Society- Ch.8 Social Stratification

What does <b>social mobility</b> refer to?

Social mobility refers to changes in people's positions in the social hierarchy.

True or False:
For most people in the United States, <b>social standing</b> remains <b>much the same</b> over the course of a lifetime.

True: For most people in the United States, social standing remains much the same.

True or False:
<b>Social stratification</b> is found in most - but not all - societies.

False: Social stratification is found in all societies.

True or False:
<b>Caste</b> systems are typical of high-income societies.

False: Caste systems are typical of low-income (traditional, agrarian) societies.

True or False:
In <b>class</b> systems, <b>social categories</b> are more clearly and rigidly defined than they are in caste systems.

False: In class systems, social categories are less clearly and rigidly defined.

True or False:
<b>Class systems</b> assign social position based on both <b>birth</b> and <b>individual achievement</b>.

True: Class systems assign social position based on both birth and individual achievement*.

True or False:
The more a society is a <b>meritocracy</b>, the greater the society's level of <b>social mobility</b>.

True: As meritocracy increases, social mobility also increases.

True or False:
Compared with people in United States, people in <b>Great Britain</b> are more likely to experience <b>social mobility</b>.

False: People in the U.S. are more likely to experience social mobility; and people in Great Britain are less likely to experience social mobility.

True or False:
<b>Great Britain</b> has eliminated all aspects of its historic aristocracy.

False: Although the UK has a class system today, a small number of British families still have evident aristocratic backgrounds.

True or False:
The <b>former Soviet Union</b> was a classless society without social stratification.

False: In reality, the Soviet Union was not classless at all. The Soviet people were actually stratified into four unequal categories.

True or False:
<b>Structural social mobility</b> refers to an individual's upward or downward social movement due to personal effort or good or bad luck.

False: Structural social mobility refers to a shift in the social position of large numbers of people due more to changes in society itself than to individual efforts.

What does <b>ideology</b> refer to?

Ideology refers to ideas that support social stratification.

True or False:
The <b>Davis-Moore thesis</b> implies that societies without social inequality would be the most productive.

False: The Davis-Moore thesis implies that social stratification has beneficial consequences for the operation of a society.

True or False:
<b>Max Weber</b> said that <b>social stratification</b> involved three distinct dimensions: economic class, status, and power.

True: Max Weber said that social stratification involved these three distinct dimensions.

True or False:
<b>Conspicuous consumption</b> refers to the fact that rich people and poor people generally shop for different products, such as food and clothing.

False: Conspicuous consumption refers to buying and using products because of the "statement" they make about social position.

True or False:
The <b>Kuznets curve</b> shows that industrial societies have the greatest <b>social stratification</b>.

False: The Kuznets curve shows that greater technological sophistication is generally accompanied by greater social stratification.

True or False:
The <b>richest 20 percent of U.S. families</b> earn 48 percent of all income, while the <b>bottom 20 percent</b> earn only about 4 percent.

True: The richest 20 percent of U.S. families earn 48 percent of all income, while the bottom 20 percent earn only about 4 percent.

True or False:
The <b>wealth of rich people</b> is not only greater, but more of it is in the form of investments that typically increase in value and generate income.

True: The wealth of rich people is not only greater, but more of it is in the form of investments.

True or False:
In general, <b>white-collar occupations</b> have more prestige than blue-collar occupations.

True: In general, white-collar occupations have more prestige than blue-collar occupations.

True or False:
Because education is a right in the United States, there is very little inequality in schooling.

False: Although education is a right, and industrial societies have expanded opportunities, there is still a lot of inequality in schooling.

True or False:
Today, on average, African American families have about the same income and wealth as white families

False: White people have a higher overall occupational standing than African Americans and also receive more schooling.

True or False:
<b>Hispanic families</b>, on average, lag behind non-Hispanic white families in both income and wealth.

True: Hispanic families, on average, lag behind non-Hispanic white families in both income and wealth.

True or False:
In the United States, there are <b>more people</b> in the upper class than in the lower class.

False: In the United States, there are more people in the lower class than in the upper class.

True or False:
The <b>working class</b> is sometimes called the "lower-middle class."

True: The working class is sometimes called the "lower-middle class."

True or False:
<b>Intergenerational mobility</b> refers to changes in social position within an individual's lifetime.

False: Intergenerational mobility refers to upward or downward social mobility of children in relation to their parents.

What does <b>intragenerational mobility</b> refer to?

Intragenerational mobility refers to changes in social position within an individual's lifetime.

True or False:
<b>People who marry and stay married</b> accumulate only half as much <b>wealth</b> as people who remain single.

False: People who marry and stay married accumulate about twice as much wealth as people who remain single.

True or False:
The <b>expansion of the global economy</b> has helped create more high-paying jobs in manufacturing in the United States.

False: The expansion of the global economy has moved industrial production overseas, causing a loss of factory jobs and creating more low-wage service work in the U.S. However, the expansion has helped create more high-paying jobs in law, finance, marketing, and computer technology.

True or False:
The <b>age category</b> of the U.S. population <b>most likely to be poor</b> is children and young adults under age twenty-four.

True: The age category of the U.S. population most likely to be poor is children and young adults under age twenty-four.

True or False:
Two-thirds of all poor people in the United States are <b>African American</b>.

False: Twenty-three percent of all poor people are African American; and seventy-one percent of all poor people are white.

True or False:
In recent decades, <b>William Julius Wilson</b> claims, many central cities no longer have enough jobs to support the families living there.

True: William J. Wilson claims that many central cities no longer have enough jobs to support the families living there.

True or False:
Recent <b>welfare reform</b> has greatly reduced the <b>poverty rate</b> in the United States.

False: The reform has greatly reduced the number of people receiving welfare, but it has done little to reduce the extent of poverty. Instead, it has weakened families and encouraged poor people to become dependent on government handouts.

True or False:
<b>Societal factors that contribute to homelessness</b> include low wages and a lack of low-income housing.

True: Societal factors that contribute to homelessness include low wages and a lack of low-income housing.

True or False:
In the wake of <b>the recession</b> that began in 2007, the majority of U.S. adults say <b>their belief that their family can achieve the American dream</b> has declined.

True: In the wake of the recession that began in 2007, the majority of U.S. adults say their belief that their family can achieve the American dream has declined.

What does <b>social stratification</b> refer to?

Social stratification refers to ranking categories of people in a hierarchy.

Using the sociological perspective, what do we see that <b>social stratification</b> does?

We see that social stratification gives some people more privileges and opportunities than others.

Comparing societies in history and around the world, we see that social stratification may be universal, but....what/how/why.... <b>varies from one society to another</b>.

what is unequal varies; how unequal people are varies; and why people are unequal varies from one society to another.

The definition of a <b>caste system</b>:

social stratification based on ascription, or birth.

Ravi was born into a <b>caste system</b> in a small village in Sri Lanka. What can he expect?

He can expect to have the same social standing as his parents.

If you lived in a society with a <b>traditional caste system</b>, how would you expect your <b>marriage</b> to be?

You would expect your marriage to be endogamous.

If you were born into a <b>traditional caste system</b>, what would you expect based on birth?

Based on birth, you would be.... - raised to do a certain type of job; - required to marry someone of your own social category; and - encouraged to socialize with other people within your own category.

The <b>historical replacement</b> of caste systems with class systems....(?).

replaces one kind of inequality with another.

The concept <b>"meritocracy"</b> refers to what kind of <b>social stratification</b>?

"Meritocracy" refers to social stratification based entirely on personal merit.

Where is the <b>degree of status consistency</b> higher?

The degree of status consistency is higher in caste systems than in class systems.

A <b>college professor</b> with advanced degrees, moderate salary, and little power to shape national events can be described as having what?

The college professor can be described as having low status consistency.

What is the <b>point of the story about passenger deaths</b> that accompanied the sinking of the Titanic?

The point of the story about passenger deaths is that social stratification is important and can sometimes be a matter of life and death.

Which concept refers to the historical practice in England of <b>passing on property to only the first-born male descendant</b>?

The law of primogeniture refers to the historical practice of passing on property to only the first-born male descendant.

What is one good indication that <b>caste still operates in the United Kingdom</b>?

One good indication is the importance people attach to accent in speech.

In 1917, <b>the Russian Revolution</b> transformed the feudal aristocracy and <b>placed productive property</b> under the control of....(?).

In 1917, the Russian Revolution placed productive property under the control of the state.

What does the concept of <b>structural social mobility</b> refer to?

The concept of structural social mobility refers to change in the social position of many people due to changes in society itself.

Which statement accurately describes <b>social stratification</b> in the <b>People's Republic of China</b>?

In the People's Republic of China, a new set of social classes is gradually emerging.

Where is <b>ideology</b>, cultural beliefs, found?

Ideology is found in both class and caste systems.

According to the <b>Davis-Moore thesis</b>, what is <b>true</b>?

According to the Davis-Moore thesis, more important jobs must provide enough rewards to attract the talent necessary to perform them.

According to Davis and Moore, how does <b>a system of unequal rewards</b> increase productivity?

A system of unequal rewards increases productivity by.... - encouraging people to want an important job; - motivating people to work longer, harder, or better; and - encouraging people to gain the schooling and skills needed to perform more important jobs.

Who <b>coined</b> the concept <b>"survival of the fittest"</b>?

Herbert Spencer coined the concept "survival of the fittest".

According to Karl Marx, what does <b>social stratification in a capitalist society</b> always involve?

Social stratification in a capitalist society always involves class conflict.

What is the idea that <b>social inequality benefits society</b> associated with?

The idea that social inequality benefits society is associated with the structural-functional approach.

What is the idea that <b>social inequality is harmful and divides society</b> associated with?

The idea that social inequality is harmful and divides society is associated with the social-conflict approach.

What is <b>work involving mostly mental activity</b> called?

Work involving mostly mental activity is called white-collar work.

What is <b>not</b> a reason given for <b>why a socialist revolution never took place in capitalist societies as Marx predicted</b>?

The statement, "Wealth is no longer concentrated in the hands of a few", is not a reason given for why a socialist revolution never took place in capitalist societies.

What are the reasons given for <b>why a socialist revolution never took place in capitalist societies as Marx predicted</b>?

A socialist revolution never took place in capitalist societies because.... - Stock places ownership of companies in the hands of tens of millions of people; - Living standards for the majority have gone up; and - The law affords workers far more legal protections.

Olga works as <b>a district sales manager for a small corporation</b>. Which category correctly describes her work?

The white-collar category correctly describes the work of a district sales manager for a small corporation.

What statements about <b>social stratification</b> are <b>true</b>?

- Living standards in the United States have risen since Marx's lifetime; - More workers have unions to represent them than in Marx's lifetime; - Today, laws enhance workplace safety and set minimum wages, which was not the case during Marx's lifetime; and - Today, ordinary working people still experience the effects of social inequality.

Marx thought of inequality in terms of two main classes. In what terms did <b>Weber</b> envision inequality?

In contrast, Weber envisioned inequality in terms of a socioeconomic ranking.

To which dimension of <b>social inequality</b> did Max Weber claim that <b>agrarian societies give special importance</b>?

Max Weber claimed that agrarian societies give special importance to social prestige or honor.

What is a common <b>micro-level pattern involving social interaction</b>?

A common micro-level pattern involving social interaction is that people tend to socialize with others of about the same social position.

What does the concept <b>"conspicuous consumption"</b> refer to?

The concept "conspicuous consumption" refers to the practice of buying things to make a statement about one's social position.

Looking around the world today, <b>income inequality</b> is <b>greatest</b> in which region?

Income inequality is greatest in Latin America.

Which concept refers to <b>earnings from work or any investments</b>?

Income refers to earnings from work or any investments.

What is the <b>total amount of financial assets, minus any debts,</b> referred to as?

The total amount of financial assets, minus any debts, is referred to as wealth.

What was the <b>median income for U.S. families</b> in 2010?

In 2010, the median income for U.S. families was $60,395.

What percentage of the nation's privately held wealth is <b>controlled by the wealthiest 1 percent of U.S. families (the "super-rich")</b>?

The wealthiest 1 percent of U.S. families (the "super-rich") controls about 35 percent of the nation's privately held wealth.

Based on what you know about <b>occupational prestige</b>, which statement is <b>correct</b>?

Occupational rankings are similar in all high-income nations.

What fraction of the richest people in the United States <b>gained at least some of their fortune from inheritance</b>?

About one-third of the richest people in the United States gained at least some of their fortune from inheritance.

If you followed the lead of <b>Max Weber</b>, in what terms would you think of <b>social stratification</b>?

You would think of social stratification in terms of a multidimensional status hierarchy.

What is being in the <b>upper-upper class</b> usually the result of? And,
What is being being in the <b>lower-upper class</b> more a matter of?

Being in the upper-upper class is usually the result of birth; and, Being in the lower-upper class is more a matter of achievement.

How would <b>the family of actor Will Smith and actress Jada Pinkett Smith</b> be best described?

The family of actor Will Smith and actress Jada Pinkett Smith would be best described as lower-upper class.

Within which class does <b>roughly 40 to 45 percent of the U.S. population</b> fall?

Roughly 40 to 45 percent of the U.S. population falls within the middle class.

How might <b>working class people</b> also be described?

Working class people might also be described as lower-middle class.

According to Karl Marx, which class <b>forms the core of the industrial proletariat</b>?

According to Marx, the working class forms the core of the industrial proletariat.

On which issues are people of <b>low social position</b> are more liberal? On which issues are they more conservative?

People of low social position are more liberal on economic issues and are more conservative on social issues.

Which concept refers to <b>change in social position during a person's lifetime</b>?

The concept, intragenerational social mobility, refers to change in social position during a person's lifetime.

According to <b>Lisa Keister's research</b>, what is a <b>correct</b> statement?

Social mobility is lowest for people at the top and the bottom of the wealth hierarchy

Which factor tends to <b>raise your social standing</b>?

Marrying and staying married tends to raise your social standing.

What kind of people are <b>most likely to vote</b> in the United States?

In the United States, people of high social position are most likely to vote.

What is <b>true</b> about <b>relative poverty</b>?

Relative poverty is found everywhere.

In 2010, about <b>what share</b> of the U.S. population was <b>officially counted as poor</b>?

In 2010, about 15.1 percent of the U.S. population was officially counted as poor.

In the United States, which <b>age category</b> has the <b>highest poverty rate</b>?

Children and young adults under twenty-four years of age have the highest poverty rate.

What does the concept <b>"feminization of poverty"</b> refer to?

The concept "feminization of poverty" refers to the fact that, in the United States, women make up an increasing percentage of the poor.

Which <b>area of the United States</b> has the highest rate of poverty?

Central cities have the highest rate of poverty in the United States.

Where did the anthropologist <b>Oscar Lewis</b> suggest <b>the cause of poverty</b> lies?

The anthropologist Oscar Lewis suggested the cause of poverty lies in a lower-class culture of poverty.

If you believe that <b>people living in central cities are likely to be poor because there are few jobs available in these areas</b>, who are you in agreement with?

You are in agreement with William Julius Wilson.

What do <b>critics of the 1996 welfare reforms</b> claim about the new system?

Critics of the 1996 welfare reforms claim that the new system has done little to reduce poverty in the United States.

What is a <b>true</b> statement about <b>homelessness</b>?

One-third of all homeless people consist of families.

Society- Ch.8 Social Stratification - Subjecto.com

Society- Ch.8 Social Stratification

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What does <b>social mobility</b> refer to?

Social mobility refers to changes in people’s positions in the social hierarchy.

True or False:
For most people in the United States, <b>social standing</b> remains <b>much the same</b> over the course of a lifetime.

True: For most people in the United States, social standing remains much the same.

True or False:
<b>Social stratification</b> is found in most – but not all – societies.

False: Social stratification is found in all societies.

True or False:
<b>Caste</b> systems are typical of high-income societies.

False: Caste systems are typical of low-income (traditional, agrarian) societies.

True or False:
In <b>class</b> systems, <b>social categories</b> are more clearly and rigidly defined than they are in caste systems.

False: In class systems, social categories are less clearly and rigidly defined.

True or False:
<b>Class systems</b> assign social position based on both <b>birth</b> and <b>individual achievement</b>.

True: Class systems assign social position based on both birth and individual achievement*.

True or False:
The more a society is a <b>meritocracy</b>, the greater the society’s level of <b>social mobility</b>.

True: As meritocracy increases, social mobility also increases.

True or False:
Compared with people in United States, people in <b>Great Britain</b> are more likely to experience <b>social mobility</b>.

False: People in the U.S. are more likely to experience social mobility; and people in Great Britain are less likely to experience social mobility.

True or False:
<b>Great Britain</b> has eliminated all aspects of its historic aristocracy.

False: Although the UK has a class system today, a small number of British families still have evident aristocratic backgrounds.

True or False:
The <b>former Soviet Union</b> was a classless society without social stratification.

False: In reality, the Soviet Union was not classless at all. The Soviet people were actually stratified into four unequal categories.

True or False:
<b>Structural social mobility</b> refers to an individual’s upward or downward social movement due to personal effort or good or bad luck.

False: Structural social mobility refers to a shift in the social position of large numbers of people due more to changes in society itself than to individual efforts.

What does <b>ideology</b> refer to?

Ideology refers to ideas that support social stratification.

True or False:
The <b>Davis-Moore thesis</b> implies that societies without social inequality would be the most productive.

False: The Davis-Moore thesis implies that social stratification has beneficial consequences for the operation of a society.

True or False:
<b>Max Weber</b> said that <b>social stratification</b> involved three distinct dimensions: economic class, status, and power.

True: Max Weber said that social stratification involved these three distinct dimensions.

True or False:
<b>Conspicuous consumption</b> refers to the fact that rich people and poor people generally shop for different products, such as food and clothing.

False: Conspicuous consumption refers to buying and using products because of the "statement" they make about social position.

True or False:
The <b>Kuznets curve</b> shows that industrial societies have the greatest <b>social stratification</b>.

False: The Kuznets curve shows that greater technological sophistication is generally accompanied by greater social stratification.

True or False:
The <b>richest 20 percent of U.S. families</b> earn 48 percent of all income, while the <b>bottom 20 percent</b> earn only about 4 percent.

True: The richest 20 percent of U.S. families earn 48 percent of all income, while the bottom 20 percent earn only about 4 percent.

True or False:
The <b>wealth of rich people</b> is not only greater, but more of it is in the form of investments that typically increase in value and generate income.

True: The wealth of rich people is not only greater, but more of it is in the form of investments.

True or False:
In general, <b>white-collar occupations</b> have more prestige than blue-collar occupations.

True: In general, white-collar occupations have more prestige than blue-collar occupations.

True or False:
Because education is a right in the United States, there is very little inequality in schooling.

False: Although education is a right, and industrial societies have expanded opportunities, there is still a lot of inequality in schooling.

True or False:
Today, on average, African American families have about the same income and wealth as white families

False: White people have a higher overall occupational standing than African Americans and also receive more schooling.

True or False:
<b>Hispanic families</b>, on average, lag behind non-Hispanic white families in both income and wealth.

True: Hispanic families, on average, lag behind non-Hispanic white families in both income and wealth.

True or False:
In the United States, there are <b>more people</b> in the upper class than in the lower class.

False: In the United States, there are more people in the lower class than in the upper class.

True or False:
The <b>working class</b> is sometimes called the "lower-middle class."

True: The working class is sometimes called the "lower-middle class."

True or False:
<b>Intergenerational mobility</b> refers to changes in social position within an individual’s lifetime.

False: Intergenerational mobility refers to upward or downward social mobility of children in relation to their parents.

What does <b>intragenerational mobility</b> refer to?

Intragenerational mobility refers to changes in social position within an individual’s lifetime.

True or False:
<b>People who marry and stay married</b> accumulate only half as much <b>wealth</b> as people who remain single.

False: People who marry and stay married accumulate about twice as much wealth as people who remain single.

True or False:
The <b>expansion of the global economy</b> has helped create more high-paying jobs in manufacturing in the United States.

False: The expansion of the global economy has moved industrial production overseas, causing a loss of factory jobs and creating more low-wage service work in the U.S. However, the expansion has helped create more high-paying jobs in law, finance, marketing, and computer technology.

True or False:
The <b>age category</b> of the U.S. population <b>most likely to be poor</b> is children and young adults under age twenty-four.

True: The age category of the U.S. population most likely to be poor is children and young adults under age twenty-four.

True or False:
Two-thirds of all poor people in the United States are <b>African American</b>.

False: Twenty-three percent of all poor people are African American; and seventy-one percent of all poor people are white.

True or False:
In recent decades, <b>William Julius Wilson</b> claims, many central cities no longer have enough jobs to support the families living there.

True: William J. Wilson claims that many central cities no longer have enough jobs to support the families living there.

True or False:
Recent <b>welfare reform</b> has greatly reduced the <b>poverty rate</b> in the United States.

False: The reform has greatly reduced the number of people receiving welfare, but it has done little to reduce the extent of poverty. Instead, it has weakened families and encouraged poor people to become dependent on government handouts.

True or False:
<b>Societal factors that contribute to homelessness</b> include low wages and a lack of low-income housing.

True: Societal factors that contribute to homelessness include low wages and a lack of low-income housing.

True or False:
In the wake of <b>the recession</b> that began in 2007, the majority of U.S. adults say <b>their belief that their family can achieve the American dream</b> has declined.

True: In the wake of the recession that began in 2007, the majority of U.S. adults say their belief that their family can achieve the American dream has declined.

What does <b>social stratification</b> refer to?

Social stratification refers to ranking categories of people in a hierarchy.

Using the sociological perspective, what do we see that <b>social stratification</b> does?

We see that social stratification gives some people more privileges and opportunities than others.

Comparing societies in history and around the world, we see that social stratification may be universal, but….what/how/why…. <b>varies from one society to another</b>.

what is unequal varies; how unequal people are varies; and why people are unequal varies from one society to another.

The definition of a <b>caste system</b>:

social stratification based on ascription, or birth.

Ravi was born into a <b>caste system</b> in a small village in Sri Lanka. What can he expect?

He can expect to have the same social standing as his parents.

If you lived in a society with a <b>traditional caste system</b>, how would you expect your <b>marriage</b> to be?

You would expect your marriage to be endogamous.

If you were born into a <b>traditional caste system</b>, what would you expect based on birth?

Based on birth, you would be…. – raised to do a certain type of job; – required to marry someone of your own social category; and – encouraged to socialize with other people within your own category.

The <b>historical replacement</b> of caste systems with class systems….(?).

replaces one kind of inequality with another.

The concept <b>"meritocracy"</b> refers to what kind of <b>social stratification</b>?

"Meritocracy" refers to social stratification based entirely on personal merit.

Where is the <b>degree of status consistency</b> higher?

The degree of status consistency is higher in caste systems than in class systems.

A <b>college professor</b> with advanced degrees, moderate salary, and little power to shape national events can be described as having what?

The college professor can be described as having low status consistency.

What is the <b>point of the story about passenger deaths</b> that accompanied the sinking of the Titanic?

The point of the story about passenger deaths is that social stratification is important and can sometimes be a matter of life and death.

Which concept refers to the historical practice in England of <b>passing on property to only the first-born male descendant</b>?

The law of primogeniture refers to the historical practice of passing on property to only the first-born male descendant.

What is one good indication that <b>caste still operates in the United Kingdom</b>?

One good indication is the importance people attach to accent in speech.

In 1917, <b>the Russian Revolution</b> transformed the feudal aristocracy and <b>placed productive property</b> under the control of….(?).

In 1917, the Russian Revolution placed productive property under the control of the state.

What does the concept of <b>structural social mobility</b> refer to?

The concept of structural social mobility refers to change in the social position of many people due to changes in society itself.

Which statement accurately describes <b>social stratification</b> in the <b>People’s Republic of China</b>?

In the People’s Republic of China, a new set of social classes is gradually emerging.

Where is <b>ideology</b>, cultural beliefs, found?

Ideology is found in both class and caste systems.

According to the <b>Davis-Moore thesis</b>, what is <b>true</b>?

According to the Davis-Moore thesis, more important jobs must provide enough rewards to attract the talent necessary to perform them.

According to Davis and Moore, how does <b>a system of unequal rewards</b> increase productivity?

A system of unequal rewards increases productivity by…. – encouraging people to want an important job; – motivating people to work longer, harder, or better; and – encouraging people to gain the schooling and skills needed to perform more important jobs.

Who <b>coined</b> the concept <b>"survival of the fittest"</b>?

Herbert Spencer coined the concept "survival of the fittest".

According to Karl Marx, what does <b>social stratification in a capitalist society</b> always involve?

Social stratification in a capitalist society always involves class conflict.

What is the idea that <b>social inequality benefits society</b> associated with?

The idea that social inequality benefits society is associated with the structural-functional approach.

What is the idea that <b>social inequality is harmful and divides society</b> associated with?

The idea that social inequality is harmful and divides society is associated with the social-conflict approach.

What is <b>work involving mostly mental activity</b> called?

Work involving mostly mental activity is called white-collar work.

What is <b>not</b> a reason given for <b>why a socialist revolution never took place in capitalist societies as Marx predicted</b>?

The statement, "Wealth is no longer concentrated in the hands of a few", is not a reason given for why a socialist revolution never took place in capitalist societies.

What are the reasons given for <b>why a socialist revolution never took place in capitalist societies as Marx predicted</b>?

A socialist revolution never took place in capitalist societies because…. – Stock places ownership of companies in the hands of tens of millions of people; – Living standards for the majority have gone up; and – The law affords workers far more legal protections.

Olga works as <b>a district sales manager for a small corporation</b>. Which category correctly describes her work?

The white-collar category correctly describes the work of a district sales manager for a small corporation.

What statements about <b>social stratification</b> are <b>true</b>?

– Living standards in the United States have risen since Marx’s lifetime; – More workers have unions to represent them than in Marx’s lifetime; – Today, laws enhance workplace safety and set minimum wages, which was not the case during Marx’s lifetime; and – Today, ordinary working people still experience the effects of social inequality.

Marx thought of inequality in terms of two main classes. In what terms did <b>Weber</b> envision inequality?

In contrast, Weber envisioned inequality in terms of a socioeconomic ranking.

To which dimension of <b>social inequality</b> did Max Weber claim that <b>agrarian societies give special importance</b>?

Max Weber claimed that agrarian societies give special importance to social prestige or honor.

What is a common <b>micro-level pattern involving social interaction</b>?

A common micro-level pattern involving social interaction is that people tend to socialize with others of about the same social position.

What does the concept <b>"conspicuous consumption"</b> refer to?

The concept "conspicuous consumption" refers to the practice of buying things to make a statement about one’s social position.

Looking around the world today, <b>income inequality</b> is <b>greatest</b> in which region?

Income inequality is greatest in Latin America.

Which concept refers to <b>earnings from work or any investments</b>?

Income refers to earnings from work or any investments.

What is the <b>total amount of financial assets, minus any debts,</b> referred to as?

The total amount of financial assets, minus any debts, is referred to as wealth.

What was the <b>median income for U.S. families</b> in 2010?

In 2010, the median income for U.S. families was $60,395.

What percentage of the nation’s privately held wealth is <b>controlled by the wealthiest 1 percent of U.S. families (the "super-rich")</b>?

The wealthiest 1 percent of U.S. families (the "super-rich") controls about 35 percent of the nation’s privately held wealth.

Based on what you know about <b>occupational prestige</b>, which statement is <b>correct</b>?

Occupational rankings are similar in all high-income nations.

What fraction of the richest people in the United States <b>gained at least some of their fortune from inheritance</b>?

About one-third of the richest people in the United States gained at least some of their fortune from inheritance.

If you followed the lead of <b>Max Weber</b>, in what terms would you think of <b>social stratification</b>?

You would think of social stratification in terms of a multidimensional status hierarchy.

What is being in the <b>upper-upper class</b> usually the result of? And,
What is being being in the <b>lower-upper class</b> more a matter of?

Being in the upper-upper class is usually the result of birth; and, Being in the lower-upper class is more a matter of achievement.

How would <b>the family of actor Will Smith and actress Jada Pinkett Smith</b> be best described?

The family of actor Will Smith and actress Jada Pinkett Smith would be best described as lower-upper class.

Within which class does <b>roughly 40 to 45 percent of the U.S. population</b> fall?

Roughly 40 to 45 percent of the U.S. population falls within the middle class.

How might <b>working class people</b> also be described?

Working class people might also be described as lower-middle class.

According to Karl Marx, which class <b>forms the core of the industrial proletariat</b>?

According to Marx, the working class forms the core of the industrial proletariat.

On which issues are people of <b>low social position</b> are more liberal? On which issues are they more conservative?

People of low social position are more liberal on economic issues and are more conservative on social issues.

Which concept refers to <b>change in social position during a person’s lifetime</b>?

The concept, intragenerational social mobility, refers to change in social position during a person’s lifetime.

According to <b>Lisa Keister’s research</b>, what is a <b>correct</b> statement?

Social mobility is lowest for people at the top and the bottom of the wealth hierarchy

Which factor tends to <b>raise your social standing</b>?

Marrying and staying married tends to raise your social standing.

What kind of people are <b>most likely to vote</b> in the United States?

In the United States, people of high social position are most likely to vote.

What is <b>true</b> about <b>relative poverty</b>?

Relative poverty is found everywhere.

In 2010, about <b>what share</b> of the U.S. population was <b>officially counted as poor</b>?

In 2010, about 15.1 percent of the U.S. population was officially counted as poor.

In the United States, which <b>age category</b> has the <b>highest poverty rate</b>?

Children and young adults under twenty-four years of age have the highest poverty rate.

What does the concept <b>"feminization of poverty"</b> refer to?

The concept "feminization of poverty" refers to the fact that, in the United States, women make up an increasing percentage of the poor.

Which <b>area of the United States</b> has the highest rate of poverty?

Central cities have the highest rate of poverty in the United States.

Where did the anthropologist <b>Oscar Lewis</b> suggest <b>the cause of poverty</b> lies?

The anthropologist Oscar Lewis suggested the cause of poverty lies in a lower-class culture of poverty.

If you believe that <b>people living in central cities are likely to be poor because there are few jobs available in these areas</b>, who are you in agreement with?

You are in agreement with William Julius Wilson.

What do <b>critics of the 1996 welfare reforms</b> claim about the new system?

Critics of the 1996 welfare reforms claim that the new system has done little to reduce poverty in the United States.

What is a <b>true</b> statement about <b>homelessness</b>?

One-third of all homeless people consist of families.

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