SOC-210- Chapter 7 Questions

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assets

What is the term that refers to a form of wealth that can be stored for the future? Select one: a. assets b. equality c. resources d. stocks

proletariat

What group sells its labor to the bourgeoisie in order to receive wages? Select one: a. elites b. working class c. proletariat d. bourgeoisie

meritocratic

A system in which advancement is based on individual achievement or ability is referred to as: Select one: a. meritocratic. b. opportunistic. c. individualistic. d. entrepreneurial.

an elite-mass dichotomy system

A stratification system with a governing elite, that is, few leaders who broadly hold the power in society, is called: Select one: a. a status hierarchy system. b. an elite-mass dichotomy system. c. a class system. d. a caste system.

affirmation action

An example of the ideology of equality of condition put into practice is: Select one: a. segregation. b. affirmative action. c. health care. d. maternity leave.

middle-class nation

Elliot Essman asserts that America is aNo ____________ because the very wealthy do not have much impact on the country in general. Select one: a. elite-class nation b. middle-class nation c. working-class nation d. upper-class nation

ontological equality

What term refers to the notion that everyone is created equal in the eyes of God? Select one: a. ontological equality b. equality of opportunity c. godly equality d. equality of condition

dialectic

What term refers to a two-directional relationship, one that goes both ways like a conversation between two people (such as master-slave)? Select one: a. dialectic b. conversing c. stimulation d. cognition

bourgeois system

Which of the following is NOT a type of social stratification mentioned in your text? Select one: a. estate system b. class system c. hierarchy system d. bourgeois system

bourgeois

The modern capitalist society is an example of which type of society? Select one: a. meritocratic b. socialist c. entrepreneurial d. bourgeois

high-skilled and low-skilled

The effect of globalization has been to bifurcate labor into: Select one: a. upper class and middle class. b. technical and support. c. high-skilled and low-skilled. d. middle class and working class.

allow the population to thin itself out naturally

Thomas Malthus had a positive view of inequality. He defended disease, slavery and child murder. Why? Select one: a. He was mentally ill. b. He was the forerunner to Hitler. c. He felt this would allow the population to thin itself out naturally. d. He felt this would create more jobs for medical personnel and morticians.

equality

Hegel argued that notions of inequality are constantly evolving in a larger historical arc and will eventually lead to: Select one: a. conflict. b. anomie. c. equality. d. organization.

physical

Which kind of inequality did Rousseau believe would always exist? Select one: a. physical b. social c. neither d. both

caste system

A type of stratification that is based on hereditary notions of religious and theological purity and in which there is little to no individual mobility within the strata is the: Select one: a. caste system. b. estate system. c. hierarchy system. d. elite-mass hierarchy.

with less money

Soros has suggested that repealing the estate tax would result in a shift of the tax burden onto earnings, which would shift it onto people: Select one: a. in the upper class. b. with the most money. c. in the middle class. d. with less money.

incentives

Ferguson and Millar saw social developments resulting from the establishment of private property representing a huge improvement in society, because private property leads to higher degrees of social organization and: Select one: a. individuals. b. efficiency. c. incentives. d. bureaucracy.

religion

C. Wright Mills argues that there are three major institutions in the United States today that have the power to make decisions for the masses. Which one of the following is NOT one of these? Select one: a. economy b. religion c. politics d. military

decrease infanticide

One of the best ways to reduce the number of children born (according to Sachs) is to: Select one: a. disallow marriages. b. decrease infanticide. c. provide free condoms. d. make access to education more difficult.

sanskritization

The process in India whereby an entire caste can leapfrog over another and obtain a higher position in the hierarchy is called: Select one: a. sanskritization. b. vaishya caste. c. Brahminization. d. Upanayanam.

meritocracy

Pareto believed in a society in which status and mobility are based on individual attributes and ability, called: Select one: a. meritocracy. b. intelligence. c. morals. d. biology.

stratification

The examination of how race and ethnicity affect income is really an examination of: Select one: a. stratification. b. segregation. c. levels of wealth. d. elitism.

ascending

Ugo’s promotion to regional manager at Starbucks with a higher salary and more prestige is an example what type of vertical social mobility? Select one: a. ascending b. escalating c. descending d. advancement

income

Economists and sociologists believe that the United States is stratified along what lines? Select one: a. income b. salary c. wealth d. job prestige

does all of the above

Proponents of the estate tax assert that the tax: Select one: a. hits hardest at the people who have the most money. b. bolsters nonprofit organizations. c. provides an important source of government revenue. d. does all of the above.

horizontal social mobility

What term refers to a group or individual transitioning from one social status to another situated more or less on the same rung of the ladder? Select one: a. horizontal social mobility b. vertical social mobility c. stagnant social mobility d. situational social mobility

upper class

Historically, Marx’s capitalist class was made up of members of the: Select one: a. upper class. b. bourgeoisie. c. proletariat. d. special class.

equality of outcome

Let’s say you are best at building with your hands and you become a carpenter working for a local building contractor. A friend of yours is very good at programming computers, so he/she works at IBM. Yet another friend excels at science so he/she goes to medical school and becomes a physician. Each of you is paid the exact same salary and each of you lives in the same neighborhood and drives the same type of car. What standard of equality would this be an example of? Select one: a. equality of opportunity b. ontological equality c. equality of condition d. equality of outcome

wealth

What term refers to everything you own minus debts such as a mortgage on your home and credit card debt? Select one: a. income b. wealth c. investments d. stocks

dependency

According to the German philosopher Hegel, the master-slave relationship is one of mutual: Select one: a. benefit. b. dependency. c. work. d. independence.

each is dependent on the other

Hegel felt that the relationship between slave and master was dialectic. This means: Select one: a. each is dependent on the other. b. the slave has more power over the master than vice versa. c. the relationship is short-lived. d. the relationship can evolve into an intimate one.

individuals who count in the decisions that affect all of us but who don’t actually make those decisions

A subsystem of stratification Mills mentions is the outer fringes of the power elite. These are: Select one: a. the people who have no say at all in decisions that affect even them. b. individuals who are considered friends of the elite, but who don’t associate with them on a business basis. c. the people who make the major decisions, but the policies are carried out by others. d. individuals who count in the decisions that affect all of us but who don’t actually make those decisions.

hurt democracy

Mills believed that centralized power in the hands of a few: Select one: a. expanded democracy. b. helped democracy. c. hurt democracy. d. stabilized democracy.

underclass

What is another term for the nonworking poor? Select one: a. mentally challenged b. proletariat c. deserving poor d. underclass

vertical social mobility

The rise and fall of an individual (or group) from one social stratum to another is called: Select one: a. elevator social mobility. b. horizontal social mobility. c. vertical social mobility. d. structural social mobility.

this is not true

Opponents of the estate tax have portrayed farmers as being hurt the most by the estate tax, causing them to lose their family farms. In reality: Select one: a. this is true; most small family farms have now been lost to large corporations. b. this is true; most small family farms have been lost to the government. c. this is not true; the majority of family farms are far below the estate tax threshold and are not affected by the tax. d. this is true for small farms only, not large farms valued over $500,000.

all of the above

Sometimes individuals seek to assert or increase their status, not just through occupation, but also through: Select one: a. driving fancy cars. b. living in gated communities. c. wearing stylish clothes. d. all of the above.

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