Sociology Chapter 12

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In 1960 there were a dozen US states that made interracial marriages


Factors that have contributed to heterogamy include

Higher college enrollments Geographical mobility Participation of women in the work force

What do most sociologist argue is the most devastating family disruption

Family violence

When was the widespread nature of family violence confirmed in a nationwide study


Kinship is traced through the mothers family is called

Matrilineal descent

In preindustrial times families had to provide for their own needs by

Growing their own food Making their own clothes Building their own house

After industrialization why did families no longer need to be self sufficient

Factories could meet most needs Government agencies Charitable descent

What is the family disruption that receives a great deal of media attention


Which of the following is NOT a function of the family

To create residential patterns Regulation of sexual activity Socialization Economic security

In recent decades the traditional family has been replaced by

Dual-earner families One-parent families Childless families All of the above

All societies enforce some type of incest taboo which

Forbids sexual relations or marriage between certain relatives

If a newly married couple is expected to live with or near the husband’s parents they are most likely part of a


The residential pattern found most commonly in industrial societies is


Today in the United States it is not at all uncommon for a woman to have her first child at what age


Which of the following describes a family where the mother and the father share authority


Sociologist use the term marriage to refer to

The set of norms that establishes and characterizes the relationship between married individuals

Today in the United States women are pursuing nontraditional careers as

Doctors Computer scientists University professors All of the above

Studies show that daughters of working women may

Have a better self image

Which of the following is not a cause of one parent families

Divorce Births to unwed mothers Death of a spouse Delayed marriage

Polygamy is relatively rare even in the societies where it is an acceptable martial system. This is because

Such a household is expensive to support

Sociologists call an extended family the typical family


There are close to 200 possible categories of relatives in a kinship system


An individual’s closest relatives are called tertiary


Family trees on the mother’s side of the family are the only way to map relationships with members if they are extended family


There does not have to be rules for descent in order for there to be a smooth operation of society


In theory there are three possible patterns of authority in families


An increase in childlessness is a recent trend in American family


Delayed child bearing is one type of family disruption


One of the functions of the family is to teach children how to survive in the society around them


Today more women work as lawyers and doctors which was rare in the 1800s


Social institution is a system of _____, _____,_____, and _____

Statuses Roles Values Norms basic needs

What constitutes a society varies from society to society


3 broad categories in which relatives fit into

Primary Secondary Tertiary


An individual’s closest relatives. Includes mother, father, sister, brother, Spouse, daughter, and Son


An individual’s next closest relatives. Are the primary relatives of an individual’s primary relatives. Includes grandparents, grandchildren, in laws, aunts, uncles, nephews, and nieces


The primary relatives of an individual’s secondary relatives. Include great grandparents, great grandchildren, great aunts, great uncle, and cousins

Some form of family organization exists in all societys however the exact nature of the family varies from society to society and even within societies


Family organization is determined by how society or group within a society answers four questions

1) how many marriages partners may a person have 2) who will live with who 3) How will family membership be determined 4) who will make the decisions in the family

No universal norm limits the number of marriage partners an individual may have


The practice of polygyny in pre industrial societies generally occurs when

There are large areas of land available for cultivation

Polyandry is primarily found in parts of ____ and appears to rise in response to

Asia Extreme poverty and a shortage of women Ex. Toda of india

Most people in polygamous so cities take only one spouse for 2 reason

1) it is very expensive to have more than one marriage partners 2) most societies tend to produce roughly equal numbers of men and women

Patrilineal descent is common in

Preindustrial socities

Most industrial societies practice

Bilateral descent

Rules for Descent are important for the smooth operation of society because they

Establish who is eligible to inherit property from whom

The vast majority of societies around the world focus on which authority pattern


The functions of the family

1) regulation of sexual activity 2) reproduction 3) socialization 4) economic and emotional security

Incest taboo is found universally but the relatives that are included in this taboo vary from society to society


26 dates allow marriages between first cousins


The Yanomamo consider marriages between parallel cousins incestuous


The lakher of Southeast Asia individuals can marry their maternal half siblings but not their paternal half-siblings


Societies establishe norms governing childbearing and child rearing. These norms determines such things as who is

Eligible to marry and to bear children, the number of children that is considered appropriate, and the rights and responsibilities of parents

In most societies labour is divided on the basis of gender. Most socities also have a division of labor based on age


In Russia many physicians and sanitation workers are women while in the us it is the men


As the basic and most intimate primary group in society the family is expected

To guide the individual’s psychological development and to provide him or her with a loving and caring environment

In industrialized societies many of the traditional functions of the family have been taken over by other social institutions. For example the educational system plays a major role in socializing young people similarly the government for Phils many of the economic functions that would be the task of families in traditional societies


In 2000 about _____ of American men and ____ of American women over 15 years of age were married

56% 52%

Marriage rates are declining. For example about ____ of Americans over the age of 15 have never been married


Among Americans between the ages of 25 and 30 for the prime years for marriage is about


Homogamy is based on characteristics such as_____,_____, _____, and _____

Age, socioeconomic status, religion, and race

When individuals from different religious backgrounds do marry

One partner sometimes adopt the other partners religion

Homogamy is even stronger when it comes to race. Only _____ of all in marriages are between individuals who are black and white


The number of interracial marriages in the United States has grown by almost ___times since the late 1960s. Before that time at least a _____ States had laws that made interracial marriages illegal

10 Dozen

Supreme Court ruling in _____ struck down laws that made interracial marriage illegal


Although homogamy is still typical in the United States an increasing number of marriages are heterogamy. This increase in heterogamy is a function of changing social conditions. As contact between people of different social backgrounds increases the likelihood of heterogamy also increases. Some of those factors include

Higher college enrollment, more geographical mobility, and the increased participation of women in the workforce

Family violence is the most devastating family disruption


The widespread nature of family violence was confirmed in a _____ nationwide study. The researchers found that nearly _____ of the people that interviewed had experienced some form of violence in the course of their marriages. Moreover almost _____ of the people interviewed reported hitting their children usually more than once

1975 1/3 3/4

The study also reveals that wives were as likely to commit violent act within the family however

The acts committed by wives were less violent in nature and less damaging to spouses and children

A repeat of this study from 10 years later found that family violence had decreased somewhat

Statistics collected by the US Department of Justice suggest that female victims of abuse and murder have dropped while the number of male victims have stayed the same. Surveys by child advocacy groups suggest that child abuse is also increasing

In ____ about 1 million crimes of violence was committed against people by intimate partners and about ____of the victims were women.

1998 85%

About ___ of all murders committed in _____ what the results of intimate partner violence. Some ___, of the victims of intimate partner murder were women

11% 1998 75%

Nearly 3.2 million cases of neglect of physical abuse against children were reported in 1999 just over 1 million children were confirmed by Child Protective Services to be victims of maltreatment

Child abuse resulted in the death of almost 1400 children in 1999 however experts estimate that the true figure was considerably higher because abuse-related death are often attributed to other causes

Family disruption that recieces a great deal of media attention


One out of every two marriages eventually ends in divorce. There are more than 19.8 million Americans over the age of 19 who are divorced and the US divorce rate is the highest in the world at 4.2

The rate of divorce varies among different segments of the population and also varies by race and ethnicity and eduaction

After divorce women’s income fell by 30% while men’s incomes showed a 10% reduction

Women seem to make better emotional adjustment to divorce. Rate of suicide alcoholism drug abuse depression and anxiety are higher among divorced men

Studies suggest that children of divorced parents have more emotional problems and are lower achievers and children of parents who have not divorced. some 40% of the children are still struggling to adjust ten years after their parents divorced

Sociologists suggest several reasons for the high divorce rate

1) the laws governing the divorce process has become less complicated and the cost of obtaining a divorce has decreased
2) the increase in the number of dual earner families and the growth of day care facilities has decreased the economic dependence of women

3) society in general has become more tolerant of divorce. 4) many people expect more of marriage and are less ready to accept martial problems

studies suggest that mothers feel a sense of increased satisfaction after their children have left home. In recent years the empty nest stage has been delayed for many families.

Close to 50% of Americans between the ages of 18 and 24 still live at home and some children are returning to their parents home after living independently for several years. About 8% of 25 – 44 year olds now live with their parents

Final disruption. Families face is family dissolution. Follows the death of a spouse. About 16% of men aged 65 and older are widowers however close to 40% of all women over the age of 65 are widowers

Widowhood creates identity problems and economic problems due to the loss of employment income or the decrease in Social Security benefits

In 1890 the median age at first marriage in the United States was 22 years for women and 26 years for men by 1960 had dropped to 20 women and 22 for men however in 2000 for women 25 for men 26

Sociologist view this tendency toward later marriage as an indication that being single has once again become an acceptable alternative to being married

Demographics estimate that more than 15% of today’s young adults will never marry

Sociologist note that most young people today are delaying marriage in order to finish their education and to launch their career. Also note that the increase in the number of unmarried couple may possibly be the result of more couples living together outside of 2000 there was more than 3.8 million cohabiting couples. 25% of women amon 25 and 39 are cohabiting. Cohabiting now proceed more than half of all first marriages

In 1960s the average length time bt. Marriage and the birth of their first child was 15 months by 1970 it was 27 months today it’s common for women to have their first child at the age of 30.

Women bt. 30 and 34 accounted for 23% of all births in 1998. The reasons for delaying childbearing is to allowed time to complete education and to establish a career.

Increase in the number of married couples who never have 2000 22% of married women between the ages of 30 and 44 had no children among childless married women in the early thirties a little more than 40% had no plans to have children in the future

Studies have found that married couples who choose to remain childless often have high levels of education and income

Today about 61% of all married women work outside the home at least part time. Married women work for the same basic reason that married men work for economic necessity

In the past few years more and more women have been entering colleges and universities education enables women to pursue more attactive better paying positions. The labor market itself has been a factor in the increase of dual earner families. Today women make up nearly 25% of the Dr 31% of the computer scientist and 43% of the college and university teachers in this country.

Women’s participation in the labor force is influenced by the ages of their children. In 1998 about 62% of married women with children under the age of 6 what employed outside the home compared to 77% with children between the ages of 6 and 17 The Family and Medical Leave Act requires companies with more than 50 workers to give up to 12 weeks of unpaid leave to parents of newborns the law also covers what are those who need to take time to arrange for the adoption of a child or to take care for a sick spouse child or parent

Studies suggest that the daughters of working women may benefit they often have a better self image are more independent and are higher achievers then daughters of non working

One parent families account for about 25% of the families in the US. Women had about 8 out of every 10 of these one parent families

Weiss identified 3 problems common to single parent experience responsibility overload, task overload, emotional overload

Major source of stress for single parents particularly single mothers is the lack of money. In 2000 family played by women accounted for more than half of all poor families

In 1998 about 19.8 million children under the age of 18 lived in single-parent families studies suggest that these children are two to three times more likely to experience negative life outcomes

43% of the marriage is occurring today have previously been married. Majority of the people who get divorced- about 75% -eventually remarry

Some 65% of families created by remarriage involve children from prior marriages. About 30% of children under the age of 18 now live in stepfamilies. More than 50% of Americans have been are now or will be members of step families. Studies have shown that it takes about four years for children to accept a stepparent. About 60% of all remarriages eventually end in divorce

Trends in American family life

Delayed marriage, delayed childbearing, childlessness, dual earner marriages, one parent families, remarriage

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