many children because

All of these responses are correct.

The Industrial Revolution influenced urbanization in many ways, including where cities were sited. If you were to look back in history, you would find that almost every U.S. city was founded

on a waterway

When did the world’s population reach 1 billion?

1800

The concept "environmental deficit" refers to

long-term harm to the environment caused by a short-sighted focus on material affluence

In global perspective, the crude birth rate of high-income nations such as the United States is

below average

About how long ago in history did the first cities emerge?

10,000 years ago

Which of the following accounts for most water use in the world today?

agriculture

If you were to examine an age-sex pyramid for a low-income nation, you would expect to see which of the following patterns?

a wide base, indicating a high birth rate

Which of the following concepts refers to the number of live births in a given year for every thousand people in a population?

crude birth rate

In most poor nations of the world today, what is the average number of children born to a woman

three

If you were studying countries with very low infant mortality, in which of the following global regions would you be most likely to look?

Europe

Looking at countries around the world, what is the relationship between average income level and rate of population increase?

The lower the average income, the greater the population increase.

One region of the world has both the highest birth rate and the highest infant mortality rate. Which is it?

Africa

The concept "zero population growth" refers to the level of reproduction that

maintains population at a steady level.

Which of the following concepts refers to the optimistic approach to environmental issues that claims science can promote progress and solve environmental problems?

the logic of growth

Mounting evidence suggests that the average temperature of the planet is

rising.

In medieval cities of Europe, what was found at the city’s center?

the cathedral

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