Soc Quiz 3

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Ideology can be described as ________

a system of concepts and relationships– a system of concepts and relationships, an understanding of cause and effect. It is a form of nonmaterial culture (p. 83).

Which political theorist developed the concept of hegemony?

Antonio Gramsci- an Italian political theorist and activist developed the concept of hegemony as he thought about why the working-class revolution that Karl Marx had predicted failed to take place (p. 96).

A television ad campaign for a new car starts playing nationwide. Within weeks people are bombarding the manufacturer for information about a song that is featured in the ad and trying to find it online. This is an example of a ________

short-term, unintended media effect.– Media effects can be placed into four categories depending on their duration (short-term or long-term) and intention (intended or unintended). A consumer liking the music on a car commercial is a short-term, unintended media effect (p. 99).

Which of the following is an example of using cultural relativism to think about cultural differences?

You see a news story about a country where people often eat spicy seafood dishes in the morning and then wonder what people there would think of eating chocolate-flavored cereal and milk for breakfast.–Cultural relativism is taking into account the differences across cultures without passing judgment or assigning value. It often involves realizing that the way you do things is not necessarily the only way or the right way (p. 85).

Some businesses in the United States

especially food-service establishments will post a sign that reads "No shirt no shoes no service." This is an example of what?, reinforcement of a cultural norm– Norms are the way in which values tell us to behave (p. 91).

Which of the following is an example of soft power?

the expansion of American corporations into the global Third World–Soft power is the cultural and diplomatic dominance that persuades, rather than forces, others to do one’s bidding (p. 111).

For a research project in your introductory sociology course

you decide to compare the coverage of health and beauty topics to that of career and professional topics in magazines created for women. You are conducting ________, textual analysis.–textual analysis is the analysis of the content of media in its various forms (p. 98).

Nonmaterial culture includes ________

values, beliefs, behaviors, and social norms.–Nonmaterial culture includes values, beliefs, behaviors, and social norms. By contrast, material culture includes everything that is part of our constructed, physical environment (p. 80).

In her interview with Conley- Allison Pugh notes that low-income families generally will purchase a few of the "in" toys for their children. This is an example of what concept?

symbolic indulgence–According to Pugh, low-income families practiced what she called "symbolic indulgence." Highly symbolic purchases of "in" toys allowed these families to feel like they were participating in the broader consumer culture of the United States (p. 109).

Which of the following is an example of nonmaterial culture?

spirituality–Aspects of nonmaterial culture are values, beliefs, behaviors, and social norms (p. 80).

Socialization is the process by which people ________

internalize the beliefs, values, and behaviors of a given society and learn to function as a member of that society.–Socialization is our internalization of a society’s values, beliefs, and norms (p. 92).

A/An ________ can be defined as a group that shares distinct cultural values and behavioral patterns that distinguish it from others within the same culture or society.

subculture–A subculture is a group united by sets of concepts, values, symbols, and shared meaning specific to the members of that group distinctive enough to distinguish it from others within the same culture or society (p. 87).

Which of the following is NOT a definition of the term culture?

the natural environment–Culture is a set of beliefs, traditions, and practices. It is the sum total of social categories we recognize in addition to our beliefs, behaviors, and practices. It is not the natural environment itself, but it could include how we define and relate to the natural environment (p. 77).

________ can be defined as a process in which a dominant group by virtue of its moral and intellectual leadership in society secures the voluntary "consent" of the masses.

Hegemony– is a condition by which a dominant group uses its power to elicit the voluntary "consent" of the masses. In other words, it involves getting people to go along with the status quo because it seems natural or seems like the best way to do things (p. 96).

Your friend Jerome tells you he believes that culture is an innate biological aspect of human societies. Having already taken an introductory sociology class you argue that modes of behavior and understanding are not universal or natural. Your supporting argument is based on the idea of ________

cultural scripts.–Cultural scripts are modes of behavior or understanding that are not universal or natural. Our cultural scripts shape our notions about many things, like gender (p. 86).

Sociologically speaking

values can be defined as ________, moral beliefs.–Values are our moral beliefs. They are shaped by culture (p. 91).

The use of stereotypes allows people to ________

. ignore complex, underlying issues that are difficult to talk about.–The media can create and reinforce stereotypes, which often distract people’s attention from the underlying issues at hand (p. 103).

In the United States media ownership is ________,

centralized in the hands of a few big companies.– In the United States, six major companies own more than 90 percent of the media (p. 107).

What invention can be said to have led to the first truly mass medium?

printing press–The first form of mass media was the book (p. 95).

The idea that culture is a projection of social structures and relationships is fundamental to which of the following theories?

reflection theory– is the idea that culture is the projection of social structures and relationships into the public sphere (p. 92).

What is cultural relativism?

recognizing differences across cultures without judging those differences as positive or negative–Cultural relativism means taking into account the differences across cultures without assigning a value (p. 85).

Which of the following has NOT been cited as a limitation of reflection theory?

Reflection theory does not account for the constructed nature of culture.–Reflection theory has several limitations. It does not explain the staying power (and related lack of staying power) of cultural productions, does not explain why the same product changes meaning over time, and does not consider culture’s impact on society (p. 93).

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