SOC Chapter 2

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Science can be defined as

a logical system that bases knowledge on direct, systematic observation

Sociologists use the term "empirical evidence" to refer to

information we can verify with our senses

Which of the following terms is defined in the text as "a mental construct that represents some part of the world in a somewhat simplified form"?


What process involves deciding exactly what is to be measured when assigning value to a variable?


In the process of measurement, reliability refers to

whether repeating the measurement yields consistent results

What concept below refers to measuring exactly what one intends to measure?


Two variables are said to display correlation if

they vary together

Which research method asks subjects to respond to a series of items in a questionnaire or an interview?

the survey

A smaller number of people used to represent an entire population is called a


In a questionnaire, the question, "Please state your opinions about the likelihood of another major terrorist attacks at home," is an example of which of the following?

open-ended format

Which sociological research method is likely to be most difficult to replicate (repeat)?

participant observation

Two simple requirements that underlie the process of sociological investigation are (1) looking at the world using the sociological perspective, and (2) becoming curious and asking questions


The sociologist recognizes that there are various kinds of "truth."


Empirical evidence is what people in a society agree is true


Science is a logical system based on intuition and insight


The variable that causes change in another variable is called the "dependent variable."


Sociologists always achieve complete personal objectivity in their work.


Replication is one way to assess the accuracy of existing research.


Sociological research can never be harmful to subjects


Haphazardly selecting people as they walk down the street is a convenient and useful way to generate a random sample


Conducting interviews takes no more time than completing questionnaires and gives just as good results


The use of existing data and documents (secondary analysis) makes most historical research possible


Gender blindness is the problem of failing to consider the importance of gender in sociological research


The very act of observing people may affect their behavior


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